REVIEW ARTICLE | Nov. 9, 2021
Methods and Biological Factors Affecting For Plant Microbes and Stomal Interaction, Seed Hybrid Technology through Genetic Engineering
Altaf Hussain, Muhammad Ahmad, Zakia Zia, Muhammad Kashif, Maria Choudhary, Hassan Mehmood, Muhammad Adil, Asma Atta
Page no 406-410
Stomata are made up of pairs of special epidermis cells called guard-cells. Stomata control the loss of water and monitor the gas exchange between the environment and plant by adjusting stomatal pores size. Stomata closure is a common response of plants when they are attacked by herbivores. Long-term or extreme water-stress in the orange trees can result in leaf drop, continuous branch tips drying, and a substantial decrease in the yield of fruit owing to fruit and also flowers abscission. The tissues of leaf can become susceptible to a bacterial incursion during the period of strong photosynthetic-activity and the transpiration, as that physiological process depends on the extensively opened stomata. Genomic editing is a revolutionary technique that allows the scientists to produce new crop types with the greater precision and focus. Modifications that were made previously by the traditional breeding can now be made more easily and quickly using genomic editing tools. Viral infections are hard to control, and the chemical treatment does not eliminate them. Many of the deadly and commercially significant viral infections in the crops can benefit from the use of GE technology to develop viral intervention tactics.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 9, 2021
Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer by Analysis of Haematological Parameters in Association with Histopathological Grading - In a Tertiary Care Centre
Dr. Vanishree M, Dr. Sonti Sulochana, Dr. Mathesh
Page no 411-416
Introduction: Colorectal cancers are a major cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. The most common malignancy of the stomach, comprising more than 90% of all gastric cancers. Usually for staging colon cancers preoperatively, radiological images and multiple blood tests are used. Radiological tests, on the other hand, are both difficult and costly to use. Efficient markers are needed for early diagnostic staging in colon cancers. In our study we aim at predicting the grade of colon cancer and prognosis preoperatively by analysing the hematological parameters, which are simple, cost effective and easy to apply. Materials and method: A retrospective study was carried out in line with research regulations, including the approval of the Ethical committee. This study included 61 patients operated in tertiary care hospital during the period of January 2018 and January 2021.For the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, the clinical data was obtained from histopathology request forms, department of radiology and histopathological examination. The hematological parameters were generated from Sysmex XN 1000 autoanalyser. These hematological parameters (hemoglobin, RBC count, MPV, PLR, NLR, PCV, MCV, MCHC, RDW, Platelets, TLC, Absolute neutrophil count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils ) were standardized by routine external and internal quality control checks. Results: In this study, gender and age distribution, female patients were predominant and age group between 51 to 60 was commonly affected. Colorectal cancer was graded based on histopathological differentiation, 19 were found to be of grade1, 27 patients of grade 2 and 15 patients of grade 3. Majority of colorectal cancer were histological grade 2. On correlation, there was significant increase in total leucocyte count, platelet count, MPV, PLR, NLR in higher grades of colorectal cancer. Moreover, there was decrease in haemoglobin, PCV, RDW in higher grades of colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Since hematological parameters are easily accessible inflammatory markers, they may be used to determine the prognosis of the colorectal cancer in association with histopathological grading of cancer.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 18, 2021
Correlation of Eosinophilia with WHO Grading of Anaemia among Patients with Parasitic Infections
Dr. Sunderesh Kamal Chander U, Dr. Samhita Dinesh Shivara, Dr. Yogalakshmi E, Dr. Preethy R
Page no 417-421
Introduction: Eosinophilia is often identified as part of a complete blood count (CBC) done either routinely or as part of an evaluation for a particular symptom complex. Association of eosinophilia with anaemia most commonly denotes the presence of parasites infection. Parasites relationship with anemia and eosinophilia has been rarely reported due to limited health care access, especially in adult age group. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was started after obtaining the approval from the ethics committee. Patients with parasitic Infections associated with eosinophilia were correlated with their hemoglobin concentration. This study was conducted during the period of January 2020 and March 2021 in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Tamil Nadu. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin, eosinophil count and Absolute eosinophil count were obtained using Sysmex -XN 1000 automated analyser. Results: Out off 83 patients with parasitic Infections associated with eosinophilia, on gender distribution we found 49 were male and 34 were female. 25 patients were anemic and 58 patients were non anemic. On grading of anaemia, according to WHO classification 58 cases were grade 0 (not anaemic), 18 cases were grade l, 6 cases were grade ll and only one case was grade lll. Conclusion: Our study concludes, eosinophilia act as marker for parasitic infections. Degree of anaemia and increased eosinophil count in peripheral blood smear denotes severity of parasitic Infections especially in helminths infection.
