REVIEW ARTICLE | July 3, 2022
Green Approach to the Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Used As Alternative Remedy to Multidrug Resistance
Abiola Olanike Adesina, Olusegun Richard Adeoyo, Owolabi Mutolib Bankole, Abimbola George Olaremu, Charles Ayodeji Osunla
Page no 270-277
The introduction of nanotechnology into our world has ushered in a slew of changes and provided a wealth of knowledge that has fuelled progress in many sectors of existence. Recent advances in nanotechnology have shown the importance of metal oxide nanoparticles due to their potentials in different sectors, particularly in nanomedicine and related biomedical fields. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MOx-NPs) such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), copper oxide, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide and Iron oxide have gained a lot of prominence as a result of their unique properties. Metal and MOx-NPs based nanoparticles are being employed to create a novel antibacterial drug formulation, which is a revolutionary and ground breaking method to drug discovery and development. Different methods are employed for the synthesis of these nanoparticles of which green synthesis is found to be a better option. It involves the use of plant extracts which is a non-toxic solvent. Green materials offer a variety of advantages, such as low energy consumption and the capacity to operate under moderate operating conditions (such as pressure and high temperature) without the use of harmful chemicals or catalysts. Therefore, more research efforts should be geared toward the advancement of this important technology.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 6, 2022
Recent Advancement of Cyber Security: Challenges and Future Trends in Bangladesh
Major Muhammad Masudur Rahaman
Page no 278-289
The massive demand for global transformations describes the necessity of high-speed communication in the twenty-first century. Almost every facet of online networks is changing, including international relations, politics, trade, and security. However, cyber security has become a major issue all around the world. Bangladesh has recently taken the required steps to address the problem as swiftly as feasible. In order to prevent and combat cyber threats, the government of Bangladesh plans to establish a specialized computer incident response team (CIRT) for banks and financial institutions, which will serve as the national response team responsible for receiving, reviewing, and responding to computer security incidents and activities in Bangladesh. Implementing strong and multilayer authentication to better management of the data, as well as discovering and mapping out security issues, some major initiatives are required to implement cyber security. Engineers should obtain hands-on training in decoding corrupted data files during any cyber-attack in order to recover data from any lost data. In this review, cyber security challenges in smart cities and smart governance have been examined, with an emphasis on e-commerce, machine learning, industry automation, IoT, and other security elements. The main cyber security concerns are discussed in order to better comprehend almost every necessity of long-term cyber security situations. Moreover, smart industry control and its security infrastructure, problems for implementation in Bangladesh and recent security issues have been highlighted.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 6, 2022
Assessment of WDM Based RoF Passive Optical Network
Muhammad Towfiqur Rahman, Roni Ahmed, Md. Kamal Hossain, Md. Asadul Haque, Raduyan Ahmed, Naznin Sultana, Md. Nasir Uddin
Page no 290-298
In this research, alternative Raman amplifier configuration were used in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)-passive optcal network (PON) system to investigate their effects on channel capacity and signal quality. Because of its scalability, energy efficiency, high capacity, low cost, and flexibility of data transfer ability, various Raman configurations are applied in different position to measure the output power. We used various techniques to evaluate the system performance such as varying the length of an optical fiber from 10 to 100 kms, number of users by increasing 8 to 16 channels. Various channel spacings are utilized in an 8 and 16 channels WDM system to calculate the system's bit error rate (BER) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Another key concern is the high data rate and to achieve the maximum transmission speed. We get the maximum data rate of 128 Gb/s by 8 channels and 192 Gb/s by 16 channels. The maximum BER was 10-9and noise level was -6.35 dBm associated with the distance which was 70 kilometers long fiber channel. Finally, maximum data rate and its related eye diagrams was evaluated.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 6, 2022
Development of Solar Operated Evaporative Refrigerating System
A. O. Akinola, S. Umar, J. F. Eiche, A. Akinsade
Page no 299-304
People in the rural regions of the developing countries where electricity supply is not available are facing the problems of preserving their food through refrigeration. They need affordable and efficient method of food preservation. Therefore, a solar operated refrigerator was designed, constructed and evaluated. The system consists of three major parts, namely: the mild steel box (0.4 𝑚 × 0.4 𝑚 × 0.5 𝑚), the clay shell and the wooden box (0.5 𝑚 × 0.5 𝑚 × 0.6 𝑚). The mild steel box is enclosed in a clay shell, which is in turn enclosed in a wooden box with four open ducts. The work evaluated convective heat transfer through the ducts and the machine was tested on no load and also by using it to cool 40 kg of water for seven consecutive days over a period of eight hours per day. The results from its performance tests indicated that the system has a cooling process coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.48 and overall coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.64.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 6, 2022
Physicochemical Characteristics Study of Oil Extracted from Almond Seed
Akinola AO, Adeyinka TF
Page no 305-311
The physicochemical properties of the extracted oil from almond seed were investigated. Physical properties such as cloud point, pour point, fire point, smoke point, specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity; and the chemical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value, ester value, and peroxide value were investigated for both raw almond oil and transesterified almond oil. The various properties were investigated using ASTM standard methods and calculations. Results obtained for physical properties: cloud point, pour point, fire point, smoke point, specific gravity, refractive index, and kinematic viscosity were 〖-3〗^o C, 〖-9〗^o C, 〖220〗^o C, 〖130〗^o C, 0.928, 1.462, 21.84 〖mm〗^2/sec respectively for the transesterified almond oil. Result obtained for the chemical properties of the transesterified almond oil: acid value, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value 〖mgI〗_2/g, and ester value, values were determined to be: 2.05, 1.03, 79.71, 34.33, and 77.66. It was concluded that transesterified Almond oil have a great potential for use as fuel alternative and substitute for internal combustion engine with its high purity, low corrosion ability and ease of ignition.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 7, 2022
