ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 3, 2022
Modelling and Implementation of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System for a Stand-Alone Application
Harrison Oyibo Idakwo, P. I. Adamu, V. Stephen, I. Bello
Page no 399-413
Rapidly developing modern energy systems incorporate significant contributions from renewable sources. The recent adoption of distributed generation sources and microgrids powered by renewable sources such as solar cells, tidal wind, and fuel cells is one of the primary causes of rising global energy demand. Integration of different energy sources into a hybrid system is envisioned as a viable solution for decentralized energy generation. Consequently, this study aims to integrate two energy sources with storage devices to construct a hybrid renewable energy system that will provide reliable electricity for remote and off-grid installations in the Sabon Gida Community of Kaduna State. This will contribute to the attainment of the seventh United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (Affordable and clean energy) (UN). This study utilized the Felicity PV panel. Its cell specifications are as follows: Peak power 175Wp, Open-circuit voltage (VOC) 21.6V, Maximum power current Imp 9.72A, Maximum power voltage Vmp 18V, short-circuits current Isc 10.2A, operating cell temperature Tc 250C, and Ideality factor Am 1.5. For the wind turbine, a model WT-400 with a rated power of 400W, 12V output voltage, and a wind controller with a standby current of 3.6mA, rated at 12/24V auto output voltage were utilized. The maximum power output of the PV energy model based on the specified weather variable was 620watts, whereas the maximum power output of the wind turbine energy model based on the selected wind speed was 301watts. Based on design calculations, the projected load demand for the location under consideration was 304 watts. The prototype was implemented, tested, and validated. The test results indicate that the output power was sufficient to fulfil the load requirements of the chosen location.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 6, 2022
An Assessment of Implementation Status of Janata Awash Program in Nepal (Case study Jnata awash program of Rupandehi from F/Y 2073/74 to F/Y 2075/76)
Page no 414-431
This study's main goal is to evaluate the Janata Awash Program's implementation status in Rupandehi, Nepal, where the program is dispersed among 13 VDCs and 4 Municipalities (before readjustment of local level). Interviews and a questionnaire survey were undertaken with applicants for the program, local leaders, officers in charge of implementation, and the monitoring body in the study region with regard to selected, non-selected, completed, and unstarted construction. In the fiscal year 2073–1974 there were 2214 applicants, which appears to be a relatively high amount. Since there are so many of them and they live in diverse places, it would be foolish to assume that one strategy will work for all low-income groups' housing needs.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 15, 2022
Challenges Encountered by University Students when Constructing FAST Diagrams
Dr. Muhammad A. Al-Ghamdi
Page no 432-440
Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagraming is a key component of Function Analysis. It contributes to Value Engineering (VE) teams’ understanding of the scope of VE studies and maximizes the number of identified VE alternatives. This paper identified some of the challenges encountered by university students in constructing FAST diagrams. This was accomplished through the assessment of 36 FAST diagrams constructed by 36 students and five FAST diagrams constructed by five teams of 24 students. The assessment found less flaws in FAST diagrams when students work as a team rather than as individuals. The analysis also found difficulties associated with understanding and linking functions in the When logic or same time functions. To overcome this issue, the paper is suggesting the use of a “Function Block” approach to facilitate the understanding and construction of FAST diagrams. The new approach was tested by three teams of 13 students to identify its advantages and disadvantages.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 18, 2022
An Analysis of Track Effects on Storm Surge Simulation
Page no 441-450
This study investigates the effects of cyclone tracks on water levels during storm surges along the coast of Bangladesh. A numerical hydrodynamical model in Cartesian coordinates has been developed, where the developed equations are solved by a semi-implicit finite difference method. The boundary fitted grid technique is employed to rectangularized the physical domain. Along the north-east corner of the model, the Meghna River fresh water discharge is taken into account. A stable tidal regime over the region of interest is generated with the help of four major tidal constituents, namely M_2 (principal lunar semi diurnal), S_2 (principal solar semi diurnal), O_1 (principal lunar diurnal) and K_1 (principal lunar diurnal) along the southern open boundary of the outermost model. This previously generated tidal regime is used as the initial state of sea in order to obtain water levels due to the nonlinear interaction of tide and surge. Numerical experiments are made with the severe storm April 1991 and some hypothetical storm tracks. The simulated results with the real track are found to be in a good agreement with some observed and some reported data. The water levels are found to be greatly influenced by the hypothetical cyclone tracks.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 18, 2022
Design Criteria Plumbing System Ibis Hotel Margonda – Depok
Uno Nezwan Bahano
Page no 451-460
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 20, 2022
Web-Based Air Conditioner Monitoring and Control
Theresia Ghozali, Gabriella Ilena, Melisa Mulyadi, Linda Wijayanti
Page no 461-471
Through advances of Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies, smart home concepts have become increasingly prevalent, and they are gradually being adapted in society. Apart from cost efficiency and user convenience, implementing monitoring and control in a smart home has the potential to also increase energy efficiency. In this paper, a web-based monitoring and temperature control for an air conditioning (AC) system is proposed. The long-ranged AC control system consists of three ZigBee devices that enable wireless communication between the temperature, remote, and router modules which sends data over the internet using ESP8266. A web-based interface was also developed to display room temperature, last temperature of the AC, and a button to activate/deactivate the AC. The results showed that the prototypical system fulfilled the expected functionality, and that ZigBee is a robust choice of communication protocol.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 20, 2022
Real-Time PID Controller for a DC Motor Using STM32F407
