The Epidemiology, Incidence and Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures
Rahaf Y. Al-Habbab, Sultan A. AlGhamdi, Shoruq Alsalmi
Page Numbers : 562-568
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2020.v05i11.006
Background and Objectives: The incidence of recorded maxillofacial trauma continues to increase worldwide and as expected the etiology and types of injuries vary among different countries. Previous studies support that the differences in both patterns and etiology of maxillofacial fractures depend to a large extent on cultural, social and economic variables. As an example, in developed countries, especially in Europe, physical assaults were the main cause of maxillofacial fractures, followed by motor vehicle accident (MVA). The aim of this retrospective chart study was to analyze the demographics, causes, incidence and patterns of maxillofacial fractures in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia treated at King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia (KFGH). Methods: Patients treated between 1998 and 2018 at the department of maxillofacial surgery in KFGH were reviewed. Patient’s age, sex, pattern of facial fracture, and causes of injury were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS Pc+ 21.0 version statistical software. Results: A total of 616 patients (87% n = 536 male and 13% n = 80 female) with 886 fractures were recorded. The age group ranging between 20 to 29 years (39.2%; n = 238) sustained the highest incidence of maxillofacial fractures. Of the different causes of trauma, i.e., MVA, falling from heights, fighting, sports injuries and others MVA was listed as the main cause in 369 (59.9%) patients [male (n = 316) / female (n = 53)]. Of the different potential anatomical sites (Maxillary, Orbital, Nasal, ZMC, Frontal, Mandibular, Dentoalveolar, Lefort I, Lefort II and Lefort III), the mandible was found to have the highest rate 61.2% (377 out of 616), followed by ZMC (37.2%), Orbital (12.8%), Nasal (7.5%), and Frontal (6.3%). In all types of maxillofacial injuries MVA is the most frequently causative factor (n = 369) compared to Non-MVA factors (n = 247). The association between the cause of accidents and type of injury is statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: In this study, MVA was found to be the most common cause of maxillofacial injuries with the mandible being the most frequent anatomical site affected. Appropriate health education programs and design engineering can be initiated to avoid road traffic accidents and reduce related injuries.
Nov. 23, 2020
Pain Management in Temporomandibular Disorders: A Review of the Literature
Lydia Nabil Fouad Melek, Tara Renton
Page Numbers : 552-561
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2020.v05i11.005
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD’s) are defined as “A collective term embracing a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint and associated structures or both”. TMD’s are considered a major source of non-dental orofacial pain interfering with normal daily activities and affecting the quality of life. Despite huge amount of research in the diagnosis and management of temporomandibular disorders, there is still no certain therapeutic method that proved to be solely effective in pain management resulting from TMD’s. This review article contains a collection for the various therapeutic procedures used for management of TMD pain and discusses the most recent evidence on their effectiveness through comprehensive review of Pubmed for relevant publications within the last decade.
Original Research Article
Nov. 20, 2020
The Effect of Third Molar on Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review
Dr. Abdullah Ibrahim Alkharji, Dr. AbdulMohsen Khaled Alanazi, Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Alharbi, Dr. Ghaida Ali Alsulaiman, Dr. Mohammed Mansour Alzehefi, Dr. Mohra Khaled Almuzaini, Dr. AbdulkarimAbdulaziz Alfadda, Dr. Ahmad Fathi Alomar, Dr. Laila Mohammed Alanazi, Dr. Fatima Sultana
Page Numbers : 546-551
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2020.v05i11.004
Third Molar is the most posterior tooth of the three molars in human dentition. Wisdom teeth eruption is variable and it occurs generally in later teens and early twenties. If not enough space is available then the wisdom teeth gets impacted against the other teeth and this impaction does not cause movement of other teeth, but causes dental caries if oral hygiene is not maintained. The impaction prediction is scientifically not proven yet and hence the dentists cannot predict that, one should extract or not extract the third molars. The main aim of this research was to review the literature related to the relationship between the third molar and the orthodontic treatment.The third molar extraction is not directly involved in the orthodontic treatment but it can influence the treatment planning. A online base web search was made using various databases like Medline, Pubmed Central, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), and Cochrane electronic databases.The systematic review of literature is carried out in English language. The research was done in a time range of 6 months to study and review all the literature and prepare the manuscript. According to our reviewing of literature, we found that many investigators agree that the extraction of teeth during the orthodontic treatment has a positive effect on the eruption of the third molars. Majority of the authors also agreed that if any patient that had angulation of third molar had a good effect with the extraction therapy of orthodontics. It was reviewed that, if the extractions are indicated in future then the third molars are extracted before the adulthood, in order to avoid the inconvenience and the complications risk.
