CASE REPORT | May 7, 2021
Primary Hyperparathyroidism Revealed by a Giant Cell Granuloma of the Maxilla About 1 Case
Najoua Belhaj, Razika Bencheikh, Hanaa Rahim, Wah Sidelmoctar Abdellahi, Mohammed Anass Benbouzid, Nadia Cherradi, Leila Essakalli
Page no 70-74
Giant Cell Granuloma is a rare bony lesion in the Head and Neck region. It mainly affects young adults between the age of 20 and 40. Occasionally, soft parts may be invaded, resulting from the direct effects of the parathyroid hormone. We report in this work the observation of a 36-year-old patient who presented for a maxillary tumor that revealed a parathyroid adenoma with associated hyperparathyroidism. The histopathological study of maxillary tumor’s material confirms the diagnostic of a giant cell granuloma.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 8, 2021
Prevalence of Hypertension in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Study
Dr. S. M. Ruhul Amin, Dr. Abdur Razzaque, Dr. Md. Moniruzzaman Asraf, Dr. Md. Rashadul Kabir
Page no 75-78
Background: Now a day, type-2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are considered to be the first and second leading causes of all deaths and morbidities respectively. Increasing age, trend of obesity and worsening renal function increasing the prevalence of hypertension in people with type-2 diabetes mellitus. We have very few research-based information regarding these issues. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Shaheed Ziaur Rahman Medical College, Bogura, Bangladesh during the period from January 202018 to December 2019. In total 142 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus attended to the mentioned hospital with proper documents were finalized as the study people. Besides data regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus, data of blood pressure and macro-vascular as well as micro-vascular complications were collected. A predesigned questioner was applied to collect patient data. All data were processed, analyzed and disseminated by MS Office and SPSS version 20. Result: In this study, among total participants in analyzing the prevalence of hypertension we observed out of 142 patients with T2DM only 45 were with hypertension which was 32%. In analyzing the stages of hypertension among total participants we found, 23.39% were with normal and 35.92% pre-hypertension (In total 68.31%). On the other hand, among 32% hypertensive participants, 19.72% (n=28) were with stage I HTN whereas 11.97% (n=17) were with stage II HTN. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients was found some higher than that in normal. But if we consider the number of pre-hypertensive patients as a potential concern, then it is alarming. The findings of this study may be helpful in the treatment arena of diabetes and in similar further studies.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 18, 2021
A Clinical Appraisal of Post-operative Bleeding in Routine Extractions in Patients on Uninterrupted Low-dose Aspirin Therapy- An in Vivo Study
Shruti Chhadva, Shreyas Gupte, Yash Raj, Karishma Motwani, Aditi Mohandas
Page no 79-84
Antiplatelet drugs are recommended globally for long term prevention of serious vascular events in high risk patients. Temporary withdrawal of these drugs seems to be an attractive option in dental office prior to minor surgical procedures to prevent a bleeding hazard. The benefit of averting anti-platelet drug induced hemorrhage needs to be balanced against the risk of potentially fatal thrombosis that may occur due to rebound phenomenon after withdrawal of the anti-platelet drug. This in-vivo prospective study was thus designed to assess post-operative bleeding in patients on aspirin therapy after extractions. The study sample comprised of 50 patients between 50 to 75 years of age on long term aspirin therapy requiring extractions were assessed for bleeding at 30 mins, 1, 2, 3, 24 and 48 hours post operatively. Results showed 4 patients had mild bleeding at 30 mins, 2 patients at 1hour, 1 patient at 2 hours and no patients with bleeding at 3 hours. In our study we had an 8% risk of bleeding after extractions in patients on long term low dose aspirin therapy. Given the low incidence and severity of bleeding which can be easily managed by local measures only, we conclude that patients need not discontinue taking aspirin prior to dental extractions.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 24, 2021
Effectiveness of Self Mouth Examination Method in Case Finding of Oral Cancers and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders among High Risk Rural Population in India
BC Manjunath, Br Chandra Shekhar, Vatchala Rani, Manas Bajpai, Radhey Shyam, Mansi Mendiratta, Madhavi Wig
Page no 85-92
Objectives: To assess the feasibility of self mouth examination (SME) in case finding of oral cancers and potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) among high risk rural population in India. Materials and methods: 15,000 pretested pictorial handout (brochure) with instructions (local language) depicting the signs of oral cancer and self mouth examination procedures were distributed among every households (n= 3500), People were also demonstrated self mouth examination (SME) technique. One week later a three day cancer detection camp was carried out. Individuals were instructed to conduct self mouth examination (SME) and report the cancer detection camp if any questionable lesions were noticed. Individuals who reported were screened for oral cancer with the use of toluidine blue vital staining, oral exfoliative cytology and final diagnosis through biopsy. Results: The total population consisted on 579 individuals out of which 372 (64.25%) were males and 207 (35.75) were females. The total percentage of self mouth examination (SME) performance was 95.34%. 53.20% of the study population identified suspicious lesions in the oral cavity. After thorough oral examination, malignant lesions like oral cancer (2 cases) and many cases of oral potentially malignant disorders were found. The sensitivity of mouth self examination was 48.66% where as the specificity was 44.75%. The positive predictive value was 23.54% where as the negative predictive value was 71.37%. Conclusions: Self mouth examination is an effective tool which can be used in the case finding of oral cancers and oral potentially malignant disorders.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 24, 2021