Information Technology in Disaster Management
Er. Manoj Kumar Singh
Page no 312-315
In the present era of technology it has been simpler to deal with the disaster both natural and man made. Disaster Management activities rely upon substantial volumes of precise, applicable, on-time geo information that different organization systematically make and maintain. Information Technology is changing each part of human life. Disaster management desires forceful enhancements in its sources to decrease injury and save the lifetime of individuals. The advanced methods of information technology such as web, remote sensing, satellite communication, GIS, etc. can facilitate in coming up with and implementation of disaster management. Web provides a useful platform for disaster mitigation communications. On GIS is basic as effective preparedness, communication and training tool for disaster management on the other hand Remote Sensing as a tool can very effectively contribute towards identification of hazards areas. Communication satellite have become vital for providing emergency communication and timely help into natural disaster monitoring and mitigation mechanisms is critical for hazards reduction. There should be more emphasis on development of new technologies in disaster mitigation. The disaster preparedness and awareness is the only effective method of mitigating the impact of future disaster. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the role of information technology in management of natural disaster in Nepal.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 22, 2022
Development of a Controlled Output Wind Turbine
Roni Ahmed, Md. Asadul Haque, Kamal Hossain, M. N. Uddin
Page no 316-326
The wind turbine is a device that is used to harness one of the most abundant renewable energy sources on the planet: wind. It works on the concept of converting wind kinetic energy to electrical energy. Wind turbines are becoming increasingly popular in today's globe since they provide numerous environmental benefits as well as the ability to create enough power for users. A wind turbine's main functioning principle is that it creates electricity when the wind blows. The wind turbine creates more power when the wind velocity is higher. However, regardless of wind speed variations, the goal of this article is to achieve a consistent or controlled output. The goal is to have a controlled output regardless of how quickly the wind blows. This idea is made possible with the help of a converter that is installed within the wind turbine and converts whatever input it receives into a steady, constant, or controlled output. Numerous tests and simulations back up the methods used for this project. The final results that meet the design specifications are compiled and displayed in figures throughout this publication.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 23, 2022
Application of Machine Learning Techniques to Evaluate the Performance of Students in an Academic Environment
Chandana, D. A, Dr. S. Meenakshi Sundaram, Bhumika, S, Meghana, B. N
Page no 327-334
Identifying the most influential factors affecting the student’s performance plays a vital role in improvising student’s academic results. The conventional counseling is a time consuming process to understand students’ performance. Machine Learning techniques play a major role in educational institutions to estimate the students, performance leading to better performance in placements. The major objective is to find behavior patterns of students in a timely and accurate manner. We find out the groups of students who need to be counseled in time. The system uses parameters such as attendance status, extra circular activities, grade, technical skills, previous semester results, grasping capability, aptitude grade, interaction with lecturers etc. This also helps faculty members to identify the most influential factors affecting the students’ performance. Analyzing student mental issues for low academic performances is a complex task in the current education sector. The system uses data science technique called as "Association Learning" to find the patterns. The Eclat algorithm is used to find patterns. The proposed system builds as real time application useful to educational institutions to understand students’ behavioral patterns. The system helps faculty to identify the most influential factors affecting the students’ performance. A web browser in the future can be developed and used as an application. More number of parameters can be added to predict the students’ performance.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 26, 2022
Financial Analysis and Fast Tracking of Sponge Ferro Alloy Smelter Construction Project at PT Sebuku Iron Lateritic Ores in Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan
Rosalendro Eddy Nugroho, Agung Jaka Raharja
Page no 335-342
PT SILO executed a smelter project on Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan, worth US$ 51.5 million to process 4,725,000 WMT/year of iron laterite ore into 1,701,325 DMT/year of Sponge Ferro Alloy. The Smelter was built to increase the added value of minerals in accordance with UU No. 4/2009 on mineral and coal mining. Financial analysis is carried out to determine the feasibility of the project and its investment capability in providing benefits. Furthermore, fast tracking analysis is carried out to determine the opportunities for accelerating the project completion schedule and its effect on project feasibility. The results showed that the project was financially feasible with an NPV of US$ 86,209,478; IRR of 16.18%; PBP for 12.76 Years; BCR of 1.0520; and BEP at US$ 253.51/ton for the production of 1,617,000 DMT/year. Projects can be fast tracked to accelerate the duration of up to 4 months while maintaining financial feasibility.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 30, 2022
Effects of Porosity on Free Convection between Vertical Walls with Point/Line Heat Source/Sink
S. Y. Zayyanu, A. K. Musa, A. M. Gatawa, I. K. Hassan, A. Hussaini
Page no 343-347
This study investigates the conjugate effects of Darcy parameter and point/line heat source/sink on natural convective, electrically conductive laminar fluid between two infinite vertical plates. The closed form solution to the resulting governing equations is been solved analytically using Laplace transform method, the effect of various parameters embedded in the flow is discussed with aid of line graphs and Tables. During the course of computation, excellent result was found.