ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 10, 2019
Study of Hematological Manifestations in HIV/AIDS and To Assess Their Correlation to Severity of Disease
Dhiraj Saini, R. P Agrawal, B. L Meena
Page no 746-748
Background: Haemotological abnormalities were common in patients with HIV infection. The common peripheral blood findings include anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia or pancytopenia. These abnormalities may be attributable to the direct toxic effect of the virus on progenitor cells, ineffective hematopoiesis, opportunistic infections, immune mechanisms and drug reactions. Methods: It was a hospital based observational descriptive study conducted in department of medicine and ART centre at S P medical College Bikaner and associated group of hospital. Results: Leucopenia was seen in 46% cases and thrombocytopenia in 13% of cases. Hemoglobin level below 10gm% was seen in 65%. Mean HB level in HIV patients was 8.32±2.64/dl, total WBC level was 4.27±0.54×103 cells/μl, Absolute lymphocytes level was 0.059±0.023×103 cells/μl and platelet level was 13.29±6.76×103 cells/μL. Conclusion: Hematological abnormalities were common in patients with Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. Hemoglobin concentration, percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly reduced.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 20, 2019
Syrian Refugees at Risk of Hepatitis Diseases in Turkey, in Şanliurfa?
Zehra KEKLİK, İbrahim KORUK, Şule ALLAHVERDİ
Page no 749-758
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B/C diseases among Syrian refugees living outside the temporary accommodation centers in Şanlıurfa city center, and individuals' levels of knowledge and risky behaviors related to these diseases. Methods: The research is cross-sectional. It was carried out with 473 Syrian refugees who were living in Şanlıurfa city center outside the temporary accommodation centers in April 2015 – 2016. Cluster sampling method was preferred in the selection of the sample. The questionnaire form, which was prepared by the researchers, was applied, and a venous blood sample was collected from the individuals during data collection. HBsAg, Anti-HBs, Anti-HBc total and Anti-HCV levels of the blood samples were examined. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used in the evaluation of the data. Statistical analyses were performed at 95% confidence level. p<0.05 value was accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the Syrians, 62.2% were women and 37.8% men, with a median age of 34.0. 25.6% of participants had never attended school, and 82.2% of them were married. 57.3% of asylum seekers were Arabian, and 41.9% were Kurdish. 80.1% of them didn't know enough Turkish to communicate. Participants' average monthly income was 171$. An average of 8.6 individuals was living in the household, and the individual/room rate was 3.2. 60.3% of Syrian refugees had not heard of hepatitis B disease, and 69.1% of them had not heard of hepatitis C disease. Only 2.3% (n=11) of the individuals correctly answered all the questions about the transmission and prevention of hepatitis B/C diseases. 1.7% of Syrian refugees were HBsAg positive, 23.9% were Anti-HBc total positive, and 0.4% of them were Anti-HCV positive. 25.2% of Syrian refugees were anti-HBS positive, while 7.1% were immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of HBsAg and Anti-HC
CASE REPORT | Dec. 25, 2019
Rhino- Orbito Cerebral Mucormycosis – Uncontrolled, Untimely and Unsaved
Dr. Philip Mathew, Dr. Thamil Amudhan C R, Dr. G. Jeevan Kumar, Dr. Rishabh Bhanot, Dr. Paul Mathai, Dr. Rahul Vinay Chandra Tiwari
Page no 759-761
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection primarily caused by fungi belongs to class Zygomycetes, order Mucorales and family Mucoracae. It is common in patient with diabetes mellitus (DM), systemic immunocompromise and iron overload. Here by we present a case report of Rhino- Orbito Cerebral Mucormycosis which is fatal if undiagnosed and unterated in correct time and way.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 25, 2019
Evaluation of Sexual Dimorphism in North India Population Using Morphometric Analysis of Foramen Magnum
Dr. Gaurav Katheriya, Dr Nida Khan, Dr. Vikram Khanna, Dr. Ranjitkumar Patil, Dr. Anurag Tripathi, Dr. Vandana Singh
Page no 762-765
Objectives: The study was planned to evaluate the role of morphometric analysis of foramen magnum in determining sexual dimorphism. Also, we have compared the measurement of foramen magnum with age of individual. Material & Methods: study was retrospectively and scans of CBCT were retrieved from archives of department. Length and width of foramen magnum in adults was measured. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Mean length and width of foramen magnum was greater in males (34.65mm, 31.22mm) as compare to females (33.59mm, 30.11mm) and it was statistically significant (p<0.05). Mean length decreased in dimension i.e. from 35.22mm to 33.73mm as age progressed (18-60 years). Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism can be determined using foramen magnum dimensions. However, age estimation by morphometric analysis of foramen magnum requires more research.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 26, 2019
Impact of a Healthy Program on Weight Reduction using Social Media: A Voluntary Community-oriented Campaign through a Multidisciplinary Approach
Dr. Kawthar AlEid, Ms. Areej Alsaad, Dr. AbdulAziz Aljawder, Dr. Adel Salman Al Sayyad, Ms.Layla Almadani
Page no 766-773
