ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 28, 2020
TP53 Mutation in Saudi Breast Cancer Patients: Correlations with Cancer Stem Cell Markers Expression and Clinicopathological Variables
Rami Nassir, Hanan M. Abd ElMoneim, Ghada Esheba, Leimia A. Suliman, John Robbins
Page no 333-342
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with a high mortality rate worldwide including Saudi Arabia. It is characterized by the presence of both intra- and inter- tumor heterogeneity. It describes the origin of this heterogeneity to the cancer stem cells (CSC). Breast cancer stem cells are characterized by the expression of the surface markers CD44 and lack or very low expression of CD24. Objectives: To assess cancer stem cell markers (CD44 andCD24) in 126 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry and study their association with a different type of TP53 gene mutations by applying next-generation sequencing (NGS). In addition to analyze the association between these markers and the clinicopathological characteristics. Results: CD44 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor grade, stage (each P<0.0001), and ER expression (P = 0.016). CD24 expression was found to be associated with lymph node metastasis and ER only. For the molecular analysis, the number of mutations per case was significantly associated with the advanced stage of breast cancer (p = 0.004). Also, missense mutation was highly associated with CD44 and CD24 (p=0.04, p=0.005), respectively. Stop-gained mutation and Frameshift mutation both were associated with CD44 only (p=0.01, p=0.05), respectively. Finally, the synonymous mutation was only associated with the stage of cancer (p=0.01). Conclusion, we believe that the combination of CD44, CD24, TP53 and TP53 gene mutations can be prognostic factors for breast cancer patients and the information obtained may contribute to the development of a treatment.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 30, 2020
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2): A Review of the Basics
Dr. Sujan Narayan Agrawal
Page no 343-348
The recent outbreak of an unusual viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China, and then a pandemic has created a panic world over. Genetic and Phylogenetic studies revealed that the causative virus is SARC-CoV-2 and the disease it caused is given the name COVID-19. It (Coronavirus) is a member of the family Coronaviridae and subfamily Coronavirinae and belongs to the order Nidovirales. The Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses termed the virus as SARS-CoV-2. The virus enters into the cell through ACE2 receptors. It is important to understand the basics of genetic and Phylogenetic properties of the virus. This knowledge will ultimately help in the development of vaccines and drug treatment. In this article, an effort is made to explain the basics of coronavirus and its transmission, to the host cell.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 30, 2020
Immunohistochemical Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) in Cervical Carcinoma among Sudanese Female in Khartoum state -Sudan 2020
Shaza Arbab Mohamed Arbab, Ageeb Mohammed Hassan Abdellah, Tarig Mohamed Elfaki Alabbas
Page no 349-355
In Sudan, invasive Cervical cancer is the one of the most common causes of death. The Herpes simplex virus ( HSV-2) is second common causes of the invasive cervical cancer , with fraction progress to cervical cancer disease pointing to possible the role of additional risk factors in development of disease which include: host genetic factor and other infection such as HPV-16, for that women should have regular cervical screening test to detect early cervical cancer. Materials & Methods: This is a retrospective cross sectional study that includes about 75 embedded paraffine wax tissue blocks using immune histochemical stain from patients previously diagnosed as cervical cancer and expression of herpes simplex virus. Details of the patients information taken from medical reports .The analysis done by SPSS. Result: The mean age in this study is 60 with group range between (61-70) years (83.3 %), The Herpes Simplex virus is express only in squamous cell carcinoma. Discussion: The mean age is 60 with age group (61-70) (n= 5: 20%) expression of HSV-2 with (P= 0.136), and the expression of HSV-2 with squamous cell carcinoma of tumor type (n= 6:10.90%) with (P= 0.476), histological grade well differentiated (n=6:11.10%) with (P= 0.477). Conclusion: The expression of HSV-2 was insignificant in age group. The expression of HSV-2 was insignificant in tumor type squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of HSV-2 was insignificant in histological grade.