ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 1, 2021
Comparison between Fecal Occult Blood (FOB) Device with Ziehl-Neelson (Z.N) Stain and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Techniques in the Diagnosis of Early Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB)
Yousif M Alobaid, Amani S Elsheikh, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Mogahid M. El Hassan
Page no 1-4
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of Fecal Occult Blood (FOB) strips in the diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) isolated from sputum of tubercles patient. The study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital-Abu Anga-Tuberculosis ward. From 27th of August to 25th of September 2007. A total of 67 sputum samples collected from the suspected people. The samples examined by FOB test and Z.N techniques. Ten out of the enrolled samples, which showed positive FOB and negative Z.N techniques selected confirmed by using PCR techniques. The result showed that there were 12 (17.9%) of cases were Z.N (+ve), while 55 (82.1%) of cases were Z.N (-ve). It was also showed that there were 53(79.1%) of cases were FOB test (+ve), while 14(20.9%) of cases were FOB test (-ve). According to PCR techniques, after performed 10 samples that showed Z.N (-ve) and FOB test (+ve), it was noted that there were 4(40%) of cases were PCR (+ve), while 6(60%) of cases were PCR (-ve).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 1, 2021
Histopathological Spectrum of Bone Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Dr. Manjani S, Dr. Arulparithi CS, Dr. Viswanathan P, Dr. Harke AB, Dr. Karthik. S, Dr. Shobana. B, Dr. Srismitha. S
Page no 5-7
Background: Histopathology remains the key to diagnosis and management of bone lesions and the present study focuses on the relative frequencies of the various causes of bone lesions with respect to age and gender. Methods: The study was conducted as a combined retrospective and prospective study spanning over a 2 year period from 2018 to 2020. Consecutive bone specimens received in the Pathology Department were subject to histopathological examination and correlated with the demographic characteristics of the patient population. Results: Among the 105 specimens examined histopathology, non-neoplastic lesions were more common than neoplastic lesions (67 vs 38). Tuberculous osteomyelitis (n=22, 32.8%) was the most common non-neoplastic lesion. Osteochondroma (30.8%) and osteosarcoma (50%) are the commonest begin and malignant tumours respectively. Conclusion: Histopathology remains a gold standard for the diagnosis of bone lesions. Knowledge of the relative frequencies of various lesions with respect to age and gender is of paramount importance. This when combined with clinical and radiographic data helps in arriving at correct diagnosis.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 5, 2021
Carcinoma of Breast in Young Females A One-Year Retrospective Study
Abdul Hakeem Attar, Mohammad S. Iqbal
Page no 8-12
Background & Objectives: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second most common cancer worldwide. It is also the second leading cause of death due to cancer. Breast cancer is less frequent in the younger age group but have a poorer outcome in contrast to the breast cancer arising in the older age groups. There is a lack of awareness and due to this, majority of patients present late. The aim of this study is to know the incidence and clinicopathological features of breast cancer in young females under the age of 40 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study done over a period of one year at a tertiary care hospital in south India. The hospital and lab records were searched for histologically confirmed breast cancer cases in female patients under the age of 40 years. A total of 14 breast cancer cases were identified and hematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology slides were retrieved from the histopathology archives and were reviewed. The available slides of immunohistochemistry markers were also reviewed. Results: The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) seen in 13 (92.8%) cases with 1 case of invasive lobular carcinoma. Half of cases were of stage III at the time of diagnosis. 4 (28.57%) cases presented as stage II and 3 (21.4%) cases were stage I. There was a predominance of higher grade with 7 (50%) cases having grade II and 5 (35.7%) of cases were grade III. On IHC, 4 cases (28.57%) were negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her 2 neu. Conclusion: Young breast cancer patients present with higher stage, higher tumor grade and hormonal receptor negative status. More studies are needed to investigate survival and post treatment recurrence in young females with breast cancer.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 9, 2021
Histopathological Findings of Endometrial Curettage Specimens in Women Having Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Dr. Manjani. S, Dr. Madhumittha. R, Dr. Chitra. T, Dr. Harke. A.B, Dr. Viswanathan. P, Dr. Saravanan. E, Dr. Karthik. S, Dr. Shobana. B, Dr. Srismitha. S
Page no 13-18
Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding can manifest in various ways and is one of the common reasons for visit to the gynaecology OPD. Finding out the etiology is of paramount importance in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Histopathological study of endometrial curettings is one of the key ways to diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted as a prospective study spanning over 2 year in the pathology Department of KIMS. The study participants include women with abnormal uterine bleeding who are subjected to general physical examination and basic laboratory investigations. Curettage specimens from these patients were subjected to histopathological examination to find out the etiology. Results: Examination was done on curettage specimens of 150 women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. The functional causes are more common than organic causes and the proportion increases as the age advances. Hyperplasias either simple, complex or atypical are more common organic etiologies. Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy encountered in the endometrial specimens. Conclusion: There are numerous functional and organic causes that can manifest as abnormal different bleeding. Diagnosis of these causes relies mainly on the histopathological examination of the curettage specimens. Hence management of abnormal uterine bleeding causes depends upon the histopathological diagnosis.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 9, 2021
Prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) In the Patients Presenting With Acute Viral Hepatitis at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Rajkot, Western India
Dr. Nirali Daftary, Dr. Dipika Patel
Page no 19-22
Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a systemic infection affecting the liver predominantly. It is a major public health problem in India and other developing nations having inadequate sanitary conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the trends of Hepatitis A & E & their coinfection in a tertiary care hospital so that appropriate management of cases as well as prevention can be planned. Material & Methods: Over a 1-year period, a total of 1074 serum samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of hepatitis. The serum samples were screened for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV. Seasonal variation & age group wise seropositivity of hepatitis A& E was studied. Results: Out of the total 1074 samples screened, the percentage positivity of Hepatitis A was 6% and Hepatits E was 15% respectively. Of both Hepatitis A & E positive cases, males outnumbered females. Majority of HAV positive cases were children whereas majority of hepatitis E positive cases were adults. Conclusion: The prevalence of HEV was more than HAV in enterically transmitted viruses, making them a major public health problem in our area. Seasonal trends of infection were observed in addition, co-infection though infrequent, but still detected in one case.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 11, 2021
Molecular Detection of Enteric Viruses in Treated Wastewater, Surface and Groundwater in Errachidia Region, Morocco
Rachid Bounagua, Hicham El Rhaffouli, Fatima El Boukhrissi, Naoufel Rahmatallah, Zakaria Yassin, Hind El Kasraoui, Abdelillah Laraqui, Coralie Portelli-Clerc, Yassine Sekhsoukh, Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri
Page no 23-28
One-year surveillance for enteric viruses in raw sewage, treated water and groundwater near of near effluents from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) of Errachidia, Morocco from March 2018 to April 2019. samples were carried out in 1-liter bottles sterile propylene at the levels of raw water, treated water, and effluent water at several points and well water. Virus concentration was performed according to an end point filtration on cellulose nitrate filter of 0.2µm pore. A total of 108 was screened for Enterovirus (EV), Rotavirus (RV), Norovirus (NoV) and Hepatitis A (HAV) using a real time RT-PCR technique. The study shows a persistence of the contamination of the treated water, effluents and groundwater by EV, NoV and RV. Contrariwise, no HAV was detected in any sample performed during the study period. Detection rate for EV ranged from 100% for surface water to 50% for groundwater. For NoV detection rate ranged from 100% to 33% for surface and groundwater respectively while RV was detected in 8% to 42% in surface water and 0% to 8% in groundwater. These results suggest that enteric virus contamination of wadi Ziz negatively impact on their microbiological quality since they are used for irrigation and drinking intake, which exposes the population of the region to constant risk of acute gastroenteritis, especially in children.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 22, 2021
Clinicopathological Studies on the Effect of Insulin as Spray on Diabetic Wound Healing in Albino Rats
Shaimaa Salah, Atef M. Khalil, Amany S. Mawas, Mouchira Mohamed Mohi Eldin
Page no 29-39
