Bacteriological and Physiochemical Assessment of Water, Sediment and Fish Qualities along Wetland in Isoko Region of Delta State Nigeria
Okieke, U. J, Akpokodje, O. I, Oshevire, B
Page Numbers : 445-450
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i12.001
There is need for the investigation into heavy metals and microbial loads in edible aquatic organisms, to evaluate their safety and compliance with standards approved by international regulatory bodies’ which regulates food and water quality. The heavy metals and total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) concentrations in catfish, surface water bodies and sediments collected from the wetlands of Isoko region of Delta State, Nigeria were determined in accordance to standard approved methods. The laboratory results revealed that the lead, cadmium, zinc and THB concentrations in the fish body parts (gills and muscle) sampled were lower, compared with those obtained from sediments samples. The lead concentration was 1.13 mg/kg and 28.01 mg/kg for the water and sediment samples respectively. Cadmium concentration of 0.19 mg/kg and 1.64 mg/kg was recorded for the water and sediment samples respectively. Then the zinc concentration was 0.39 mg/kg in the water sample and 87.17 mg/kg in the sediment samples. In terms of the fish body parts, the results revealed that the zinc, lead, cadmium and THB concentrations in the fish gills were higher, compared to the values recorded in the fish muscle. It was observed that the cadmium concentration in the fish gills and muscle was higher than the maximum allowable limit of 0.17 mg/kg approved by the FAO; while the lead and zinc concentrations in the fish gills and muscle were lower than the maximum allowable limit of 0.5 mg/kg and 67.1 mg/kg respectively, approved by the FAO for edible fish. Finding from this study will be helpful in taking appropriate measures to prevent bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals and microbes in aquatic organisms, to levels above the maximum allowable limits approved by FAO or other regulatory bodies.
Original Research Article
Nov. 30, 2021
Design and Fabrication of a Melon (Egusi) Decorticating Machine
Larry Orobome. Agberegha, Eyere. Emagbetere, Francis Onoroh, Festus Ifeanyi. Ashiedu, Alexander Akene, Fabian Ifeanyi Idubor, Samuel Ikechukwu Anyanwu, Benjamin Ufuoma Oreko
Page Numbers : 432-444
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i11.008
Melon seed has been described as very important oilseed crop that serves numerous food purposes across Nigeria. Since melon seed is within a shell, dehusking or decorticating or dehulling or shelling, it is expedient so as to use it for food. To carry out the process of removal of the shell, a melon decorticating machine was designed and developed. The machine was designed based on standard engineering design procedures. A CAD drawing was used to develop the machine and a detailed design of the machine was implemented. The CAD drawing was fabricated. The machine was built using materials available locally and it consists of the following components the melon shelling machine were the hopper, the shelling chamber, the base, the blower unit, the body frame, the blade, switch, fan regulator, feed controller, blade housing, electric motor, motor holder, bolt and nut. Two different performance evaluation were carried out: one, a comparison based on time of shelling using both the designed machine and the manual shelling method and two, the performance evaluation was carried out for different Melon seeds of three (3) varying moisture contents. The parameters evaluated include decorticating efficiency, percentage of decorticated seed and damaged, machine performance and capacity. Results from the developed machine shows a shelling efficiency of 73.1% with seed damage percent of 14.3% when using moisture content of 30%d.b. while, for the manual shelling was reported to be of a shelling efficiency of 10%, 15.7% and 20.2% with 20.2% being its highest efficiency which is seen to be very small compared to that of the machine. Shelling speed of the machine and moisture content of the seed Melon affects the rate, efficiency and percentage of damage to the seeds. This design and the set of conditions selected were the most preferred due to their speed operation, less damage to the seeds and minimal expenditure of human energy. The developed machine does not require skilled labor, and this melon sheller can effectively address the challenges of the traditional method of decorticating melon.
Nov. 24, 2021
Deficiency Analysis of Machine Translation and Post-editing Based on Computational Linguistics—A Case Study of the Translation of Government Work Report
Yan Chu, Zhirong Liu
Page Numbers : 426-431
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i11.007
Computational linguistics is a subject closely related to contemporary science and technology. The research results of computational linguistics have been applied in machine translation, information retrieval, natural language man-machine interface, and other important fields. At the same time, with the development of machine translation, problems have also emerged. This paper find out some deficiencies of machine translation and post-editing strategies from the comparison between Youdao translation and manual translation of Report on the Work of the Government 2021. Machine translation is ultimately a linguistic problem. In post-editing, translators should pay attention to context, logical relationships, four-word phrases, and so on.
