Model of Konzo Disease: Reviewing the Effect of Bitter Cassava Neurotoxicity on the Motor Neurons of Cassava-Induced Konzo Disease on Wistar Rats
Stella Enefa, Chikwuogwo W. Paul, Lekpa K. David
Page Numbers : 336-348
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i11.005
Introduction: Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) is a staple food in tropical and subtropical regions in Africa, and is the main source of carbohydrate in these regions. Nevertheless, it contains cyanogenic glycosides metabolised to hydrogen cyanide, which has been shown by studies to affect the motor neurons of the central nervous system and causes neurodegenerative disease as konzo. However, the cassava-induced konzo disease and its neurotoxicity in rat model is yet to be explored. Method: 30 Adult female Wistar rats were assigned to 4 experimental groups (i) negative control n=5 (ii) positive control n=5, (iii) konzo-induced group n=15, (iv) protein-treated group n=5. The bitter cassava foods were taken by oral ingestion for a period of 5 weeks. Motor activity was evaluated using forelimb grip strength testing done weekly. RESULTS: There was significant difference in weight and forelimb grip strength between the negative control group and the konzo-induced group p˂0.05. Also, there was distortion of the pyramidal cells in the motor cortex and reduction of alpha cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord which was not present in the protein treated group. CONCLUSION: Prolonged intake of insufficiently processed bitter cassava roots is associated with impaired motor coordination. Motor neurons are affected by neurological changes and distortion. These neurotoxicity effects of cassava can be ameliorated with consumption of cassava along with sulphur amino acid proteins and vitamins.
Nov. 25, 2020
Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report
Maha N.M. Aljundi
Page Numbers : 332-335
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i11.004
Background: We report a rare case in which metastatic choroidal tumor (presented as a total retinal detachment) in one eye and asymptomatic choroidal tumors of the other eye were found to be the initial clinical presentation of breast cancer. Clinical Presentation: We report a case in which a choroidal tumor presented as a total retinal detachment was found to be the initial clinical presentation of breast cancer. Conclusions: The importance of detailed history taking and careful assessment of patients presenting with ocular tumors, in order to accurately detect the primary tumor and decide on the proper treatment is highlighted in this case report.
Nov. 19, 2020
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Tetralogy of Fallot: Two Demons Together
Deepak Rosha, Trilok Chand
Page Numbers : 328-331
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i11.003
The pulmonary tuberculosis is endemic in India, and the incidence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is also rising. Though the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is high in acyanotic congenital heart disease, in Tetralogy of Fallot, which is a low flow condition, this association is infrequent. We report a rare association of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and Tetralogy of Fallot in a young adult patient who presented with breathlessness on exertion, hemoptysis and frequent respiratory infections. The patient was successfully managed by bronchial artery embolization, venesections, pulmonary outflow valvuloplasty and regime for Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Nov. 13, 2020
Familial Multiple Lipomatosis: Case Report and Review of Literature
Mohammed Elakhiri, Mohamed Amine HANINE, Abdelfattah Aljalil, Youssef Darouassi
Page Numbers : 325-327
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i11.002
Familial multiple lipomatosis is a rare benign fatty tissue disease characterized by the presence of multiple lipomas. The diagnosis is clinically confirmed by ultrasound and computed tomography. The management is surgical. Some locations have aesthetic and psychological repercussions.
Original Research Article
Nov. 11, 2020
Particulate Matters, (PM) 2.5, 1, and 10 Measurements in Lahore and Indication of Their Harmful Effects on the Ocular Epithelium
Shiraz Aslam, Lamia Yusuf, Zobiah Hafeez, Muhammad Akhlaq, Hina Sadaf, Saba Iqbal
Page Numbers : 319-324
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i11.001
Introduction: This study stresses upon the importance of protecting the eyes from chemicals and particulate matter in the atmosphere of our cities and the possible harmful effects this can have on adults and the future generations. Objective: This study endeavors to point out the harmful chemicals and the presence of dangerous particulate matters in the air and the possibility of its effects on the ocular functioning. Study Design: This was a cross sectional study. Setting: This study was carried out in specific areas in Lahore, Pakistan. Time Duration: As it was a cross sectional study so the data was collected in a 12 hour period in various specific areas of Lahore. Method: A purpose built monitoring device was used to take pollutant readings at various sites in Lahore. Result: The levels of PM2.5, PM1 and PM10 were all above the WHO recommended standards in all areas in Lahore. The heaviest concentration was at Data Darbar which is incidentally most crowded area as well. Conclusion: There is heavy and constant exposure to the eyes of these particulate matters especially the fine, PM2.5 chemicals which are highly injurious to the eyes in addition to the lungs, heart and the central nervous system.
Original Research Article
Oct. 21, 2020
Effects of Different Ligation Systems on Arch Expansion, Incisor Inclination and Treatement Duration in Patients with Mild to Moderate Crowding Patients- A Prospective Study
Dr. Anshu Singh, Dr. Hitesh Ramdas Sawant, Dr. Ravi Jhamb, Dr. Kritika Sehrawat, Dr. Vikranth Shetty, Dr. Dhananjay Rathod
Page Numbers : 316-318
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i10.004
Background and objective: One of the greatest challenges for the orthodontist is to select the correct ligation system to get optimum results. Ligation method refers to the means by which an arch wire is held inside the bracket. Recently developed ligation methods have been designed and built directly to brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different ligation systems on arch expansion, incisor inclination and with regard to treatement duration in patients with mild to moderate crowding in maxillary arch. Materials and methods: Sixty patients were selected from a pool of patients amenable to non-extraction treatment in maxillary arch and those who satisfied other inclusion criteria. Patients were randomly allocated to three different ligation systems with equal sample size of 20 each. The model cast were evaluated for assessing maxillary arch changes, incisor inclination, and arch expansion. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the influence of the 3 bracket systems. Results: We found that the type of bracket had sgnificant effect on many of the transverse dimensional changes in maxillary arch No statistical significant difference in incisor inclination changes. The use of passive or active self-ligating bracket reduces the treatment duration. Conclusion: Non extraction treatment of crowding in maxillary arch with different ligation methods showed that compared to conventional system use of self-ligation bracket might be mechanically more efficient and had greater magnitude of expansion.
Oct. 11, 2020
Management of Emphysematous Pyelonephritis: About 8 Cases and Literature Review
EL Boukili El Makhoukhi Zayd, ABDALLAH Hussein, Dergamoun Hamza, Hachem Al Sayegh, Benslimane Lounis, Nouini Yassine
Page Numbers : 312-315
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2020.v05i10.003
Acute emphysematous pyelonephritis is a necrotizing and suppurative infection of the renal parenchyma and perirenal tissue with in situ production of gas of bacterial origin. This is a rare disease, occurring preferentially in diabetics and its mortality is hight. Our study aims to highlight the clinical and paraclinical characteristics as well as the particularity of therapeutic management of this pathology. We analyzed the medical files of patients treated for treated in the Department of Urology A; of the CHU IBN SINA Rabat between 2005 and 2020. For each medical file we specified clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic characteristics as well as the evolution after treatment. The treatment of those patients can typically be divided into medical management, medical management plus endoscopic or percutaneous drainage, and emergency nephrectomy. Nevertheless, given that there are very few guidelines or treatment algorithms, there is no consensus on the mana- gement of patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis.