Cell Wall Proteins of Staphylococcus aureus Are Involved in Cross Reactivity with Murine Cytokine Assays
Mehak Gull, Abida Bano, Numan Javed
Page Numbers : 89-94
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i03.001
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important pathogen often termed as superbug. After S. aureus interacting with host innate immune system, it induces the release of pro- inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β from Immune cells. In the current study, various strains of S. aureus and their cell wall lysates indicated cross reactivity with murine cytokines ELISA antibodies. In cell wall lysates of S. aureus, various proteins are involved in this cross reactivity phenomenon. This cross reactivity was exhibited in the form of unusual exaggerated signals while performing ELISA for quantification of murine cytokines. The proteins of cell wall lysates among various stains of S. aureus were determined using SDS-PAGE. To all of our data, it is revealed that unknown epitopes of S. aureus are involved in producing exaggerated signals of cytokines during their quantification by ELISA. This was generated not only during interaction of various strains of S. aureus with murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) but also in control settings where cell free system was used in ruling out this cross reactivity phenomenon.
Original Research Article
March 5, 2021
A 5-year Study on Ectopic Pregnancy in North India
Dr. Jayati Nath, Dr. Akshara Mishra, Dr. Vaishali Verma, Dr. Somya Gupta
Page Numbers : 49-54
DOI : 10.36348/sijog.2021.v04i03.001
Ectopic Pregnancy, a life jeopardizing emergency, can land in disaster, if the diagnosis is missed. Any woman in the reproductive age group presenting with vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain- the first suspicion should be ectopic. This was a hospital based retrospective cohort study of 5 years in Haryana, North India (3 Tertiary Care Centres)- to evaluate the incidence, patient profile, high risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, treatment, outcome and complications of the same. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel spread sheet using SPSS software 19.0 version. A total of 175 cases of ectopic pregnancy were diagnosed during the study period (Incidence of 1.521%).Majority of the patients were in age group 21 to 30 years 101/175(57.71%) with nulliparous being 60/175(34.28%).Most important risk factors found were past history of miscarriage, pelvic surgery, tubal surgery and tubal ligation.75 % patients presented with the classical triad of lower abdominal pain, amenorrhoea, and bleeding per vaginum. Clinical diagnosis was possible in 85.71% while 11.4% patients were ultrasonographically diagnosed. 96.7 % were tubal ectopic gestations. Conservative expectant management was done in 2 patients, medical methotrexate therapy was given in 26 out of which 6 required surgery for failed therapy & 84 % were surgically managed. 54 % required blood transfusion and there were no deaths. We conclude that identifying common risk factors and being ectopic minded will help clinicians in diagnosing and managing ectopic pregnancy at the earliest to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the condition.
March 3, 2021
Investigation and Analysis on the Fragmented Learning Status of College Students under the Background of Online Learning
Yongwei Yang, Jiani Wu
Page Numbers : 66-69
DOI : 10.36348/jaep.2021.v05i03.001
This paper aims at the problems of low efficiency and poor quality of college students' online courses, and makes a questionnaire survey on the influencing factors of college students' online course learning quality. According to the survey results, the factors that affect the learning quality of college students' online courses are divided into four dimensions: platform design dimension, curriculum design dimension, students' self-management dimension and hardware support dimension. Through the analysis of the survey data, we can understand the present situation of college students' fragmented learning and get the factors that affect the quality of college students' fragmented learning, and finally put forward relevant strategies to improve the learning quality of college students' online courses.
Feb. 28, 2021
A Rare Case Report of Eumycetoma Osteomyelitis of Hand
Dr. Ann Rose Thomas, Dr. Jayalakshmi PL, Dr. Sankar S
Page Numbers : 86-88
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i02.008
Mycetoma is a chronic, suppurative, granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissue that eventually may involve bone. The Infection is caused by free living, exogenous, geophilic actinomycetes and fungi. It is characterized by a triad of localized swelling, underlying sinus tract and production of grains or granules. Approximately 40% of mycetomas worldwide are eumycotic and rest is actinomycotic . Eumycetoma is most probably acquired by traumatic inoculation of certain fungi into subcutaneous tissue. Fungi are considered as an unusual cause of osteomyelitis of hand/palm. This paper describes a case of eumycetoma osteomyelitis of the hand. With clinical, radiological and pathological correlation we arrived at a final diagnosis.
Original Research Article
Feb. 27, 2021
Influencing Factors of Adherence to Antiretroviral Drugs among People Living with HIV in South-South Nigeria
Chijioke-Nwauche I. N, Akani Y
Page Numbers : 145-152
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i02.011
Background: A major challenge to antiretroviral therapy is poor adherence by the patients due to the multiplicity of drugs involved. For effective outcome of therapy, a 95% adherence is advocated in patients on ARV drugs. Objectives: Study sought to evaluate the factors that affect the adherence to their prescribed medications by people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the capital city of Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study using pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on adherence among HIV adult patients. Socio-demographic factors were evaluated as possible factors associated with adherence. Reasons for missing medications were also obtained and described. Results: Participants comprised of 109 (31.8%) males and 231 (67.3%) females (mean age 37.3 ± 8.9) years. Study revealed a poor level (58%) of adherence among participants. Patient factors (forgetfulness, personal travels and work schedule), were major reasons given for missing their medications. Others are economic (lack of transport, poverty) and socio-cultural (stigma, spiritual) factors. Social support in the form of treatment supporter was found to be a significant (p<0.05) positive influencing factor to adherence by patients as well as disclosure of status to spouse. Conclusion: Strategies to improve adherence should be focused on the ways to address the negative influencing factors. Improved awareness in terms of counselling, education and orientation of the patients is strongly advocated. Social support systems (family, community, treatment supporter) and societal acceptance of PLWHIV should be put in place to encourage adherence.
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