Original Research Article
Nov. 19, 2020
Elucidating the Awareness of Dental Doctors in Following Dental Protocol by M.O.H about the COVID-19 Pandemic in KSA
The causative organism for the COVID-19 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The common symptoms of the COVID-19 are: fever, dry cough and fatigue while the less common symptoms are: aches and pain, sore throat, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, headache, loss of taste and smell, rash on skin, and discolouration of fingers and toes. Several studies reported that person of any age can be infected by the virus, but elderly patients with systemic diseases were more vulnerable to the virus. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dentistry is the profession with high mode of exposure to the Covid-19 virus. The statistics as recorded on 20th October, 2020 shows that there are a total of 342,968 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, with 5,217 deaths and 329,270 recovered cases. The Ministry of Health (MOH) of Saudi Arabia proposed a dental emergency protocol during the COVID-19 pandemic on 13th April, 2020. This dental emergency protocol guides the triage, assessment and provision of the emergency dental treatment during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The dental care was divided into 4 by the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia in this dental emergency protocol as: Emergent dental care, urgent dental care, non-urgent dental care and Advice and self-care. The main aim of this study is to assess the awareness of dental doctors in following dental protocol by M.O.H about the covid-19 in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A pre-designed questionnaire is circulated online using Google form to record the results of the survey of elucidating the awareness of dental doctors in following dental protocol by M.O.H about the covid-19 in Saudi Arabia. The data that is collected from the questionnaire is analysed using the computer software Statistical package for social sciences that is SPSS 16. The protocol included all the information about the type of orofacial problem and the recommended management related to it. Nearly about 70 to 80 percent of the dental doctors that participated in this survey are aware about all the guidelines provided by the Ministry of Health. Every dental doctor practising in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is to be made aware of all the guidelines and protocol to be followed during the emergency dental care.
Original Research Article
Nov. 13, 2020
Connotation of Otological Symptom in Tempro Mandibular Joint Disorder and Vise-Versa (Clinical Comparative Original Study)
Dr. Waleed MB Yahya Alsabea, Dr. Rawaa Younus Al-Rawee
Page Numbers : 528-537
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2020.v05i11.002
Many articles have highlighted the association between otological symptoms and TMJD. Anatomic, neurologic and emotional relationships considered the causative factors of symptom association. According to multiple published literatures otalgia can be common sign for TMJD subjects with tenderness and pain on mandibular condyle. Aims of study: The temporomandibular joint disorder may be accompanied by a series of otological symptoms such as otalgia, investigators aims here in this clinical study multiple points such as analyzing the prevalence of different symptoms of TMJD, else more to estimate the importance of cooperation between two different specialties these are maxillofacial and ENT specialties. To verify the frequency of otologic signs and symptoms with TMJ disorder and vice versa; specifying to which limit the therapeutic intervention on the articular pathology may influence the manifestations. Furthermore; authors targeting to detect the influence of proper diagnosis and selection of proper treatment plane. Emphasize the different correlation between the two specialties. Material and Method: One hundred participants are sharing in this research divided equally in to dual specialties origin, fifty patients attain private clinic of the maxillofacial surgeon and fifty participants attain private ear nose throat clinic. All of these patients are share to have temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDS) and otological symptom (OS) but they attain different specialty. Result: One hundred patients shared in TMJDS and OS analyzed according to different age groups as well as gender difference. Descriptive analyses for cases in both specialties are cleared the highest incidences are highlighted. Thirty-one to forty forming the highest age group in both specialties (38%, 30%) consequently for maxillofacial and ENT patients. Most of the mutants are females (74%) equally for both branches. Comparison between patients attain maxillofacial clinic and patients attain ENT clinic are analyzed according to age and gender in respect to symptoms, investigations, site involved, question answer. Discussion: The management of patients with TMD is a challenge, and an approach that includes dentists and oto-rhino-laryngologists is necessary to rule out, for example, otological diseases. It is imperative to understand the need for interdisciplinary management between the doctor and the dental specialist in craniofacial pain. Also try for a conservative vision in the treatment of muscular tensions of these masticatory and auditory muscles. Specialists in a single discipline cannot always individually resolve the symptoms present in a patient, without the invaluable support of multidisciplinary management. Each specialty contributes in its specific knowledge to the differential diagnosis process that guides a correct treatment plan.
