Locally Delivered 1.2% Simvastatin Gel and 1% Metformin Gel in Chronic Periodontitis Patients
Dr. Sumbul Bashir, Dr. D. Gopalakrishnan, Dr. Santosh Martande
Page Numbers : 182-191
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2022.v07i08.001
Background: This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of 1.2% Simvastatin gel and 1% Metformin gel in chronic periodontitis pockets. The rationale behind using Statins is that this class of drugs has a potential anti-inflammatory effect on oral epithelial cells, blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. Statins also modulate bone formation by increasing the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 providing a new direction in the field of periodontal therapy. Statin administration decreases GCF levels of pro-inflammatory mediators which are responsible for much of the host tissue destruction seen in periodontitis. Metformin acts at molecular level via both AMPK (5’adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase) dependent & AMPK independent pathways. It shows effects on Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), differentiation of monocytes into macrophages as well as suppressing IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α from these macrophages which thereby improved the periodontal clinical parameters. There is no evidence of literature till now comparing the clinical efficacy of 1.2% Simvastatin gel with 1% Metformin gel in patients with chronic periodontitis. Method: The study population consisted of 48 sites from chronic periodontitis patients, divided into 3 groups which received sub gingival irrigation with Scaling and root planning alone, SRP with 1.2% Simvastatin gel and SRP with1% Metformin gel. Results: 1.2% Simvastatin gel and 1% Metformin gel improve the periodontal health with statistically significant improvement in the PPD, RAL, RGML values as compared to SRP alone. Conclusion: LDD systems using gel formulations are advantageous because of their sustainability, prolonged release, stability in the pockets, clinical effect of 1.2% Simvastatin gel and 1% Metformin gel improves the periodontal health compared to SRP alone.
Original Research Article
July 8, 2022
Antiseptic Activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach & Thonn.) Mull.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) Aqueous Leaves Extract on Oral and Dental Bacteria
Ngene Jean Pierre, Ngoule Charles Christian, Yinyang Jacques, Kidik Pouka Marie Cathérine, Eyetemou Miguel, Etame Loe Gisèle Marie Marguérite
Page Numbers : 175-181
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2022.v07i07.001
Some infectious oral diseases are treated by medicinal plants in tropical areas, because they are abundant and cheap. The present work aimed to evaluate the antiseptic activity of the aqueous extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves against three oral bacteria recognised as opportunistic pathogens, namely Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus. Fresh leaves of A. cordifolia were harvested, dried and pulverised. The extraction was performed by decocting in distilled water. The phytochemical screening was performed on the extract based on principles of colour change, and precipitation. Biological studies consisted in the in vitro antiseptic evaluation of the aqueous extract using the agar disc diffusion method, in comparison with a reference antiseptic mouthwash containing chlorhexidine. The extract had a 11.96% yield. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, glycosides, coumarins and saponins. The evaluation of the antiseptic activity revealed that the extract is active against S. mitis and S. epidermidis, and inactive against M. luteus. The diameters of inhibition zones were 16.9±1.1mm and 11.2±0.7mm at the concentration of 40mg/ml, and 7.7±0.3mm and 8.5±0.5mm at the concentration of 20mg/ml against S. mitis and S. epidermidis, respectively. Chlorhexidine did not inhibit S. mitis and showed diameters of inhibition of 13.0±1.0mm and 15.1±1.0mm against S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the extract against the 2 sensitive bacteria was 20mg/ml.
Original Research Article
June 29, 2022
An Update on Demand and Pattern of Root Canal Treatments in a Clinical Setting in Lagos, Nigeria
Ifeoma Nkiruka Menakaya, Adolphus Odogun Loto
Page Numbers : 169-174
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2022.v07i06.005
There have been a growing number of patients demanding root canal treatment to save their teeth. This study aimed to determine the pattern of demand and treatment need for root canal treatments at a tertiary healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria and update the dental literature with the demand and pattern of root canal treatments as seen in Nigeria. This was a retrospective study. Data from 8239 patients treated at restorative dental clinic, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital from 2011 through 2014, were reviewed. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 26. Association between categorical variables was assessed using Chi square test. Significance level was set at p<0.05. Nine hundred (900) patients age 18 to 79 years (Mean ± SD 38.95±9.4) of which 542 (60.2%) were male and 358 (39.8%) female received root canal treatment involving 1256 teeth. More male patients demanded for root canal treatment but treatment need was greater in female patients and increased with age. Demand for root canal treatment was more prevalent in those < 40 years of age. Central incisors were the most frequently root filled teeth in the maxilla and this was statistically significant (p=0.002). In the mandible, first molars were the most frequently root filled teeth however, this was not statistically significant (p=0.093). Findings in this study corroborate those of several other studies in Nigeria. However, unlike other Nigerian studies, this study noted a greater need for root canal treatment in female patients compared to male patients.
