A Review on Key Modulatory Novel Features, Viral Assembly, Biomarkers Associated with Biological Replication and Molecular Genetics in Progression of Coronaviruses
Muhammad Haseeb Anwar Tarar, Sidra Akram, Zia Ur Rehman, Sana Razzaq, Urooj Afzal Chughtai, Muhammad Faizan, Saifullah, Muhammad Afzal
Page Numbers : 311-315
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i09.007
There are many viruses that cause different infectious diseases in human as well as in vertebrate systems of different animals. Coronaviruses are the most infectious viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae. The genome of coronaviruses are made up of RNA and size about the ~30 kb that contain the 5′ cap structure along with a 3′ poly (A) tail. These are helpful for translating the different proteins causing infections such as replicase proteins. Different types of immune based responses evoked once the viral attack on the immune cells of the body. Accessory proteins also playing important role as inflammatory responses once viral attack on immune cells and release of different inflammatory genes that are involved in progression of COVID-19. One of such kind of response from interferon’s I and III are cytokines that playing important role against the viral infections. Lopinavir and Ritonavir both inhibiting the viral replication and translation by targeting the viral relapse and other necessary genes involved in viral genome. Dexamethasone, may help manage symptoms in people with COVID-19 by reducing inflammation. Vaccines and different therapeutics medicines are employed to damage the structure of virion and nucleocapsid by underlying the cellular mechanism of COVID-19.
Original Research Article
Sept. 21, 2021
Study of HER2/neu over Expression and Androgen Receptor Status in Prostate Neoplasm - Correlating with Histological Grading
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide, with an estimated recorded number of 1.1 million cases and 307,000 deaths which allocates 15% of all new cases of cancer in men. Androgen receptor (AR) expression is maintained throughout prostate cancer progression, and the majority of androgen –independent or hormone refractory prostate cancers express Androgen receptor. HER2/neu, a biological marker named human epidermal growth factor receptor -2[EGFR-2] is also known as c-erb-2 plays a major role in understanding the oncogenesis of prostate adenocarcinoma and has a significant prognosis in the disease. Aim of The Study: To study the histomorphological features and grading of prostatic neoplasms with Gleason’s scoring. To study over the expression of HER2/neu & androgen receptor status in prostate neoplasm. To study the correlation of Gleason’s scoring with AR & HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer. All patients who were diagnosed to have prostatic cancer and PIN and were diagnosed by prostatic biopsy either by prostatectomy, TURP or Trucut procedure were included in the study and were examined for analyzing various histomorphological features and grading of various neoplasms of prostate with correlation to overexpression of immmunohistochemical markers Her2/neu and AR. Conclusion: This study may help the clinician in finding out her2/neu over expressed cases and implementing anti her2/neu therapy along with androgen deprived therapy for longer survival of prostate cancer patients although further studies on larger series of prostate carcinoma is required for new generation of more efficient anti her2 drugs.
Original Research Article
Sept. 20, 2021
Co- infection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Malaria in Children Attending Cottage Hospital Ogidi Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria
Muritala Issa Bale, Shola Kola Babatunde, Sunday Awe
Page Numbers : 306-310
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i09.006
Staphylococus aureus is a major agent of bacteremia in children in African where malaria is endemic and always presented with the same symptoms. The main objective of this study is to determine the co-infection of malaria and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children less than 5 years using standard procedures from a major secondary health center in Ilorin, Kwara State and determine antibiotics susceptibility of S. aureus. A total number of 235samples blood from febrile children suspected of having bacteremia were screened, 138 of the children were females and 97 were males. A total of 39 (16.6%) with positive blood culture was recorded in this study and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) detected is 20.5%. Age distribution of bacteremia were 14.3, 17.4, 27.3, 13.5 and 14.3 % for children in the age group ≤1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 years respectively while SAB distribution were 24.4, 12.5, 22.2, and 66.6 for children in the age group 1 month-1, 1-2, and 4-5 years above respectively. Also, a total number of 148 (63%) have a positive malaria parasite test, co-infection of malaria and bacteremia detected in 18 children with 6 (33.3%) having SAB and malaria co-infection. Age distribution of co-infection of malaria and SAB were 33.3, 50, and 25% with no co-infection recorded in age group 3-5years. A total of 2 (25%) methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity profile shows that 62.5% of S. aureus were resistance to cefuroxime, 80% to cefepime and 100% sensitivity to augmentin, linezolid, teicoplanin, ofloxacin, gentamicin and vancomycin. Age is an important risk for development of SAB and prompt treatment with a suitable antibiotics is required to reduce mortality associated with bacteremia.
