Geophysical Investigation for Mineral Prospecting of Some Parts of Eastern Sokoto Sedimentary Basin Nigeria
RaboY, Bonde DS, Bello A, Usman A
Page Numbers : 34-42
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2022.v07i01.004
An appraisal of aeromagnetic data lying between latitude 120N to 130N and longitude 4030”E to5030”E comprising Argungu, Dange Tanbuwal and Gumi was carried out with a view to understanding the structural trends of interest for mineral exploration. A set of aeromagnetic data obtained from the Nigerian geological survey Agency was gridded to produce the total magnetic intensity (TMI) map of the study area, followed with a polynomial fitting to remove the regional anomaly from the total magnetic intensity so as to obtain the residual anomaly. The analysis was preceded by production of Shaded relief map depicting the profile of contact solution, shaded relief map of the profile dyke solution as well as magnetic susceptibility values of structures in each profile was analyzed. The result obtained from the profile contact and profile dyke solution showed an abnormal trend behavior which swept from southwest (SW) towards the center and the Northwest (NW) of the study area. The contacts and dyke solutions can be seen as arranged on the profiles, some portions being highly concentrated than other portions as they were arranged on their respective profiles indicating the possibility of much structural bodies or host for potential minerals. This is evident as the case maybe from the depth values obtained in Werner depth analysis performed with corresponding depth values for both Shallow and deeper bodies indicating the presence of geologic contacts and weak zones highlighting dyke-like bodies which might serve as host to the minerally controlled fluid around the area. Likewise results obtained from the magnetic susceptibility values in all the three profiles of the study area showed a number of structures possessing high and low magnetic susceptibility values indicating different types of minerals at different distance along the area at different depths. Minerals such as schist and limestone are likely to be present.
Jan. 15, 2022
Construction Quality over Quantity Take Off
Mohd Umair, Tanveer Ahmad Wani
Page Numbers : 11-15
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2022.v07i01.002
Quality assurance and Quantity aftermaths are binary terms, which are interconnected each other closely and its ramification often chaotic in the fast pace world, specifically construction industry. Moreover, it’s being used an inappropriate way as a substitute one for other. Quality over quantity, It’s a simple concept, which could be understand in layman term but taught to construction organization because quality is a process per se, whereas quantity is a form of amount. However it' can be defined in one line that fits like a square peg in a round hole in today's construction/corporate environment. The reason behind that it's so inflexible to emphasize quality over quantity is simple, contemporary businesses are established merely to make money as quickly as possible and its highest possible margins. Crafting high quality components tends to be expensive and time consuming tasks, moreover it required industriousness along with proper management, which seems less attractive margin for the organization and create a question in the mind what about the profit. Lower quality work, produced quickly with a minimal time commitment per task, tends to be far more profitable, with higher margins as well as a lower cost and get more attractive price from consumers. However, corporate shouldn’t entirely overlook the importance of quality over quantity. Here it’s not merely a matter of profit although it’s a matter of lives, which matters more than anything else. Moreover, the elements of a building structure are typically based on the kind of material used in its construction. Each and every division has space in a design takes into account the main theme or concept of the structure. Depending upon the building material(s), each element of the building is related to the other in terms of the concepts of color, dressing and outlook. The materials used for an element also, quite often, contribute to its terminology. Quality take off is widely unaccepted as one of the key factors for companies to be futile in the global market. Quality management has been a kicked issue for many years in various disciplines. The implementation of effective quality management has been witnessed and documented in the Engineering industry, which set up a paradigm for other disciplines such as the design and construction industry in the past few years, things have been changed in the construction sector by welcoming Policies that would improve construction process and lead to successful business strategies. Effective quality management, especially in (QOQ), It has been recognized as an inhibitor for performance improvement in the construction industry. On the flip side Quantity takeoffs are an important aspect of the construction cost estimating process. Quantity takeoffs are used in both large and small projects to determine actual costs ensure that a project remains profitable to the contractor, and its vital component of a final detailed estimate. General contractors, subcontractors, quantity surveyors, and estimators routinely produce quantity takeoffs during the estimation process. Whereas some in the construction industry may not routinely work on quantity takeoffs, they may still wonder what a quantity takeoff in construction is. We’ll also look at the different ways qualities as well as quantity takeoffs are completed, and what are the advantages and drawbacks of these different methods. The study recommends that promoting awareness regarding the values of ethical behavior at different forum and ensuring the effective castigation for unethical activities at different stages of project life cycle might reduce the unethical practices in the construction industry. Nevertheless both terms has to be targeted as per its vitality, as we have used the word of interconnected.