Original Research Article
Nov. 22, 2021
Evaluating the Compressive Strength of Wood Shavings - Cassava Starch - Sodium Chloride Hybridized Concrete
Ikoko, O, Bratte, A. G, Akpokodje, O. I
Page Numbers : 408-413
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i11.005
There is a quest and a sustained interest in environmentally friendly and sustainable building materials, for farm structures, as well as for general building construction, due to the availability of suitable industrial materials, by-products and wastes, to which additional value can be provided in their utility and management. The suitability of using wood shavings as partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete production, with cassava starch and sodium chloride (NaCl) as admixtures, was investigated in this study. The concrete was produced with a mix ratio of 1:2:4, and partial replacement of the fine aggregate with wood shavings, at the rate of 0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, 5%, 6.25%, and 7.5% (wt. of fine aggregate). Furthermore, cassava starch (2% by weight of the cement) and NaCl (1% by weight of the cement) were used as admixture. Results obtained from the slump and compression tests depicted that, the slump of the fresh concrete and the compressive strength of the hardened concrete decreased non-linearly as the volume of wood shavings increased from 0% to 7.5%. The findings of this study revealed that both the cassava starch and NaCl increased the slump properties of the fresh concrete, and the compressive strength of the hardened concrete, irrespective of the volume of wood shavings incorporated. Additionally, the results depicted that the hybridized concrete produced with wood shavings, cassava starch and NaCl, had a higher compressive strength, when compared to the hybridized concrete produced with wood shavings and cassava starch only. Results obtained from this study had affirmed that low volume of wood shavings, cassava starch and NaCl can be used for the production of plain concrete for farm structures, mostly in areas where metallic reinforcement materials are not required.
Original Research Article
Nov. 22, 2021
Wear Rate Characteristics of Basalt-Based Composites as Material for Brake Pad
Gai, Peter FrIday, Adisa, Ademola Bello, Aje, Tokan, Bawa, Mohammed A
Page Numbers : 414-425
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i11.006
The production of the basalt-based composite material was carried out using compression moulding. The selected materials basalt rock, bronze chips, cast-iron chips, glass fibre and phenolic resin were crushed into powder and sieved with a sieve size of 150microns. An optimization model based on the rule of mixture was developed to obtain the volume fractions of the constituent materials and a factorial Design of three levels and three factors was applied to obtained different sets of manufacturing parameters for the production of the samples using MINITAB 18 software. Twenty-seven samples with dimension of 20mm diameter and 8mm height were produced based on the formulation obtained from the optimization model and factorial design, this samples were subjected to tests. The test result shown that the basalt-based wear rate ranges from 9.0X10-5 to 1.52x10-4g/m and by volume is from 4.04x10-12 to 7.97x10-12m3/Nm. The density of the composites ranges from 2382.76 to 2781.33kg/m3. The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) result shown that the basalt-based composites is thermally stable up to a temperature of 5300C before thermal degradation started setting in and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) result shown that the highest mass degradation occurred at a temperature of 6000C. Hence the basalt rock is a good material that can withstand high temperature.
Original Research Article
Nov. 21, 2021
The Design of Ozone Placement and Determining Dosage as a Sterilizer in Meeting Rooms during a Pandemic Using the PtD Method
Slamet Hariyanto, Isdaryanto Iskandar
Page Numbers : 399-407
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i11.004
The beginning of year 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has hit all parts of the world, including Indonesia. This pandemic is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its various mutants and variants. This virus is known to attack the human respiratory system. The virus is transmitted through direct contact or through the air, which makes it Airborne. Even though there are variety of disinfectants that can prevent transmission between humans, not many can maintain the sterility of the room continuously. Disinfectants on its own have a level of danger to humans when exposed at a certain doses and for a certain time. Ozone (O3) is known as the most potent disinfectant. This paper is intended to determine the appropriate placement and dose of Ozone when used in a meeting room at an office, which is widely known as the centre of the Covid-19 spreading in Jakarta, using the Prevention through Design (PtD) method. In designing the right Ozone placement, the existing air system will also be studied. The calculation of the levels of O3 is based on mathematical calculations. The result from this study shows that the positioning and dosing control of O3 can effectively disable/kill the virus, while still considered safe for humans, so that productivity will be maintained.
Original Research Article
Nov. 16, 2021
Rheological Evaluation of Titanium Alloy Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Feedstock
M. A. Ahmad, N. Johari, M. J. Sulaiman, R. Ibrahim, M. A. Omar
Page Numbers : 392-398
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i11.003
In PIM process, the molding stage is a critical step for the fabrication of sound parts without cracks and distortions. So, this step requires specific rheological behavior. Rheological analysis can be made to quantify the stability of the PIM feedstock during molding process. In this study, an experimental rheological study has been performed to evaluate the effect of composition binder system on the stability of titanium alloy powder injection molding (MIM) feedstock in term of shear sensitivity and activation energy. The rheology properties of feedstock were measured via capillary rheometer machine. The viscosity of feedstocks was measured at temperature of 120C, 130C, 140C and 150C under different five (5) different constant load at 20N,30N,40N,50N and 60N respectively. The results show that the addition of binder component which possess low molecule weight has reduce flow behavior index value and increase flow activation energy value of feedstock. However, the feedstock produced will get a problem such powder-binder separation and high residue stress which will defect the molded part component. The formulation binder system PEPS 4060 is the best feedstock for titanium alloy MIM process because it has moderate value of flow sensitivity index and flow activation energy value and higher value for mold ability index.