June 22, 2022
Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Oral Health: A Review of Dental Consideration
Bader Fatani, Afraa Al-Safadi
Page Numbers : 165-168
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2022.v07i06.004
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a major problem worldwide that can be categorized into two main disorders, Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). IBD development is related to a multifactorial combination including environmental factors, intestinal microflora, pathological immune responses, and genetic influences [1, 2, 6] IBD can affect the complete GI tract, starting from the mouth to the anus . Dental considerations regarding IBD oral manifestations and complications must be acknowledged by dentists to reduce morbidity, and mortality, and improve overall patient lifestyle. In this review, we will provide an overview of dental considerations and oral manifestations related to Inflammatory bowel disease.
Original Research Article
June 14, 2022
Midazolam as a Conscious Sedation in Dental Practice: A Systematic Review
Bader Fatani, Afraa Al-Safadi, Omar A. Fatani
Page Numbers : 157-164
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2022.v07i06.003
Background: Conscious sedation is a guidance technique used to control the behavior of anxious or uncooperative patients. A variety of drugs are used in the sedation process, including inhalation agents such as orally or parenterally midazolam and other benzodiazepines. Midazolam is considered a member of the benzodiazepine family with the highest lipid-soluble properties. Objective: This article aims to review the use of Midazolam for conscious sedation in dental practice and illustrate each route of administration. Materials and Methods: This study involved a review of published articles related to the use of Midazolam for conscious sedation in dental practice. The PubMed search engine and Cochrane electronic databases were used to collect the most relevant and recent information on midazolam in dental practice. Results: By applying this method, 10 articles were gathered and used in the current review. Conclusion: Midazolam has shown its ability to be a safe and effective drug in conscious sedation in dental practice. However, some points must be considered before administering midazolam, including patient age and weight, the dose required, drug-drug interaction, special care patients, route of administration, and level of anxiety.
Original Research Article
June 4, 2022
A Multi-Centre Evaluation of Tongue Lesions in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions
Background: The tongue is a muscular hydrostat that forms the floor of the mouth, perform functions like mastication, speech, taste and osculation. The tongue is relatively affected by both oral and systemic conditions in all ages and acts as a “mirror” for oral manifestations of systemic diseases. Prevalence of tongue lesions varies due to demographic and/or geographic differences of the sample studied, differences in the diagnostic criteria, methodological approaches, and sampling methods employed. Objective: To determine the socio-demographic distribution of different categories of tongue lesions and their oral presentations. Methods: Information were retrospectively retrieved from Maxillofacial Clinical and Surgical day cases registers. Data such as age, gender; duration of lesion and location of lesions on the tongue and category of lesion were also extracted using relevant descriptive and inference statistics All statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Ninety- two cases were recruited retrospectively from two tertiary centers with a male preponderance of 53.3% (n= 49). The mean age of presentation of tongue lesions in the study is 41.1years 22.4 years, dorsum of the tongue presented the highest number of occurrences of tongue lesions (52.2%). The most common lesions on the dorsum of the tongue in this study are squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), benign migratory glossitis and irritation fibroma. The mean age of presentation for benign lesion is 23years, inflammatory/reactive lesion 44.9years and malignant lesions 51.6years respectively. The mean duration of tongue lesions in our study is 9.1 months (median = 6 months), mean duration of presentation of benign lesions (14.8 months) was longer than that of malignant lesions (6.4 months). The association between duration and category of lesion is statistically significant at p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Delayed clinical presentation by patients and patronage of unorthodox traditional doctors contribute to the overtly increased incidence of oral malignancies in Sub-Saharan Africa; this coupled with improper or lack of accurate record keeping may have also culminated in this increased prevalence of oral malignancies. All tongue surfaces can be affected, gender predilections for any of the surfaces is yet to be affirmed by any study however aging is related to malignant occurrences.
June 2, 2022
Odontoma, an Accidental Finding during Curettage: A Case Report
Dr. Shivam Agarwal, Dr. Gauri Bargoti, Dr. Birsubhra Roy, Dr. Kajal Awana
Page Numbers : 147-149
DOI : 10.36348/sjodr.2022.v07i06.001
Odontomas are common occurrences in the oral cavity and can be classified as complex or compound. Compound odontomas are rare and present in the extra-osseous soft tissues. In this case, the odontoma led to the impaction of permanent teeth, due to which removal of the lesion was advised.