REVIEW ARTICLE | April 6, 2021
Solar Energy Initiatives and its Positive Impacts on African Nations (SADC and Nigeria): A News Review
Chima Ichendu, Dennis Ejike Amadi
Page no 53-56
This paper provides a summary overview of the benefits of training and retraining of students and staff of Universities in Africa through the adoption of solar energy sources of electricity generation as a form of renewable energy technologies. The paper appraises the impact of the introduction of solar energy technologies on a student of Lesotho, his supervisor and the community. Through news review, the paper uses trending news as a scope within a given period to trace the impact of the initiatives by Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative (SOLTRAIN), an initiative of the Austrian Development Agency (ADA). Further the paper appraises trending news through the review of the key features particularly the initiatives contributions to the end users. In comparison, the paper presents the basic characteristics from the initiatives by SOLTRAIN and the Federal Government of Nigeria to the developments of skills as well as training institutions amongst the key elements that contribute to national growth. Conclusively, the reports identifies key drivers that are likely to decide the future direction of the solar energy expansion within the nation.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 21, 2021
The Kinematic Model Establishment of Crank & Linkage with Time under High Rotation in Punching Machine
XU Run, LIU Jiaguang
Page no 57-61
With increasing time the movement, velocity and acceleration of mold will become sinusoidal wave. When the crank length increases from 40mm to 70mm under linkage length L=160mm the maximum movement, velocity and acceleration will increase and the minimum ones will increase. The phase angle will decline with inclining rotation with sinusoidal wave but the size of them maintains unchanged respectively. So it is chosen of the short crank and long linkage so as to maintain maximum force. To be rapid work the rotation is needed highly.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 22, 2021
The Model Establishment of Force to Crank Angle under Idling in Vehicle
XU Run, LIU Jiaguang
Page no 62-66
With inclining the speed of vehicle the cost will become low dominantly when the speed attains 750Km/h and crank length is 70mm. With increasing time the speed and force of vehicle will become periodic wave. When the crank length increases from 70mm to 100mm under 750r/m̖ 850r/m and 950r/m, the speed will increase and and the force will decrease. The force will decline with inclining rotation and crank force respectively. So it is chosen of the short crank and idling so as to maintain maximum force. The effect of crank length and rotation to force is about 20m/s and 70KN in this study. At the force with 750r/m and crank length with 100mm & 70KW it will be the lowest which is benefit for engine wear.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 27, 2021
The Kinematics Model Establishment of Crank Linkage with Time under Low Speed in Vehicle
Xu Run, Liu Jiaguang
Page no 67-72
With inclining the velocity of vehicle the cost will become low dominantly when the velocity attains 19Km/h and 26Km/h in future. With increasing time the movement, the velocity and acceleration of vehicle will become sinusoidal wave. When the crank length increases from 70mm to 100mm under linkage length L=180mm the maximum movement, velocity and acceleration will increase and the minimum ones will increase. The phase angle will decline with inclining speed with sinusoidal wave but the size of them maintains unchanged respectively. So it is chosen of the short crank and long linkage so as to maintain maximum force. To be rapid work the speed is needed highly.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 27, 2021
The Relationship between Force and Time with Lagrange Formula by Regulating Piston Mass on Crank Linkage of Vehicle
Run Xu, Boyong Hur
Page no 73-76
In this study the simulation about force and time is built with Lagrange equation which solves the crankshaft dynamics in engine of vehicle. The force will incline as the time inclines with a certain mass of piston of 1.6Kg, 3.2Kg & 4.8Kg in engine on vehicle, meantime as the mass inclines the force will incline too from 16N and 32N to 48N with maximum value at 7E-3s at 700r/m rotation of engine. The bad force will be formed in first and then the good one will be followed at last in terms of former d2F/dt2<0 and d2F/dt2>0 respectively. But the bad force has good stability. If the mass of piston is increased the bigger force may be formed in engine.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 30, 2021
Performance Evaluation of Crushed Glass in Stabilizing Lateritic Soil for Road Pavement Layers
Akanbi DO, Sule E, Achema F, Bakam VA
Page no 77-83
Crushed Glass (CG) is a recycled material obtained from crushing waste glass and has been established as a partial replacement for cement in concrete. However, this research investigated the performance evaluation of using CG as a stabilizing agent to improve lateritic soil for road pavement layers. The CG powder used is 75µm and classified as type GE according to the new standard ASTMC 1866/C1866M-20 passed in early 2020 . An A-7-6(11)/CL lateritic soil sample was studied and classified using AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). The soil was treated with CG in a stepped concentration of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 % of weight of dry lateritic soil. Atterberg limit tests were carried out on the soil and soil-CG samples. The properties of compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) were also determined for the soil and soil-CG mixes using British Standard Light (BSL) compaction energy for the soil and soil-CG samples. Results show that, the liquid limit of the soil-CG mixture decreased with increase CG content, while the plastic limit increased with increase in CG content. The MDD and OMC also increased with increasing CG content, but up to 6% content, and then decreased with further increment in CG content. The soaked and unsoaked CBR values of the soil-CG mix are higher than the CBR value for the lateritic soil alone. These values are less than the specified minimum values of 30 and 80%, respectively, for road subbase and base courses. This implies that CG cannot be used as a “stand-alone” additive for soil stabilization. Also, the UCS of the lateritic soil and soil-CG mix increased with curing age and increasing CG content, and the soil-CG have higher UCS values than the lateritic soil alone. For instance, the UCS of lateritic soil, soil-CG mix with 4% and 12% CG at 7 days curing age are 259.69, 300.09 and 388.39 kN/m2, respectively. The values are correspondingly 441.59, 479.30 and 599.91KN/m2 at 28days curing age, a trend that can be attributed to time-dependent strength gain action of the CG, which is a type GE pozzolana. Again, the UCS values of the soil-CG mixtures though increase with increase in both the curing age and CG content are less than 1710 kN/m2, minimum specified as a criterion for adequate soil stabilization with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). This further confirmed that CG, a waste, cannot be used as a “stand-alone” stabilization agent but as an additive to supplement OPC, thereby reducing the cost of stabilization.