Original Research Article
Jan. 15, 2022
Physico-mechanical Properties of Basalt-based Brake Pad as Alternative to Ceramics Brake pad
Gai Peter Friday, Adisa, Ademola Bello, Aje, Tokan, Bawa, Mohammed A
Page Numbers : 16-33
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2022.v07i01.003
A basalt-based automobile brake pad was developed through optimization of the volume fractions and manufacturing parameters, a mathematical model was developed based on rule of mixture for the optimization of the volume fraction and the solution obtained using excel solver is as follow; basalt 38%, cast iron chips 26%, bronze 12%, glass fibre 12% and phenolic resin 12%. The manufacturing parameters were design using full factorial design of three levels and three factors, twenty-seven runs were obtained from the design, consequently twenty-seven samples were produced by compression moulding. The constituent materials were properly mixed to obtained homogeneous mixture and compressed into a mould with a cavity similar to the shape of the friction pad this was done at different moulding pressures of 30MPa, 27MPa and 24MPa, the curing temperatures were 1800C, 2000C and 2200C and the curing of 5minutes, 10minutes and 15 minutes as obtained from the factorial design. The samples produced were subjected to tests, the results showed that the basalt brake pad has the following properties; compressive strength of 137mPa, coefficient of friction 0.476, hardness 70HRB, density of 2768kg/m3 thermal conductivity of 0.66W/mK, water absorption of 0.377%, oil absorption of 0.25%, void content of 18.93%, wear rate of 9.0X10 -4g/m and the TGA result shows that the basalt-based brake pad is thermally stable up to a temperature of 5000C. The properties of the basalt-based brake pad are within the acceptable range and can satisfactorily substitute basalt.
Original Research Article
Jan. 7, 2022
Effect of Temperature on Dehydration Kinetics of Pre-Treated and Untreated Yam (Dioscorea spp) Slices
Page Numbers : 1-10
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2022.v07i01.001
Yams (Dioscorea spp) are herbaceous vines which are cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers. And can be consumed either boiled or fried. Drying is a veritable technology for storage beyond immediate consumption. This study thus, investigated the drying rate and the best suitable model of yam slices of different thicknesses (1.0mm, 1.5mm and 2.0mm) in thin layer using a laboratory convective oven dryer. A temperature range of 60-800C in multiples of 100C was selected and applied. Results were fitted to three thin-layer models of Page, Henderson and Lewis, and parameters (R2, RMSE, X2) to select the suitable estimating thin-layer model. R2 values ranged from 0.912090– 0.984462 (pre-treated) and 0.947496 – 0.982675 (untreated) for Lewis model; 0.996625– 0.998228 (pre-treated) and 0.994750– 0.998897 (untreated) for Henderson model; 0.940210 – 0.997329 (pre-treated) and 0.938921–0.995356 (untreated) for page model with rather low RMSE values ranging from0.031620-0.016657(pre-treated) and 0.030334-0.017589 (untreated) for Lewis model; 0.00773 - 0.005247 (pre-treated) and 0.009682-0.004439 (untreated) for Henderson model; 0.032675-0.006907 (pre-treated) and 0.033026-0.009107(untreated) for page model over the range of drying temperatures applied. The respective X2 values ranging from 0.0000204300–0.0011310990 (approximately = 0), therefore, from the statistical analysis the Henderson model showed a reliable prediction of the drying kinetics of the yam slices at the chosen temperatures. Drying rate along with characterizing drying constant also increased exponentially with temperature. From observation, pre-treated yam slices dried faster than untreated yam slices.