A Three Year (2017–2019) Review of Hypertension in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH)
Godswill Melford Arugu, Charles Tobin-West, John Nwolim Paul
Page no 93-98
Aims: Include determining the prevalence of hypertension in UPTH from January 2017 to December 2019, to describe the risk factors associated with hypertension, to describe the demographic distribution of patients with hypertension and to determine the outcome of hypertension in UPTH. Study design: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January and June, 2020. Methodology: A multi-stage random sampling method was used in selecting the records of all patients admitted to the medical wards of the UPTH (between January 2017 – December 2019), with essential hypertension. The first stage involved the use of disproportionate sampling method (where each of the years, 2017-2019 constituted a stratum) to select all the hypertensive cases admitted in each of the years. Simple random sampling was then used in the second stage to select 70 samples from each year, to make up the 210 sample size. This was generated through the use of random numbers. The data were analyzed manually by sorting, tallying and collated into data sheet. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: There were a total of 3,200 medical admissions during the period under review (2017-2019), and the prevalence of hypertension was 16.8% (537).The records of 210 (6.6%) hypertensive patients were reviewed and analyzed. There were 109 (51.9%) males and 101 (48.1%) females with a male: female predilection of 1.1:1. The mean age was 55.7 ± 4.5 years with a mode of 62 years. Urban dwellers were 63.3% while 36.7% were rural dwellers. Also, 57.1% of these patients were in social class V (unskilled workers, farmers, traders and housewives); and only 2.9% in social class I (professionals). More so, chronic alcohol intake accounted for 16.7% of the admitted cases, followed by diabetes mellitus with 12.4%.Smoking and obesity were 1.9% each. Heart failure was the commonest complication of hypertension (39.5%), while stroke was the commonest cause of fatality (25.0%). Conclusion: Hypertension is an important health problem in the world over. Hence emphasis should be placed on the primary prevention of hypertension through intensive campaigns on lifestyle modifications and regular blood pressure checks. In addition, efficient record keeping and the establishment of a stroke registry would help in the management of hypertension.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 26, 2021
Psychological and Socio-Economic Impact of COVID 19 among the OPD Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bangladesh
Dr. Md. Ferdous Khan, Dr. Mohammad Abdur Rahman, Dr. Daharul Islam, Dr. Somnath, Dr. Sanjida Rahman
Page no 99-103
Background: The outbreak of Covid-19 is a new but one of the most intense pandemics in the world now. Although this disease is accountable for limited symptoms and complications like severe acute respiratory syndrome, fever, headache, diarrhea, malaise, and weakness, its probability of affecting people is very high. For this reason, its psychological and socio-economic impact demanded more attention from the world community. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological and socio-economic impact of Covid 19 among the OPD patients in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This was a prospective interview-based study conducted in the Department of Medicine, Ibn Sina Specialized Hospital, and Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from July 2020 to December 2020. In total 120 patients with several health problems, physically or virtually attended the OPD of the mentioned hospital were enrolled as the study population. The ethical committee of the mentioned hospital had been approved the studyl. All data were processed, analyzed, and disseminated by MS Office and SPSS version as needed. Result: In this study analyzing the negative impact of Covid 19 on the mental health of participants, we found feeling of suffocation, exhaustion, fear of falling ill, anxiety about the future, and feeling of loneliness were found as some major negative mental impacts on the respondents which were 11.67%, 10.83%, 8.33%, 7.5%, and 6.67%. Besides these, due to Covid 19 continuing, remote socialization, intolerance to others, random commitment violation, and ended social life were found 10%, 5.83%, 4.17%, and 1.67% participants respectively. In analyzing the negative impact on the economy of participants, we observed, the monthly family income was decreased up to 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of 21.67%, 12.50%, 5%, and 1.67% participants respectively. That means negative impact like decreasing monthly family income was found around 49%. Conclusion: Pandemic of Covid 19 is a new experience for the world community. The psychological and socio-economic impact of Covid 19 among patients as well as general people demanded more concentration now. Besides general people and patients, the whole economy and social structure of Bangladesh have already been affected by COVID-19. Unemployment and uncertainty of family income are responsible for secondary negative impact on the mental, physical health of general people as well as patients here. So, government policymakers, as well as world leaders, should be more conscious about these impacts and find out the proper way to resolve such pandemic.