Nguyen Le Thai, Nguyen Thi Kieu
Page no 472-478
This paper presents a real - time model of the DC motor speed control system. The PID controller is used to estimate the error between the actual speed and the set speed to adjust the Pulse - width modulation (PWM) inverter. The actual speed is measured through the encoder that provides training and testing data for PID controller. Simulation results are compared with the real-time results to address advantages and disadvantages of the system.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 24, 2022
Investigation of the Effect of Active Materials of Solar Battery on Active Mass Utilization Co-Efficient
Md. Kamrul Hasan
Page no 479-484
Solar energy is a renewable source of energy. Usage of this energy can reduce the carbon emissions on the environment. To store electric energy produced from solar panels, a battery is used named solar battery. The capacity of storing electricity depends on the active materials of the battery cells. Normally the capacity of a lead acid battery depends on active materials, size of the plates, gravity of the acid, construction of the grid of the plates. In this research, all other variables responsible for battery capacity (gravity of acid, size of the plates, construction of grid etc.) are constant and only one variable is active materials of the plates. 4 batteries containing different amounts of active material are used to identify the best combination which gives the highest value of active mass utilization coefficient.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 25, 2022
Measurement and Correlation of the Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of Tertiary-Butyl Alcohol – Water – Benzene System at 30°C and 1 Atmosphere Pressure
Obineche Charles Ndukwe, Chukwudi Christian Ezuru
Page no 485-494
The Liquid-Liquid equilibria of Tertiary-Butyl Alcohol – Water – Benzene System were measured experimentally at 30°C and 1atm pressure. The experimental binodal curve compositions were obtained using the cloud point method. The compositions of the two equilibrium phases were analysed using Agilent 7820A series Gas Chromatograph. The consistency of the experimental data was determined using the Hand, Othmer-Tobias and Bachman- Brown correlation equations while the plate point was determined using the Treybal’s method. The effectiveness of the solvent in the extraction was determined by calculating the distribution coefficients and separation factors. The experimental tie-line data were correlated with the Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) and Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient models. Also, the deviation between the experimental and calculated equilibrium compositions were calculated using the root mean squared deviation equation. The UNIQUAC predicted data gave a closer resemblance to the experimental.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 25, 2022
Large Deflection Analysis of Clamped Thin Rectangular Isotropic Plate under the Action of a Uniform Distributed Load
Enem, J. I
Page no 495-501
This present paper deals with large deflection of clamped thin rectangular isotropic plate under uniformly distributed load. The analysis of clamped plates is of great important and its structural behavior has not been completely understood. Previous studies have made a great in road in the analysis of clamped plates through varied approaches mostly assuming trigonometric series as displacement field. A variational method based on the principle of minimization of total potential energy has been employed through assumed displacement field. Therefore, the von Karman differential equation was decoupled through direct integration retaining its non-linear character. The aim of this present studies is to provide solution to analysis structural behavior of clamped (CCCC) thin rectangular isotropic plate under uniform distributed. The analysis was accomplished through a theoretical formulation of shape function based on polynomial series and subsequently, the formulated shape function was used on Ritz energy method. The resulting functional was minimized to obtain a general amplitude equation of the form K1∆3+K2∆+K3. Where K1, K2 and K3 are coefficients of amplitude equation and ∆ is the deflection coefficient (factor). Newton-Raphson method was used to evaluate the deflection coefficient. Values of ∆ from Timoshenko and that from present study were compared with an aspect ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 with an increment of 0.1. From results obtained, the average percentage difference for the pervious and present studies is 3.7646%, The percentage difference for the plate was within acceptable limit of 0.05 or 5% level of significance in statistics. It is shown from the comparison that good agreement exists between the present and previous works and that this approach provides simply, direct, straightforward and highly accurate solutions for this family of problems.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 25, 2022
Nonlinear Analysis of Isotropic Rectangular Thin Plates Using Ritz Method
Enem, J. I
Page no 502-512
This research work presents Nonlinear Analysis of Isotropic Thin Rectangular Plates using Energy Principle (Ritz method). Isotropic thin Rectangular plate having different twelve boundary conditions were analyzed and these boundary conditions were formed by combination of three major supports – Clamp, C; Simply supported, S; and Free, F.; General expressions for displacement and stress functions for large deflection of isotropic thin rectangular plate under uniformly distributed transverse loading were obtained by direct integration of Von karman’s non-linear governing differential compatibility and equilibrium equations. Polynomial function instead of trigonometry function as was with previous researchers was used on the decoupled Von Karman’s equations to obtain particular stress and displacement functions respectively. Non-linear total potential Energy was formulated using Von Karman equilibrium equation and Ritz method was deployed in this formulation. This equation was fully converted to potential energy by multiplying all the terms in it with displacement, w and the formed total potential energy, π consists of potential energy of internal forces and potential energy of external forces. This formulated total potential energy π, could give an accurate approximation of displacement field if the parameters were properly chosen. However, we assumed deflection, w to be ∆H1, and stress function, ɸ to be ∆2H2 and substituted into the formulated potential energy. H1 and H2 are profiles of the deflection and stress function respectively, and ∆ is deflection coefficient factor of the plate. Potential energy formulated contains deflection coefficient factor to the power of four. This potential energy was minimized by differentiating it partially with respect to coefficient factor reducing to cubic form.