CASE REPORT | Nov. 25, 2021
Synchronous Malignant Phyllodes Tumour and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma in Contralateral Breasts - “A Rare Co-Existence”
Dr. Ambili R. Nath, Dr. Meeta Thomas, Dr. Rebecca Mathews, Dr. Jessy M. M
Page no 422-426
Bilateral breast tumors can be either synchronous or metachronous. Synchronous breast tumors account for 0.2-2% of all breast cancers and have a poorer prognosis when compared to metachronous and unilateral tumors. Phyllodes tumor, benign or malignant, may be rarely associated with ductal/lobular carcinoma in-situ and less often with invasive lesions. Here we report a rare case of synchronous malignant phyllodes tumor in left breast and invasive ductal carcinoma in right breast, which were diagnosed on routine mammogram and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. Extensive literature search showed two case reports of co-existence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma as synchronous tumors in contralateral breasts. No case reports of malignant phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma as synchronous tumors in distinct breasts was found and our case is the first one to be reported. Such synchronous co-existence warrants a strict follow up of the patient with further investigations to rule out another primary cancer and also screening of other family members.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 27, 2021
Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Activity of Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC
Amany S. Youssef, Salama M. El-Darier, Fayza M. Almabrok
Page no 427-433
Ethnomedicine is currently practiced in Egypt, where has been documented by ethnobotanical surveys. The main objective of the current study is to evaluate phytochemistry and antibacterial potential of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of P. juliflora cultivated in Matruh region with a view to considering their contribution to human health. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals screening of pods and leaves was carried out. Five pathogenic bacteria were selected as recipients including four Gram-negative and one Gram-positive bacteria. Chocolate and blood agar solid media were applied for agar diffusion method. Extracellular proteins before and after treatment were measured and total protein assay was performed. Cytological effect of the ethanolic extracts was investigated via TEM. Phytochemical screening provides the occurrence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, tannins and terpenes in pods and leaves ethanolic and aqueous extract. In agar diffusion experiment, data showed that pod ethanolic extract (5%) was more active than the other three types of extracts. The extract elicited a decrease in the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in culture medium in comparison to the control. Both pods and leaves ethanolic extracts showed a decrease in the extracellular protein content of the tested S. aureus compared with control. TEM showed that pod ethanolic extract affected the growth of S. aureus cells. It caused severe damage in the cytoplasmic membrane and also the cell wall. The present study concluded that the pods and leaves extracts of P. juliflora possesses antibacterial potential against target bacterial type cultures.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 30, 2021
Study of Profile & Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates from Broncho Alveolar Lavage Specimens at A Tertiary Care Centre, Sir T Hospital, Bhavnagar
Dr. Aditi Gaur, Dr. Saklainhaider Malek, Dr. Kairavi Desai, Dr. Pooja Dholakia, Dr. Ravindra Jadeja
Page no 434-438
Background: BAL specimens are widely used for diagnosing respiratory pathologies like chronic diseases, lung carcinomas, pneumonias, etc. Infections cause exacerbations. Study of bacterial profile, antibacterial sensitivity patterns of samples guides in timely & appropriate use of antibiotics, preventing emergence of antibiotic resistance. Aim: This study was done to isolate causative bacteria from BAL specimens to know their antibacterial sensitivity pattern. Settings and Design: A hospital-based prospective study was done on 118 BAL samples received in Microbiology laboratory from May 2019-July 2021 from wards for patients with respiratory pathologies. Material and Methods: Samples collected using proper aseptic precautions & sent, within 2 hours of collection were processed using standard procedures for bacterial isolation and species identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing done & reports made as per latest CLSI guidelines. Result: 15.25% samples showed growth. Klebsiella (65.21%), Pseudomonas (30.43%) and Acinetobacter (4.34%) were isolated. Klebsiella species isolated showed 95%, 97% and 98% sensitivity respectively to Cephalosporins, quinolones, aminoglycosides & 100% sensitivity towards higher antibiotics like Carbapenems, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Tetracycline. An Extended spectrum ß lactamase producing Klebsiella species was isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 80%, 85%, 90% and 95% respectively sensitivity to Ceftazidime; Gentamicin, Tobramycin; Amikacin, & 100% to Polymyxins. An isolate of Acinetobacter lwoffii was obtained. It was resistant to Ceftazidime. Conclusion: Knowledge of bacteriological and antibacterial profile of BAL samples helps in judicious use of antibiotics, preventing resistance & also in making local antibiogram to guide empirical therapy.