In vitro Studies on the Formation and Growth of Urinary Stone Crystals
C. K. Mahadevan
Page Numbers : 230-234
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2021.v06i10.006
It is a well known fact that the urinary stone crystal disease affects a considerable number of people and makes it a major socio-economic problem in the world. Several environmental factors influence the formation and growth of many crystalline materials in the biological fluids in a human urinary system. As in vivo experimentations have limitations, in vitro investigations have been made by several researchers in the past. A success in finding the environmental factors promoting or inhibiting the formation and growth of urinary stone crystals will be of immense help to the mankind. This article provides a bief account of the results obtained in this regard along with providing some information on urolithiasis and gel methods for crystal growth. The focus is made on Whewellite, Brushite and Struvite crystals as these are among the dominant and well studied ones.
Original Research Article
Oct. 23, 2021
Study the Association of C-Reactive Protein and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Heart Patients above the Age of 50 Years
Irum Naureen, Aisha Saleem, Muhammad Naeem, Zainab Naeem, Attique Nawaz
Page Numbers : 233-240
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i10.001
Coronary heart disease, non-communicable disease has become epidemic and increasing in world crisis. There is escalation in developing countries and known to be the death cause in developed countries. Due to the absence of proper guidance and preventive measures its risk factors are increasing day by day. 30-40% of deaths in Pakistan are due to cardiovascular disease. Study of C-reactive protein relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors is essential for heart disease patients. C-reactive protein is an inflammatory marker it’s helpful tool for the recognition of risks in developing heart disease. C-reactive protein assessed by Enzyme Linked- Immunosorbent assay method is more effective in comparison with other risk factors of cardiovascular disease such as obesity, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Written consent filled by the patients was studied to understand the relative relation of C-reactive protein with other parameters. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure mmHg was measured at 5 minutes of interval for the average analysis. By statistical analysis on Graph Pad Prism we have found the prevalence of C- reactive protein in heart patients in reference to their physical activity, smoking status and stress. Statistical means of h heart patients and control were compared to each other and there see mainly increase in level of CRP, LDL cholesterol, Triglycerides, diabetes mellitus and total cholesterol. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was low in patients and higher in control because this is the good cholesterol. Total number of heart patients is 50, and 15controls. C-reactive protein in heart patients is (4.594±0.2099***) at a 95% of confidence interval whereas in control it was 1.42±0.1776. Statistical value of total cholesterol is 246.1±7.081*** in heart patients and in control (173.7±7.909). There was significant association of all parameters with coronary heart disease.
Original Research Article
Oct. 21, 2021
Ethno Pharmacological Knowledge of Common Medicinal Plants Used for the Traditional Treatment of Oral Pathologies in the Mayo-Kani Division, (Cameroon)
Introduction: Studies on plants used for the treatment of oral diseases in Cameroon are still scant. The objective of this study was to identify medicinal plants and recipes used for the traditional treatment of oral diseases in the department of Mayo-Kani (Far North, Cameroon). Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 7 months, during the year 2021. After obtaining the various administrative authorisations, an ethnopharmacological survey was carried out among traditional practitioners known to treat oral ailments in the Mayo-Kani department. The plants collected, were photographed and the samples were identified at the Delegation of Forests and Fauna of Mayo-Kani and then confirmed by botanists and experts from the Cameroon National Herbarium (CNH). Results: This ethnopharmacological survey conducted among 43 traditional practitioners identified 40 species in 28 botanical families, of which Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Combretaceae, Anthericaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Anacardiaceae were the most represented. These species were used in the preparation of 40 recipes. Around 77.2% of these recipes and 77.7% of the plants listed were used in the treatment of caries and their complications such as cervico-facial cellulitis. Roots (38.5%) followed by barks (20.9%) were the most used plant organs. Decoction (43.2%) was the most used preparation method. In all, 50% of the recipes proposed, were used in the form of herbal tea. Mouthwash (50%) was the most used method of administration. Ricinus communis (CF= 11.4%; 03 recipes), Sclerocarya birrea (CF= 6.6%; 03 recipes), Indigofera aff subargenta, Capparis facicularis and Anogeissus leocarpus (CF= 5%; 03 recipes) were the most cited and used in traditional recipes to treat oral pathologies. Conclusion: These findings constitute a basic data base for future studies on phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological analyses essential for the valorization of traditional medicines.