Original Research Article
Sept. 9, 2021
Prevalence of Reactive Hyperplastic Gingival Lesions (RHLs) in a Nigerian Pediatric Population
Modupeore E. Sorunke, Adeola M. Ladeji, Oluwafemi O. Olagundoye, Mofoluwaso A. Olajide, Solomon O. Adeoye, Adewale O Aderemi, Rasheedat O. Ojikutu
Page Numbers : 299-305
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i09.005
Introduction: Reactive hyperplastic lesions which occur as a result of chronic irritation of the mucosa of the oral cavity are common lesions faced by dentists during routine examinations. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of reactive hyperplastic gingival lesions (RHLs) among the paediatric age group (0-18 years) over a period of 10 years (2010 to 2020). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, records procured from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Nigeria over a period of 10 years (2010 to 2020) were reviewed. Information relating to the type of reactive lesion, age, gender and specific gingival location was extracted and recorded on data forms. Data was analysed using SPSS (version 21). Results: Paediatric RHLs constituted 13.5% of all lesions seen in childhood within the study period. They accounted for 14.4% of all RHLs in all ages. Pyogenic granuloma was the commonest RHL accounting for 57.9%, followed by peripheral ossifying fibroma (21.1%), least seen was peripheral giant cell granuloma. RHLs were most prevalent in the permanent dentition stage (73.7%). Female predominance was observed, with the upper and lower buccal gingiva presenting as the sites of predilection. 52.6% of lesions were sessile. Most RHLs were associated with non-mobile teeth and non-recurrence. Conclusion: The prevalence of RHLs in childhood was 13.5% with pyogenic granuloma being the most prevalent type. There was a predilection for permanent dentition age (13-18years) and female gender though not significantly associated. RHLs occurred more frequently in the upper and lower buccal gingivae.
Sept. 6, 2021
Incidentally Detected Ectopic Adrenal Cortical Rest in Ovarian Hilum, a Case Report
Roshani Gala, Vikas Kavishwar
Page Numbers : 297-298
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i09.004
It has been proposed by various authors that ectopic adrenal tissue can be identified in approximately 50% of newborns. However, most ectopic adrenal tissues become atrophic with age. These are usually asymptomatic. However in some cases endocrine symptoms and neoplastic transformations have also been reported. As a consequence, it has been suggested that ectopic adrenal tissues should be excised if incidentally encountered during surgery. We here report a case of incidentally detected ectopic adrenal rest located in ovarian hilum in a 44 years old female.
Sept. 6, 2021
Recent Advances and Potential Effects of Coronaviruses Family Groups on Different Body Organs and Modulatory Efficacy of Different Vaccines
Muqaddas Amin, Faheem Munawar, Dr. Asim Munir, Muhammad Luqman Zafar, Shazia Tahreem, Sahar Saleem Lahori, Tayyeba Naseem, Muhammad Azam
Page Numbers : 291-296
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i09.003
Coronaviruses as the most infectious group of viruses and their mode on action on respiratory tract and borne on other diseases are major risks for new disorders associated with the respiratory system. One of the biomarker in progression of pathogenesis of COVID-19 is the Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulatin (GM-CSF). This makers appears to more in high concentrations as compared to those normal cell. The major feature about the cellular mechanism of the COVID-19 is the changing shape of the strain that becomes difficult to control easily. Different symptoms and preventive measures are needed to exploit them. COVID-19 has influenced on the mental health by suppressing the different functions of neurons thus increasing the chances of brain disorders. Other neurological disorders symptoms are loss of smell in the form of anosmia, weakness, fatigue and a change in taste dyspepsia. ACE2 receptors are mainly involved in responses in case of entry of coronaviruses in the host cell. Airways have more ACE2 receptors than the rest of the respiratory tract. Nucleic acids vaccines are designed to target the spike proteins of the coronaviruses by inactivating of the antigen that can be injected into the cells of the human body. . There are many vaccines available for targeting the antigen behind the cellular responses to the nucleic acids. It implicate the immune responses once the vaccine injected into the body by producing the antibodies.
Sept. 2, 2021
Review on Zoonotic and Coinfected Diseases, Different Routes of Transmission, Zoological Factors for Transferring the Infections from Animal to Other Species
Ahmad Hamad Sheir, Muhammad Asif, Rashid Ali, Muhammad Faizan, Syed Muhammad Faraz Shah, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Arshad, Syed Adnan Haider
Page Numbers : 286-290
DOI : 10.36348/sjpm.2021.v06i09.002
Zoonotic diseases are group of those diseases that transmitted from animals to the human in the form of germs categorized from microbial sources. Rabies is characterized by biting the dogs, cats and transmitted by infections from animal’s surfaces to the human body. Psittacosis is the zoonotic disease that is transmitted by bird’s infections that leads to abnormalities in liver functions. Brucellosis also the zoonotic disease characterized by infections particles in the form of food products. Polluted foods lead to food borne disease. Vaccines are used for the treatment of rabies in order to control the rate of transmission of rabies. The main purpose of vaccines is to develop the immunity against virus and provides long life protection against the microbial environments. Different antibiotics such as doxycycline and rifampin are used for Brucella but increasing the resistance against that drugs leads to challenge the mechanisms of resistance of antimicrobial drugs. There is need to synthesize the genome based drugs that can make certain alterations in genomics of the animals.