REVIEW ARTICLE | May 27, 2021
Approaches to Immunotherapy, Drugs for Treatment of COVID-19, Mechanism of Action and Challenges
Sabahat Irfan, Sanaullah Khan, Muqaddas Amin, Arif Hassan, Rizwan Amanat, Saba Nasir, Taiyyibah Basharat
Page no 104-108
Coronavirus has taken it serious form and also causes the death once damage the air passage ways into particular host. This virus is transmitted from the air droplets of the infected person. There are variety of responses agonist the Covid-19 by innate immunity that particularly recognized the cells of this virus as a pathogenic form and fights against them. It can be recognized through the pathogen associated molecular patterns. Type I IFNs are mainly involved in activation of other cells of immune system that contribute to immunity. Helper T cells are the main cells for defense against the viral cells. Helper T cells are the directors of the cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2. There are different parts of the adaptive immune system work together, so seeing Covid-fighting antibodies, memory B cells, memory CD4+ T cells and memory CD8+ T cells in the blood more than eight months following infection is a good sign. Remdesivir as one of the antiviral drug binds to the particular cells of virus at cellular level by binding to the viral RNA. Tocilizumab as one of the approved drug by FDA for treating the Covid-19. Dexamethasone is used as potential drug to reduce the severe inflammation against the caused by corona virus. This drug has shown positive effects against the Covid-19.
CASE REPORT | May 27, 2021
Case Report: Two Cases of B Lymphoma Indicative of Celiac Disease
Hammoumi W, Abid H, Hamdaoui A, Lahmidani N, Lahlali M, Lamine A, Benajah D, El abkari M, Ibrahimi A, El yousfi M
Page no 109-111
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune mediated enteropathy induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. In cases of long term evolution and poor adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD), the outcome of CD may be the development of malignant diseases mainly lymphomas that can be responsible of a higher mortality rate. In some rare cases, the diagnosis of CD is made upon the discovery of the lymphoma. The main histological type is the enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma but can also be a B-cell kind. We report here the case of 02 patients with lymphomas revealing a CD.
CASE REPORT | May 27, 2021
Endoscopic Extraction of “Body Packing” About A Case
H. Abid, W. Hammoumi, R. Benjira, N. Lahmidani, M. Lahlali, A. Lamine, M. El yousfi, D. Benajah, A. Ibrahimi, M. El abkari
Page no 112-114
Background: Under the term "foreign bodies" of the upper digestive tract, it is conventional to consider food impactions and foreign bodies ingested accidentally or intentionally . Intentional ingestions are most often sharp or stinging foreign bodies, or even “body packing” (plastic bags, most often condoms, filled with narcotics) . We’re reporting our successful experience about endoscopic extraction of a "body packing” in a young patient of 27 years old.
Keywords: Endoscopic Extraction Body Packing.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 27, 2021
Detection of Sodium Channel SCN1A Gene Mutations among Patients with Epilepsy
Sanaa Abdalaziz Mohamed, Sawsan A.H. Aldeaf, Rasha Elhassan, Abasshar Hussein, Alsadig Gassoum, AbdElkarim A. Abdrabo
Page no 115-118
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, nearly 70% of patients with epilepsy lack an obvious pathogenetic cause, genetic is believed to play an important role in its causation. Objectives: to determine the association of sodium channel SCN1A gene mutation with epilepsy. Methods: The current study is a cross-sectional study that had been performed at Sheikh Mohamed Khair centre, Banat, Omdurman, and National Centre for Neurological Sciences (NCNS) Khartoum state, during the period November 2016 to February 2019. Ninety-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Demographic data were collected in a predesigned questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for biochemical and molecular tests. Results: sequencing analysis detected AT deletion in 71% of the samples. Conclusion: Genetic mutations have an effective role in developing epilepsy, AT deletion in SCN1A gene, indirectly, affects Gamma aminobutyric acid function which is inhibition of neuronal activity.