ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 13, 2020
Multidrug Resistance and Plasmid Profile of Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli Isolated From Patients Attending Urology Clinic, Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital (DASH) Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Abdullahi Sani Ramalan, Joseph Fuh Nfongeh, Mojisola Christiana Owoseni, Ya’aba Yakubu
Page no 356-364
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain the most common infections that affect all age groups worldwide. This study was aimed at determining the multidrug resistance (MDR) and plasmid profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli among patients attending Urology Clinic of Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital (DASH) Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of two hundred and two (202) urine samples were collected in sterile containers and analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out using standard laboratory guidelines. Of the 202 samples analysed, 104 (51.4%) had significant bacteriuria. Staphylococcus aureus showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, and Norfloxacin while E. coli was highly resistant to Rifampicin, Ampicilin, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. A total of 19 (18.27%) isolates were resistant to more than two different classes of antibiotics i.e. MDR. Out of the 19 MDR isolates, 11.29% were S. aureus while 19.35% were E. coli. These isolates were carrying plasmid for MDR ranging from 2500 base pair (bp) to 6000bp for S. aureus while 11,849bp for E. coli. Plasmids were therefore implicated to be responsible for drug resistance in most of the UTIs. Therefore, proper hygiene by individuals and public awareness policies by government agencies should be encouraged; and antibiotics for the treatment of UTIs should be based on these current antibiogram results.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 14, 2020
A Cross-Sectional Study on the Hygienic Practices among Medical and Nursing Students at the University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Mohd. Saleem, Fahaad Alenazi, Soha Abdallah Moursi, Talal Banan Alanazi, Arkan Hamed Alshammari, Turki Saad Aljuhani, Moath Ibrahim Ayad Alzapni, Azharuddin Sajid Syed Khaja
Page no 365-369
General and hand hygienic practices are cost-effective methods to prevent the transmission of nosocomial infections. Hand hygiene practices are faulty in most healthcare settings. This study is designed to assess the general and hand hygiene practices among medical and nursing students of the University of Hail in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical and nursing students. A detailed questionnaire was prepared and piloted before the final interview. The participation of students was voluntary and the questionnaires were kept anonymous. The majority of the medical and nursing students, who participated in this study, were males (88%), with 94% in the college of medicine and 82% in the college of nursing. The majority of both medical and nursing students had good hygienic and good hand washing practices. Hand washing practices were almost similar (p>0.05) in both male and female students. This study showed a higher percentage of general and handwashing hygienic practices among medical and nursing students. However, multifaceted and dedicated efforts must be undertaken to rectify this practice from early on.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 16, 2020
Screening the Antibacterial Activity of Moringa oleifera Leaves and Seeds Extract against Selected Members of Bacteria
Waseem Sameer Kwami, Hamodi Ahmed Saeed, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Page no 370-373
background: Natural antibacterial agents derived from different parts of medicinal plants (leaves, seeds, roots, flowers….etc) might represent an alternative treatment of infectious diseases, Plants with their wide variety of chemical constituents offer a promising source of new antimicrobial agents, with general as well as specific antibacterial activity. The aim of this study is to screen antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera leaves and seeds extract against selected members of bacteria. Method: Five bacterial ATCC strains and seven clinically isolated strains were used in this study. 100 g of Moringa olifara leaves and 150 g of the coarsely powdered Seeds were extracted with 80 % methanol using soxhlet extractor apparatus for about eight hours. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar well diffusion method .Muller Hinton agar medium was used for bacterial cultures. Results: The study reveals that the Moringa oleiferaleaves and seeds extract show prominent Invitro antibacterial activity against all used bacterial species and the antibacterial activity of leaves extract is stronger than antibacterial activity of seeds extract and these results showing the possibility of using this tree in treatment of diseases caused by these pathogens. Conclusion: The study concluded that the activity of this plant in the treatment of diseases associated with bacterial pathogens is validated and scientifically supported by the results obtained in this study.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 16, 2020
Importance of Von Kleihauer Betke Test Assay in Estimating Fetomaternal Hemorrhage
Dr. Jeevaraj Giridharan, Dr. Pramila R, Dr. Sarada V
Page no 374-379
