Dr. Archana C. Buch, Ananya Rawal, Dr. Akshay Bondge
Page Numbers : 229-233
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i06.008
Prostatic lesions like Benign Prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, and adenocarcinoma account for significant mortality and morbidity in the geriatric male population. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) level has become the most popular screening method for the detection of different prostatic lesions. We aim to study the Histopathological spectrum of the lesions of the prostate and its correlation with PSA. A Cross-sectional study was done on 75 prostatic specimens. Relevant clinical data, PSA levels, and histopathological diagnosis were noted. The histopathological spectrum of different prostatic lesions was categorized into benign and malignant lesions. PSA correlation was done. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at PSA cut-off levels of 4ng/ml, 10ng/ml, and 20ng/ml. 85.3% (n=64) of the lesions were benign while 14.7% (n=11) of the lesions were malignant. BPH with chronic prostatitis was the most common benign lesion accounting for 45.3% cases (n=34). All the malignancies were adenocarcinoma and were mostly of Gleason’s Grade 2. PSA showed maximum sensitivity i.e. 100% at level 4ng/ml but showed minimum specificity of 43.30% and specificity was seen increasing with increasing PSA cut off and was maximum at level 30ng/ml i.e.95.08%. The most frequently encountered lesion of the prostate is BPH with chronic prostatitis. PSA is an early and sensitive marker but has a limitation at a cut-off value of 4ng/ml; but it lacks specificity.
Original Research Article
June 17, 2021
One Year Retrospective Study of Dengue Cases in Bharatpur (Rajasthan)
Dr. Avinash Pandey, Dr. Sunita Pande
Page Numbers : 226-228
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i06.007
Over 150 countries with around 500 million people suffer mosquito borne diseases every year resulting in approximately one million deaths. Around 40 million people in India contract mosquito borne diseases annually. Mosquitoes are responsible for causing illnesses such as malaria, filarial, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever etc. If not detected in time, these diseases can turn out to be deadly. Dengue virus causes dengue. Incubation of the disease is 3-14 days. The disease is characterized by headache, high fever, joint pains, and skin rashes and vomiting. Recovery period may be upto 7 days. A severe form of the disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever shows symptoms such as bleeding from capillaries under the skin and vomiting. Dengue virus is a single stranded RNA arbovirus and resembles chikungunya and zika virus. It is an arthropod borne disease caused by four serotypes of the virus. During recent years an increase in the number of cases of dengue has been noticed. The present study was carried out in the central laboratory of Govt. Medical College, Bharatpur, and Rajasthan. The purpose of the study was to determine seropositivity, seasonal variation and clinical profile of the disease during the period January to December, 2019. Serum was separated from the blood samples of 997 patients with Dengue like illness. The samples were tested for Dengue NS 1 antigen and IgM antibody ELISA. On testing by ELISA it was found that 102 out of 647 (15.7%)samples were positive for NS 1 antigen and out of 350, 78 (22.2%) were tested positive for IgM antibody (Table 1). It was found that total prevalence of dengue in Bharatpur was 18%. It was also seen that out of the total number of 997 fever cases, maximum were in the age group 1-30 years. Rainy season (August to November) showed the maximum number of cases with the peak in October.
June 11, 2021
Laboratory Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 Infection [SARS-CoV-2, (COVID-19)]
D. M. Bolarin, Kasimu Saidu
Page Numbers : 218-225
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i06.006
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third life-threatening pandemic disease. It started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be asymptomatic or have a range of symptoms with the most common being fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Correct clinical laboratory analyses which give results in a well-timed or prompt manner are critical for the clinical and public health administration of COVID-19. The clinical presentation and stage of the COVID-19 disease determine the option as to which laboratory analysis to apply for the diagnosis. The application of the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), for nucleic acid analyses, is the most correct method for diagnosing acute SARS CoV-2 infection. The ideal specimen types are combined deep nasal or nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. Application of serology can be performed for the diagnosis of a previous infection that is more than 14 days after the beginning of clinical features. Antigen analyses are also carried out in most developed countries. The analytical results interpretation must take into consideration the pre-test likelihood or possibility of the patient having COVID-19 disease.
June 8, 2021
Mixed Ovarian Tumor Associating a Carcinoid Tumor and A Borderline Mucinous Tumor with Microinvasion: About A Case
Carcinoid tumors of the ovary may be primary or metastatic. Primary carcinoid tumors are rare and the majority of tumors occur in association with a mature cystic teratoma, but a considerable number occur in a pure form. They may also arise in a solid teratoma or mucinous tumor. Histologically, according to WHO, there are four variants: insular, trabecular, strumal and mucinous. They can be mixed with a combination of pure types; most often insular and trabecular. Immunohistochemistry is necessary for confirmation of the diagnosis. Most tumors are seen in perimenopausal women. Two thirds of primary carcinoid tumors are localized and have a good prognosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice based on total hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy. The present case report describes a carcinoid tumor associated with endocervical-like mucinous borderline tumor with microinvasion of the ovary in a 49 year old woman.