Aim: To assess the effects of a voluntary, community-oriented campaign using social media through a multidisciplinary approach on body weight. Setting and Design: A survey, community-oriented using popular social media accounts. Methods: 268 followers from the community participated in the study using a questionnaire, which was constructed by a study group and self-filled online using google drive. Results: A total of 268 followers participated in the study. A healthy program had been applied by 43.3% of the survey respondents, consisting of a unified healthy diet and mild-moderate intensity exercises for less than a year, while only 13.1% applied it for more than a year. Almost half the survey respondents (48.5%) followed the campaign for less than one year, and 41.8% for more than one year. There were changes in diet and nutritional habits on the followers, after following/applying the healthy program. Their habit of practicing physical activities was improved. The voluntary community campaign raised awareness among participants and produced positive psychological eating behavioral changes. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in weight reduction after following the healthy program for more than one year and to a lesser extent for those who followed it for less than one year.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 26, 2019
A Review of the Techniques and Guidelines in Adult Autopsies
Anu Sasidharan, Nadia M. Al-Kandary
Page no 774-790
A medico-legal autopsy on an adult if performed completely and systematicall, with a reasonable uniformity and clarity can help in the betterment of outcomes while providing justice. The pre-requisites prior to an autopsy, and a thorough external examination are very important before moving on with the internal examination. In many situations a proper external examination will be sufficient to give a medico-legal report; if done methodically. There are four types of skin incisions employed in a medico-legal autopsy to examine three body cavities. The internal examination can be done using four dissection techniques as outlined in the existing literature. Examination of brain, heart, neck structures, spinal column and genitalia are very important and requires an organized approach in order to not to miss salient findings. Finally, while closure of the cadaver the doctors must bear a very important fact in mind that the body on the table was once housed by a living being and hence s/he must be treated with the same respect and dignity as one would expect him/herself to be treated by others.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 28, 2019
Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Pioglitazone and Metformin on HOMA IR and Hba1c in Patient of Prediabetes
Dr. Mohd Ashraful Abeddin, Dr. Diwakar Naidu G
Page no 791-796
| DOI: 10.36348/sjm.2019.v04i12.007
Introduction: In India, the number of people with diabetes is increasing day-by-day. Due to a sole “Asian Indian Phenotype,” Indians develop diabetes an era earlier and have an earlier onset of complications. Hence, it is essential to evaluate earlier stage of disease progression. Prediabetes, typically defined as blood glucose levels above normal but below the thresholds of diagnosis of diabetes, is a risk state that defines a high chance of developing diabetes. Methods: The present study was Prospective, open label, comparative, randomized, parallel group, single center study conducted at Department of General Medicine, Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital & Research Centre, Hyderabad. Comparison of two active treatment groups over a period of six months. Sixty patients of either sex in the age of more than 40 years with prediabetes, with HbAlc in the range of 5.7 to 6.4 % at screening as per ADA. The effect of metformin and pioglitazone were observed on various parameters i.e. Serum Insulin, FBG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR. Results: In metformin group the mean change in HOMA-IR from baseline to 6 months was 3.44 to 2.21 (-1.23); on the other hand, in Pioglitazone group from baseline to 6 months was 3.30 to 1.91 (-1.39). Whereas, serum insulin from 37.65 to 28.75 (-8.9) in metformin group; in Pioglitazone group from 37.43 to 23.75 (-13.68). Pioglitazone statistically highly significant than metformin group in improving glycemic indices. Conclusions: Though metformin and pioglitazone were equally effective in improving glycemic indices yet pioglitazone showed better results in improving Serum Insulin, FBG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR as compared with Metformin. Pioglitazone had minimal side effects as compared to Metformin
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 30, 2019
Clinical Profile and Major Co-Morbidities among Hospitalized Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Tertiary Care Hospital Experience
Dr. Nityananda Baruri, Dr. Manoj Kumar Malakar, Dr. Goutam Kumar Lasker, Dr. Gopal Chandra Roy
Page no 797-801
| DOI: 10.36348/sjm.2019.v04i12.008
Background: Malnutrition is a general term and often refers to under nutrition resulting from inadequate consumption, poor absorption, or excessive loss of nutrients, but the term also encompasses over nutrition. Aim of the Study: Aim of the study was to find out the clinical profile and major co-morbidities among hospitalized children with severe acute malnutrition at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Khulna Medical College and Hospital, Khulna, Bangladesh, over one year from January 2019 to December 2019. Result: A total of 1810 children were enrolled and analyzed in this study. Table 1 shows the baseline data of our study. Most 59.67% of patients were from the age group 1-12 months, 588(32.49%) patients were from the age group 13-24 months, and 142(7.85%) patients were from the age group 25-59 months. Conclusion: Determinants of severe malnutrition include faulty feeding practices, ignorance about nutritional needs, repeated infections, large family size, and low socioeconomic status. The weight-height ratio is one of the best among the criteria for identifying SAM, and hence, every child should be screened adequately on presentation.