Objectives: Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) refers to the passage of fetal blood into the maternal circulation before or during delivery. Besides the deleterious effects of anemia in the fetus, allo sensitization of the mother to red cell particularly Rh antigens may result in significant mortality/morbidity in the current fetus or in future gestations. HbF resist acid-elution to a greater extent than do normal cells and it can be detected by Kleihauer Betke method. The objective is to study the importance of Von Kleihauer Betke test and its application in identifying the red cells containing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and to calculate its percentage of existence in mothers during labor, at Trichy SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre. Materials and Methods: To study the importance of Von Kleihauer Betke test and its application in assessing fetomaternal haemorrhage, intravenous blood samples were collected from all the mothers, who got admitted for labor at Trichy SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre during July 2017 – Sep 2017. Thin blood smears were prepared and stained by acid elusion method. The stained slides were examined for red cells containing HbF fewer than 100x oil immersion microscope by the investigators separately to reduce subjective variation. To calculate the number of red blood cells containing HbF in mother, Von Kleihauer Betke test formula has been used. Blood grouping test of the entire mother and their neonates also was done to identify the Rh typing. Von Kleihauer Betke test has been implicated to calculate the dosage of RhIG to be given in Rh negative mothers with Rh positive babies. Observation and result: Among 215 mothers involved in the study, HbF % range was observed to be within 0-2.0%. No significant percentage of fetomaternal haemorrhage exceeding 2% was observed in our study during the study period. Among the samples of 215 mothers studied, HbF range was lowest (0-0.5%) in 40% (n=88), mid-range (0.6-1.5%) in 42% (n=89) and higher range (1.6-2%) in 17% (n=38) only.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 16, 2020
Molecular Detection of Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in Gram-negative Rods Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in Khartoum State
Areej Zakaria, Mawada Rhmtallah, Zeinab Mohammed Abdo, MF Ismail, Abdelhakam H. Ali, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Page no 380-384
Background: The emergence of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 colistin-resistance genes in bacteria poses a potential threat for treatment of patients, especially when hospitalized. The pinpoints of this study were to search for the presence of mcr-1genein the thick of gram negative rods (Eschericea coli, Klebsiella spieces, Pseudomonas speices, Proteus speices, Aceinetobacter species, Serritia and Citrobacter species) isolates from clinical specimen using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Methods: In this study, 185 nonduplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens were tested. Antimicrobial susceptibility test on 11 antibiotics was done by Kirby baur disk diffusion method. The presence of mcr-1 gene was investigated by PCR technique. Results: Out of 185 non duplicate Enterobacteriaceae, 6 isolates show positive mcr-1 gene including one Isolate (16.4%) Pseudomonas aeurginosa from urine sample, and 5 (83.3%) Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from two wound sample (40%), one high vaginal swab sample (20%), one blood sample (20%) and one urine sample (20%). Most of Isolates that harboring mcr-1 gene detected by PCR isolated from patients were used antibiotics for treatment (n=4 (66.6%)). Conclusion: Colistin (Polymycin E) which used for treating Gram- negative bacterial infections should be mainly used for treating the severest infection to preserve their effectiveness and to avoid transferring of the gene from one bacterium to other by the different methods of genes transferring.
CASE REPORT | Aug. 20, 2020
Exaggerated Placental Site Reaction Following a Term Pregnancy: A Case Report
Rajeev Sen, Bharti Sharma, Ritesh Kumar Sheorain, Nikita Prasad, Pushpa Bisht, Swarnim Dalakoti
Page no 385-387
Exaggerated placental site (EPS) reaction is an exuberant physiologic process wherein intermediate trophoblasts infiltrate the underlying endometrium and myometrium at the implantation site. Its diagnosis is established only histopathologically which reveals proliferation of intermediate trophoblasts at the implantation site with absence of mitotic activity. Distinguishing EPS reaction from other trophoblastic tumors is crucial due to difference in management and prognostic outcome. We reported a case of 35 years old multigravida female who presented to the hospital at gestational age of 39+6 weeks with complaints of persistent post-delivery bleeding. We received a hysterectomy specimen in our department. Grossly the specimen measured 14cm x 14cm x 8 cm and endometrial cavity was filled with hemorrhagic soft tissue. On microscopy, microsections revealed gravid uterus with numerous intermediate trophoblasts extending into but confined to the myometrium; a diagnosis of exaggerated placental site rophoblastic reaction was made. EPS can develop anytime from early to term pregnancy. Clinical features are non-specific such as abdominal pain, high grade fever, continuous bleeding per vaginum. Only 12 cases have been reported in English literature based on PubMed from 1990 through 2020. EPS is rare and diagnosis is chiefly histopathological. It should be considered albeit rare as a differential diagnosis of heavy bleeding after a delivery or abortion. It is necessary to differentiate this entity from other neoplastic pathologies of trophoblast, since it does not require any surgical treatment or follow up.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Aug. 20, 2020
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19) Pandemic in Nigeria: A Review of the Basic Facts
Ya’aba Yakubu, Okposhi, Usman Shuaibu, Abdullahi Sani Ramalan
Page no 388-394
Coronaviruses was first discovered in the late 1960s and were responsible for most respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in the human population. The present COVID-19 outbreak has affected over 210 countries including Nigeria. It is one of the largest respiratory disease affecting several countries simultaneously; a novel strain of Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative agent. Sequel to the advice of the International Health Regulation Emergency Committee, the Director-General of WHO declared that, COVID-19 outbreak has become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30th January, 2020; and characterized it as a pandemic on 11th March, 2020. The success in curtailing the pandemic (COVID-19) depends largely on better understanding of the basic facts. The aim of this review was to examine the basic facts such as, origin, spread, morphology, symptom, diagnosis, precautionary measures with WHO/NCDC/National guidelines, management and treatment, vaccine design and development, pathogenicity and ethical implications.