ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 5, 2021
Behavioral Response of Concrete and Reinforcing Steel Bond Interface of Corrosion Induced Reinforced Concrete Structures
Charles Kennedy, Sylvester Obinna Osuji, Ebuka Nwankwo
Page no 326-342
The research work investigated the potential use of exudates/resin to curb the surface and mechanical properties of the indentation from corrosion attack on reinforcing steel of both non-coating and exudates/resin coated samples after 360 days immersion in 5% NaCl solution. The obtained results maximum percentile failure bond load values of controlled samples are 64.308% against corroded -35.029% and the coated 68.823%. The differential maximum values computed of the average and percentile ranges of failure bond load are controlled (2.492kN and 14.869%) against corroded samples values are (0.806kN and 5.738%), coated are (2.492kN and 14.907%. The differentially potential maximum failure bond loads, as well as comparative values of maximum deflective values over-controlled and coated samples. The peak percentile bond strength values for comparison recorded are controlled 46.996% against corroded and coated -34.33% and 72.41%. The differential computed average and percentile values are controlled 1.409MP and 19.463% against corroded 0.276 MP and 7.669%, coated values are 1.408 MP and 20.134%. From the values obtained, the corroded samples exhibited a pullout bond strength compared to the increased values for the values of the coated samples and the controlled samples with pullout bond strength. The maximum recorded average and percentile values of controlled 86.42% against corroded and coated samples of -27.728% and 80.247% and with differential recorded values of the controlled 0.024mm and 42.379% against corroded values of 0.007mm and 16.793% and coated values 0.024mm and 41.881%. The maximum percentile values obtained for comparison among the investigated samples showed that the corroded exhibited lower slippage and reduced percentile values and low load application to failure, while coated samples exhibited higher slippage, and increased values. The obtained computed results of the nominal reinforcing steel with no traces of corrosion effect is 100%, the comparative results after corrosion and the potential differential values of the tested samples showed percentile values reduction in corroded samples resulting from induced effect from corrosion while the coated samples exhibited a potential increase in volumetric based on varying coating thicknesses. It can be seen that the diameter of uncoated decreased by the maximum value of 0.596% and coated increased by 0.674%, for the cross-sectional area, corroded has maximum reduction value -13.251% and coated increased by and 15.275%, weight loss, and gain are corroded -20.31% decreased (loss) and coated 29.25% increase (gain). Indication as analyzed from the experimental work showed that the effect of corrosion on uncoated concrete cubes caused diameter and cross–sectional area reduction and weight decrease while coated concrete cubes have diameter and cross–sectional area increases and weight gain resulting from the varying thickness coated to reinforcing steel.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 6, 2021
Automatic Aqua Monitoring System for Integrated Fish Forms
Dr. Vimalakeerthy Devadoss, Abir Mubarak AlHashimi, Asma Saif Alqassabi, Wafa Khamis Alobeidani, Noorhan Saleh Alshuriqi
Page no 343-347
Aqua forms are increasing year on year with increase in the demand of fish foods. Maintaining fish farms is of greater challenge since the growth of fish is related with quality of water. Monitoring the quality of water in each tank becomes difficult and includes interference that is much more human. In this proposed research work, an intelligent automatic aqua monitoring system is introduced where the sensors and the inlet monitor the quality of water and outlet of fresh water is controlled through Arduino micro controller. Since the components used are cheap and Arduino is very simple to program the proposed method finds efficient and promising results in maintaining aqua farms.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 12, 2021
Design and Construction of an Electronic Salt Tester
Idim AI, Iyere SF
Page no 348-351
This research study focuses on the design and construction of an electronic tester using locally soured materials for measuring the concentration of table salt in solution. Salt, also known as table salt is a mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), this is a chemical compound belonging to the large class of ionic salts. The operating system consists of sensor, which senses the concentration of salt in solution, the signal amplification unit, which amplifiers the signal from the sensing unit and the display unit, which displays the concentration of salt in various solutions. The realization of the research study was achieved using different components like resistors, capacitors, op-amp, CA3162E, CA3161E and seven segment display. The design parameter was obtained from component calculations configured with the amplification unit to work with the sensing and display unit. These components were connected together on a veroboard with the aid of different tools. After completion of work, the project was tested and the percentage error values obtained by dipping the sensor in salt concentration were 0.58, 1.43, 1.73, 2.10, 2.21 respectively, which was relatively low compared to other electronic salt tester.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 13, 2021
Evaluation of the Calorific Value of Biomass
Akusu Onomine Murray
Page no 352-355
This study aims at identifying the potentially viable renewable fuel resources, characterizing the combustion properties of each and to determine those that have potential for use as commercial fuels for domestic and industrial uses. Twenty-three (23) fuels were identified and studied by characterizing their combustion properties viz; calorific value. Also their availability and ease of preparation were studied. As a result of the tests, ten (10) of the twenty-three (23) fuels have been recommended as suitable for exploitation for domestic or industrial uses. Also, it has been recommended that project titles be initiated on the development of systems (equipment) to utilize these recommended fuels.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 13, 2021
Production of Bio Gas from Cow Dung and Tomatoes Waste
Page no 356-363
This research is focused on biogas production from two substrates; cow dung and tomato waste for co-digestion process. A laboratory digester was constructed in the form of modular digester. The pressure reading indicates the presence of gas which confirms that it is possible to produce useful gas from slurry and vegetable waste mixed together. In an instance where this waste was not collected and digested, it is sure that there would be emission of gas into the atmosphere. With the waste management process, the gas emissions and smell intensity is reduced. Although this was done in a small scale because of research purposes, it can also be done in large scale for commercial purposes based on preference. The production was carried out with a pressure gauge during the construction of the digester. This serves as an alternative for gas collection in a gas holder/ tyre tube which is a more efficient way of detecting the presence of produced gas in the system. For faster yield of gas, the production was done in a thermophilic condition, at higher temperature range. Adequate methane gas was produced with co digestion of substrates at balanced ratio of mixture.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Oct. 29, 2021
Steady State MHD Free Convection Slip Flow of an Exothermic Fluid in a Convectively Heated Vertical Channel
M. M. Hamza, M. Z. Shehu, B. H. Tambuwal
Page no 364-370
In this study, the influence of Magnetohydrodynamics on free convection slip flow of an exothermic fluid in a convectively heated vertical channel is analyzed. The problem is solved analytically using perturbation series method and expression for velocity, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt Number are obtained and also the influence of some physical parameters such as Hartmann number(Ha), Biot number(Br), Navier slip parameter(γ) and Frank-Kamenetskii parameter(λ) are discussed. It is observed that both velocity fluid and skin friction decreases with increasing value of Hartmann number.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Oct. 30, 2021
Comparative Analysis of Modeling and Software Testing Tools: A Survey
Hayatullahi Bolaji Adeyemo
Page no 371-377
There are varieties of paradigms for testing software systems with the aim of uncovering faults and improving the quality of software products. One of the popular paradigms is model-based testing paradigm, where system’s behaviours are captured and denoted in a model for adequate abstract representation. Evidence has shown that automated testing can incredibly improve the testing efficiency. Central to such test automation is the use of appropriate testing tools. With the existence of a wide spectrum of software testing tools, it is difficult to decide which of the tools to choose and where to start the testing processes. It should be noted that irrespective of how similar the operational processes of software tools are; they are distinct in their respective overall composition. In order to make a choice of which tool is most appropriate to suit a system testing requirements, tester needs to understand some vital information related to the candidate tools such as availability, ease of use, programming skills needed, language and platform support, among others. In this paper, some of the most popular model-based testing tools on the market, both open source and commercial, are analyzed. The promising future of model-based testing is also proposed. This survey will help software testers, beginners or experts, to lay their hands on the appropriate model-based testing tools.