This study we investigated the effects of insulin spray treatment on skin wounds in diabetic rats. Thirty rats were used for experiment. Rats were divided into 3 groups. group 1 serve as control group. Group 2 was diabetic without treatment. Group 3 was diabetic and treated with insulin spray daily for eight days. Diabetus was inducted by injection of alloxan at dose 100mg\kg b.w. Artificial wounds (8-mm diameter) were created in all rats on the day 3 of the experiment. Wound gaps were measured at (Zero, 2th, 4th, 6th and 8th) days post wound (pw). Animals sacrificed at 8th day (p w). Serum was collected for biochemical analyses and wound tissues were excised for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. The results showed significance increase in liver and kidneys analysis, but significance decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in diabetic rats when compared with healthy rats. Level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased in group 2 & 3 in comparison to control group. Histological findings showed contracted wounds in insulin spray group. Microscopic finding showed septic wounds in diabetic animals in contrast to insulin treated rats, which displayed re-epithelization and remodeling in wound injury at 8th day (ip). It could be concluded that insulin spray is able to accelerate the process of wound healing in diabetic rats.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 23, 2021
Detection of Precancerous Cells and Incidence of Human Papillomavirus among Women of Reproductive Age Attending Selected Hospitals in Katsina
Abdulkadir B, Hayatudeen M. R, Munir R. G, Aminu M, Shuaibu M, Abdulkarim B, Oyero, S. K
Page no 40-45
Infection with oncogenic or high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types significantly triggers the development of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown; besides, prevalence data that governs research and policy is often inadequate or nonexistent. This study aims to detect precancerous cells and elucidate the incidence of HPV in cervical cancer among women attending selected hospitals in Katsina State. This was a preliminary study conducted in two hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the incidence and risk factors for the infection in Katsina State, Nigeria. The employed study design was Hospital based and cross sectional, involving the use of structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic and clinical data. Sixty (60) randomly selected women aged 18 years and above were recruited from gynaecology clinics in General Hospital, Katsina and Turai Umar Yar'adua Maternal and Children Hospital (TUYMCH). Relevant sexual and socio-demographic information were obtained from each subject using a questionnaire. Sixty (60) cervical scraping samples were screened for both HPV and squamous intraepithelial llesion (SIL) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and conventional Papsmear, respectively. Data is presented in tables, and analyzed using the Graphpad Prism statistical software, version 69, at 0.05 level of significance and 95% confidence interval. The incidence rate of HPV infection obtained from ELISA test was 35% [(21/60)] and also 33.2% [(20/60)] with abnormal cytology results. Risk factors of the infection include low literacy levela; living in rural settlements; low parity; early menarche (< 15 years of age); early onset of first sexual intercourse (≤ 16 years of age) and multiple sexual partners with 48%. There was however, no statistically significant association between oral contraceptive usage and acquisition of the infections. The findings from this study have shown that there is a high possibility of detecting the DNA of hrHPV in women that are infected with HPV and those that have cervical dysplasia, which points out the possibility of these women developing cervical cancer. Further studies should be done using molecular screening techniques such as the linear Array, HPV Genotyping, and molecular characterization of HPV.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 28, 2021
Evaluation of Non-Neoplastic Pathology in Tumour Nephrectomy Specimens
Dr. Sana Fatima, Dr. Annapoorna Sireesha, Dr. Bhanupriya Kakarala
Page no 46-52
Renal neoplasms are one of the most common cancers contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. In patients undergoing nephrectomy for renal neoplasm, the structural integrity and function of contralateral kidney assumes extreme importance. Non-neoplastic renal tissue accompanying the tumour provides an opportunity to recognize non neoplastic pathological changes and to identify patients at risk for progressive renal disease after nephrectomy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of non-neoplastic lesions in tumour nephrectomy specimens. We reviewed the hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of 100 tumour nephrectomy specimens with our emphasis on studying the non-neoplastic renal parenchyma. Our study revealed significant non-neoplastic lesions in 76 of the total 100 specimens evaluated with Diabetic Nephropathy being the most common (36%). Identification of renal non-neoplastic pathology may lead to initiation of medical intervention and can facilitate early preventive and treatment measures ensuring better quality of life for the patient.
CASE REPORT | Jan. 30, 2021
Dual Infection in a COVID 19 Patient – Mucormycosis and Actinomycosis
Minnu Roy, Sankar S, Rajiv Kumar
Page no 53-55
Since the rise of the pandemic COVID 19, we see a variety of clinical manifestations of Corona virus multisystem wise. During and post infection, patients are prone for cardiac diseases and its complications, even sudden deaths following thromboembolism. Fungal infections are also now making their way into this pandemic as secondary infections due to altered immunity in these individuals. We present a patient of COVID 19 infection who developed dual infection– mucormycosis and actinomycosis. We also report about mucor mycosis in a non COVID patient who was immunocompromised due to diabetes mellitus.