Original Research Article
Oct. 16, 2021
Examination of The Institutional Capacity of Ministry of Land and Settlement, Ministry of Housing and Kisumu City Council Towards Low-Cost Housing Development in Kenya
Samuel Otieno Ondola
Page Numbers : 436-448
DOI : 10.36348/sjhss.2021.v06i10.007
This study was to evaluate the Kenya Government housing policies and strategies for housing the urban poor in Kenya, and how the citizen has benefited from the scheme/plan. Objective of the article was to examine the institutional capacity of ministry of land and settlement, ministry of housing and Kisumu city council towards low-cost housing development. The research question was, how effective are the various Kenya Government Housing Policies and implementation strategies targeting the provisions of low-cost Housing to the urban poor in Kisumu City? The study adopted quantitative survey research design. Primary data was collected through structured interviews/interview guide, self-administered questionnaires (Delivery and collection questionnaires), observation and check list. Secondary data was collected from Kenya government national housing policies, national development plans, research publications, internet among others. Quantitative data was summarized, categorized, interpreted and analyzed using Tables and percentages. Simple random sampling was used in this study. The researchers’ target population of 218,766 and sample size of 384 was ideal for this method of sampling. Statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data collected from the field. Correlation analysis was done on both dependent and independent variables with supply of electricity as the control group. Findings revealed that provision of low-cost housing is negatively correlated to provision of adequate road, electricity and water (coefficient = -0.9366059, P = 0.000, 95% C.I = -1.459989 –0.4132226). Recommendations for policy action included review of the current national housing policy and implementation strategies and further research on urban planning, land tenure system, infrastructure and services, housing finance mechanism, small scale construction activities, community participation, municipal budgetary base and experimental pilot projects.
Original Research Article
Oct. 12, 2021
Design and Construction of an Electronic Salt Tester
Idim AI, Iyere SF
Page Numbers : 348-351
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i10.003
This research study focuses on the design and construction of an electronic tester using locally soured materials for measuring the concentration of table salt in solution. Salt, also known as table salt is a mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), this is a chemical compound belonging to the large class of ionic salts. The operating system consists of sensor, which senses the concentration of salt in solution, the signal amplification unit, which amplifiers the signal from the sensing unit and the display unit, which displays the concentration of salt in various solutions. The realization of the research study was achieved using different components like resistors, capacitors, op-amp, CA3162E, CA3161E and seven segment display. The design parameter was obtained from component calculations configured with the amplification unit to work with the sensing and display unit. These components were connected together on a veroboard with the aid of different tools. After completion of work, the project was tested and the percentage error values obtained by dipping the sensor in salt concentration were 0.58, 1.43, 1.73, 2.10, 2.21 respectively, which was relatively low compared to other electronic salt tester.
Subject Category: Chemistry
Oct. 9, 2021
Recently Developed Methods for Synthesis of Nanoparticles, Recent Advances and Applications for Scientific Developments
Sajjad Ahmed, Ghulam Mudassir, Muhammad Faisal Yasin, Khadija Aimun, Tayyaba Fizzah, Muhammad Shahzad Aziz, Irshad Khan, Tayyaba Mukhtar
Page Numbers : 274-277
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i10.003
The texture and size of manufactured nanoparticles are influenced by the pH of solution media. Due to its wide applications in electronics, coatings, optical materials, and catalysis the alloy nanomaterials are of tremendous interest now days. Turkevich approach is a viable technique for chemical production of GNPs. Nanoparticles of certain materials can be made via "wet chemical methods", in which appropriate compound solutions are combined to make an insoluble compound of the desired substance. Nanowires created through lithography, for example, are not always smooth and can have a lot of impurities and structural flaws on their surface. The Polyol technique is a chemical approach for nanoparticle production. Non-aqueous liquid (polyol) is used as a reducing agent and solvent in this process. A colloidal solution of particles suspended in a liquid phase is known as a sol. The biological production of MNPs has always been advantageous. The reverse micelle approach can also be used to create nanoparticles with specific size and shapes. Chemical precursors are typically a combination of chlorides, metals and oxides that react during milling or heat treatment to generate a composites powder with ultrafine particles scattered in a stable salt matrix.
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