June 8, 2021
Mechanism of Action and Clinical Significance of Angiogenesis: A Review
Dr. Deepa K.K, Dr. Anubhav Jannu, Dr. Mithun Kulambi
Page Numbers : 205-214
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i06.004
Angiogenesis is a complex, sophisticated process, subjected to many different conditions. A number of basic mechanisms of angiogenesis have been deciphered and several targets for therapeutic intervention have been identified. In recent decades, numerous pro and antiangiogenic molecules, as well as their ligands and intracellular signaling pathways, have been identified for treating numerous diseases. For the past decades angiogenesis has been a field under extensive investigation. Tumours depend on the growth of a vascular network, which is stimulated by a variety of angiogenic mediators, providing them with blood and oxygen. Inhibition of these factors and its pathways, there by reducing the growth of blood vessels was major breakthrough in treatment of cancer. Even though anti-angiogenic therapy has gained a lot of progression in the past decade, combination of conventional methods like chemotherapy and radiotherapy along with the antiangiogenic therapy would be more beneficial to the patient. This is a review article to understand the mechanism of action and clinical significance of angiogenesis.
Original Research Article
June 8, 2021
Clinicopathological Spectrum of Ovarian Lesions in Tertiary Care Hospital-Retrospective Study
Dr. Priya. R, Dr. Sarada. V
Page Numbers : 197-204
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i06.003
Introduction: Ovary is one of the commonest organs to be involved in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in females for all age groups. Most of the ovarian tumours have similar clinical, radiological and morphological presentation,thus making diagnostic modality challenging. The histopathological examinations play a major role in both diagnostic as well as in therapeutic interventions. Objective: In the semiurban population attending the tertiary care centre to determine the following characteristics of ovarian lesions a)The agewise distribution b) Histomorphological patterns.c) Frequency of occurence. Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective study done at Trichy SRM medical college hospital from January 2019 to January 2021 and includes 640 cases of ovarian lesions. Clinical and Histopathological details were recorded, analysed and compiled. Results: Total gynaecological specimens received in the Department of pathology, during this period of study was 1200.Out of these ovarian specimen were 640.Among 640 cases, 345 cases(54.1%) were Non-neoplastic and 295 cases(46.1) were neoplastic. The age group ranges from 10 to 70 yrs with 4th decade being the commonest age group involved.Among the Non-neoplastic lesions, follicular cysts (42.7%) were the commonest and found frequently being unilateral with left side involvement. Among the neoplastic lesions, serous cystadenoma (80 cases) is the commonest benign neoplasm and serous cystadenocarcinoma (16 cases) is the commonest malignant neoplasm. Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation is mandatry to validate the clinical and radiological diagnosis and categorization of ovarian lesions for effective treatment and patient care.
Original Research Article
June 6, 2021
Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients in Morocco
Elghouat Ghita, Oualhadj Hamza, Nakhli Raja, El Kamouni Youssef, Miloudi Mohcine, Arsalane Lamiae, Zouhair Said
Page Numbers : 192-196
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i06.002
CMV infection is endemic in most countries of the world. It is likely to take severe forms in immunocompromised individuals hemodialysis patients, given that the seroprevalence is high among the general population. Our study is a prospective description of the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among chronic hemodialysis patients in Marrakesh through a serie of 5120 patients treated in the hemodialysis centers of Marrakesh, who’s their serum is analyzed in Virology department of the Military Hospital Avicenne, over a period of 64 months, from September 2015 to January 2021. Serological test for the presence of IgG and IgM anti CMV, was performed by immunoassay technique chemiluminescent microparticle (CMIA), by ARCHITECT (ABBOTT DIAGNOSTIC). The prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-CMV was 98% and 0.6% respectively. The mean age of patients with CMV IgG positive was 53 years. The sex ratio was 1.04. Arterial hypertension was present in 52% of CMV positive patients, followed by diabetes (29%). Among our patients, 19% have been on hemodialysis for less than 2 years, while 42% have been treated for 2 to 5 years. 68% of CMV-positive patients are on hemodialysis 3 times a week versus 32% on 2 times. The prevalence of CMV is 63% in transfused patients with an average recurrence of 2 transfusions. Regarding the type of blood transfused, 99.7% of the patients were transfused with standard blood, against 16 patients transfused with leukoreduced blood. We recommend blood transfusion leukodepleted in the hemodialysis population to reduce the risk of transfusion transmission CMV.