Nov. 6, 2020
Snap on Smile: A Systematic Review
Dr. Laila Mohammed Alanazi, Dr. Abdulrahman Abdullah Alkhashrami, Dr. Rayan Abdullah Albader, Dr. Shahad Ali Alasiri, Dr. Ahmed Fahad Althumairy, Dr. Waad Mohammed Alghamdi, Dr. Nabeel Mohammed Munshi, Dr. Fatima Sultana
Page Numbers : 522-527
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2020.v05i11.001
An unimaginable change has occurred in the past 50 years in the restorative dentistry. People are nowadays more concerned about their smile and hence opting for various dental procedures to get that perfect smile. According to the World Health Organization, oral health is often inter-twisted with the general health that determines the quality of life of a person and a good oral health reduces mortality. It is important to balance between the knowledge of the dental professionals about the smile aesthetics and the perception of the patient to create a dazzling and pleasing smile. The aesthetic dentistry treatment planning May includes interacting of different dental disciplines like endodontics, orthodontics, periodontics prosthodontics, and restorative modalities. The snap on smile is a removable, flexible and adjustable device that needs no preparation or reconstruction of the tooth structure. It doesn't require any anaesthetic injections. In fact it is non-invasive that makes it perfectly reversible. The purpose of this systematic review is to review the literature about the snap on smile. Data was extracted from the online databases like Med-line and Pub-Med Central, and tabulated using the pre designed data extraction forms. 11 articles were included in the study of the systematic review of literature about the snap on smile. The individuals with aesthetic smile appear more attractive in the photograph than the individual with no aesthetic smile. Snap on Smile can create a person’s image and also inspire his self-confidence. Snap on Smile offers an immediate change in the smile and gives the most compelling experience by the patient. The snap on smile is a total non-invasive and reversible treatment that gives an instant change and adds up to the attractiveness of an individual’s face. The snap on smile is a total non-invasive and reversible treatment that gives an instant change and ads up to the attractive of an individual’s face. The Snap on Smile gives a temporary instant results of a dazzling smile and may last from 2 to 5 years, it requires no adhesives, no cementation, no bonding, no invasion, no impingement, and is inexpensive when compared with Veneer and Dental Implants. However it has few drawbacks like it is less durable, gives more fake look, and gives bulky appearance, with increased risk of decay and development of plaque.
Original Research Article
Oct. 21, 2020
A Comparative Study of Skeletal and Dental Changes in Fixed Functional and Removable Functional Appliance Therapy
Dr. Anshu Singh, Dr. Hitesh Ramdas Sawant, Dr. Prasad Anand Khudare, Dr. Dhananjay Rathod, Dr. Nitin Gadhiya, Dr. Sameer Narkhede
Page Numbers : 519-521
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2020.v05i10.004
Background: Functional appliance therapy has gained popularity and has been used with substantial amount of success in the management of skeletal class II malocclusion. Generally, functional appliances are utilized for the correction of retruded mandible in growing individuals. This study was used to compare and plot the skeletal and dental changes using fixed and removable functional appliance therapy in the treatment of class II malocclusion. Materials and methods: The study population consist of 50 growing individuals who have undergone treatment for skeletal class II malocclusion. The group are divided in to herbst group (n=25) and twin block group (n=25).The lateral cephalograms obtained from these patients and changes analyzed using students paired t –test. Results: The skeletal and dental changes showed statistically significant improvement in antero-posterior maxillomandibular measurement in both groups and but herbst unlike twinblock produce greater dental effects. Although treatment duration was faster in fixed appliance group, both studies showed improved facial profile. Conclusion: The treatment effects of both the functional appliances used in this study for skeletal class II cases are satisfactory and can effectively use for correction of retrognathic mandible in adolescents.