Original Research Article
Dec. 27, 2021
Extrusion: A Novel Technique for Improvement of Dietary Fiber Functionality in Oat Bran
Ghulam Moheudin, Muhammad Kamran Arshad, Hafiza Anam Asghar, Mehjabeen, Maria Alvi, Ushna Momal, Firdous Elahi
Page Numbers : 484-490
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i12.006
Cereals are used as staple food in the world because they provide more energy and important source of vitamins, minerals, protein and carbohydrates. Oat is considered important cereal cultivated in different regions due to its ample source of soluble dietary fiber. Bran is the outermost layer of the grain which contains the appreciable amount of soluble dietary fiber called β-glucan helpful in lowering cholesterol and maintaining glucose level. Due to the health benefits of fibrous material from oat bran it gained more importance globally and has been added in different food items. But incorporation of fibrous material in food items negatively affects the characteristics of product ultimate acceptance. To improve the functionality of fibrous material, different methods are applied such as addition of chemicals and enzymes but they did not gain much popularity because people demand organic foods. So, the current study was designed to improve the functionality of fibrous material through extrusion cooking as it is more effective than other techniques. Proximate analysis expressed that oat bran had moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber content as 8.25±0.04%, 14.15±0.07%, 6.12±0.05%, 2.50±0.10% and 3.55±0.23%, respectively. Extrusion of oat bran was done by using the barrel exit temperature 120˚C, 140 ˚C and 160˚C, screw speed 100rpm, 150rpm and 200rpm and feed moisture was 20%, 30% and 40%. Extruded bran was investigated for total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber. Extrusion parameters had showed positively significant (P<0.01) effect on dietary fiber content, β-glucan content and extractable β-glucan content. In conclusion, current research showed that extrusion treatment of oat bran results in increased availability of fiber.
Original Research Article
Dec. 17, 2021
Effects of Composition on Structure & Mechanical Property of TiAl Based Intermetallic Compounds
Run Xu, Sugun Lim, Boyong Hur, Younwook Kim
Page Numbers : 476-483
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i12.005
The effects of Al content and ternary additions such as Mo, V and Si in as cast based alloys made by plasma arc melting on solidification structures and mechanical properties were studied. The Columnar /2 lamellar structures in Al-lean alloys due to primary solidification had higher room temperature fracture strength and strain than phase structures through the reaction of L+= in Al-rich alloys. The fraction of α2 phase was found to decrease with increasing Al content in binary alloys. Fractography revealed that fine translamellar fracture is a man fracture mode in Ti-48at.%Al alloy which led to a high fracture with more than 5%. The RT fracture strain was improved by the addition of 1.5at.% Mo and 1at.%Si. The mechanical propertied have been discussed in term of changes in unit cell volume and axial ration. In the case of Si, tensile properties coincided well with the change of axial ratio c/a. The strength and strain could be raised slightly to compare with binary system. The standard deviation has been low in lattice constant so deviation of c/a is 0.43% which is good one to help to analyze the strain in TiAl-X alloys. The first factor is c/a which means atomic anisotropy then is c*a2 which is unit atomic volume of γ phase. The decreasing c/a is to decrease the atomic anisotropy and increase the materials atomic ductility in TiAl-X alloys.
Original Research Article
Dec. 17, 2021
Structural Analysis of Selected Ring Complexes in Some Parts of the Nigerian Younger Granite Provinces
Usman A, Lawan AM, Lawal MM, Jonathan LA, Sununu ST
Page Numbers : 467-475
DOI : 10.36348/sjet.2021.v06i12.004
The study area falls within the basement complex of northcentral Nigeria and covers four adjacent quarter degree sheets of 126 (Ririwai), 127 (Kalatu), 147 (Lere) and 148 (Toro) in some parts of Kaduna, Bauchi and Plateau States, Nigeria. This paper is aimed at interpreting the Aeromagnetic data to delineate structures in some parts of the Nigerian younger granite province. This was achieved by determining depth to basement, and developing a 2D model of the shape, location and depth of structures in some parts of the younger granite province. The anomalies on the aeromagnetic map were defined by fitting a first order polynomial to the total fields, by the method of least squares to obtain the residual field data. First vertical derivative and analytic signal computed, defined distinct pattern of the magnetic signatures. Depths to the source of the geologic structures where obtained from Werner and Euler deconvolution solutions which gives an average depths range of 231.2 m to 1040 m, with very few solutions having depths less than 200 m, the most prominent structure particularly the Ririwai ring complex have a depth range of 337.5 m to 465.5 m. The depth to basement for Werner solution ranged from 60 m to 420 m and the depth to basement of the contact model is shallow with depth of (60 to 420m) as compared to the dike model (200 to 420 m).