Abstract: The antimicrobial resistance among gram negative bacteria is increasing among patients, community and healthcare workers. Determination of these species and their resistance profile is mandatory for successful empiric antibiotic therapy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of drug resistant gram negative isolates from community and healthcare workers in Iran. A total of 10 previous published studies were found while searching internet searching engines including PubMed, Google scholar, Sciverse, and so on. The key words of “gram negative”, “drug resistant”, “healthcare workers”, “community” and “Iran” were searched in the noted searching engines. The publications related to the healthcare, patients and hospital settings were excluded from the study. Moreover, healthcare workers of children and adults/ageing and in addition, community settings were included in the study. Data were analyzed with Exel software. Among the published studies, most of bacterial species among healthcare workers and community were in Enterobacteriacea family, mostly E. coli (3.75%) and K. pneumonia (3.74%), A. bumanii (3%), P. aeruginosa (1.25%), E. aerugenes (1.2%), Proteus spp (0.1%) and other species. Two publications were about caregiver’s mobile phones and 2 were associated with hands. Moreover, community and workers hands were more contaminated than phone and coats. The results showed that community and healthcare workers can play a role in contamination spread. Hands of healthcare workers were the highest level of contamination. The publications on MDR isolates were scarce.
Original Research Article
March 30, 2017
Attitude of Pharmacist about the Risk Factors of Stroke During HAJJ: Cross Sectional Study in Pharmacy Students
Asma Eraj, Asra Hameed
Page Numbers : 34-39
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2017.v02i02.002
Abstract: Stroke is an emergency condition in which blood supply get effected and blood flow to brain stops and brain cells starts to die. Stroke is a second leading cause of hospitalization during Hajj. There are six types of stroke. There are many risk factors which may lead to stroke during Hajj such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, depression, atrial fibrillation, increased volume of heart, angioplasty, elderly, renal disease, calcium and fat deposition in heart vessels and rheumatic fever etc. Our survey aims to find its awareness in pharmacy undergraduates. A cross sectional and random sampling method was used to collect data in the month of August and September 2015. Data was collected from 100 pharmacy undergraduates from Karachi, Pakistan. According to our survey 100% pharmacy undergraduates have basic knowledge about stroke, 58% have awareness about the second leading cause of hospitalization during Hajj, 74.5% have knowledge about types of stroke and 69.9% have awareness about the risk factor of stroke during Hajj. 88% pharmacist have knowledge that how to prevent stroke during Hajj. We concluded that there is lack of awareness. Steps should be taken to spread its awareness in layman.
March 30, 2017
Simultaneous bilateral posterior fracture-dislocation of the shoulder: a rare case report
Emre ONER, MD, Mehmet UNLU, MD
Page Numbers : 40-43
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2017.v02i02.003
Abstract: Simultaneous bilateral posterior dislocation of the shoulder complicated with a fracture (fracture-dislocation) is an extremely rare condition and the relevant literature contains very few published case reports. Besides its rarity, this complicated condition may cause delays in diagnosis because of the physicians’ tendency to use plain radiography which is known to have low sensitivity in detecting concomitant fractures. This report describes a successfully treated case of simultaneous bilateral fracture-dislocation of the shoulder which could be clarified by computed tomography (CT) performed following a failed reduction of the shoulders. In conclusion, physicians should consider this rare entity and if there is a doubt CT should be performed for accurate diagnosis.
March 30, 2017
Review Article on Beliefs and Myths on Leprosy
Uzma eram, Deoshree akhouri, Shazia Parveen
Page Numbers : 44-46
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2017.v02i02.004
Abstract: Leprosy is also called as ‘numbing skin disease’ or ‘Hansen’s disease’. The stigma attached to leprosy persists in many countries. At an early stage, leprosy may manifest itself only in mild skin lesions, but if left untreated, these lesions can become much more noticeable. Some people with leprosy may have a distinctive odour caused by infected ulcers. Since ancient times, leprosy has been interpreted as God’s punishment of the sinful. Other causes of leprosy which people have been reported to traditionally believe are witchcraft, a curse, trespassing of food taboos, contagion, and being hereditary. Leprosy is more a social problem rather than just a medical disease. A review of the literature showed that the stigma, misconceptions and negative attitudes towards leprosy patients are prevalent in most communities. Most misconceptions pertaining to leprosy, in particular the beliefs in heredity, evil spirits and contact with prostitutes as causes of leprosy, were found to be most common. In addition, deformities arising as a consequence of untreated leprosy played a significant part in increasing the stigma to leprosy. Health providers should also learn problem-solving skills to assess the patients’ reasons for defaulting treatment or follow-up and act on them. This means that they should be trained on techniques to analyse and motivate behaviour change.
March 30, 2017
Acquired Clinical Vulnerability Test - Appraising Utility and Significance of Measuring Total Antioxidant Capacity as a Public Health Tool
Srivastava AK, Kumar S
Page Numbers : 47-56
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2017.v02i02.005
Abstract: The prevalence of lifestyle diseases or the Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are on the rise colossally as well as globally. The key contributors are understood to be the pollutants and contaminants present in local ambient environment that trigger the onset of cellular oxidative stress i.e. imbalance in levels of oxidants and antioxidants at cell level, and the pro-inflammatory changes. Reports in literature indicate a possibility of association between risk of increase in lifestyle-disease-incidences and the acquisition of clinical vulnerability (ACV) in subjects chronically exposed to pollutants. Occurrence of oxidative stress is known to be the first and foremost change for the onset of NCDs. Therefore a periodic assessment of imbalance in levels of oxidants and antioxidants is plausible that can be performed by determining levels of cellular oxidative damage and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in blood or body fluids. Elucidation of subnormal TAC can provide an opportunity for protection from ACV or getting predisposed to diseases and disorders through evidence based timely supplementation of antioxidants. In this review, we hypothesize, and appraise, the utility and significance of TAC measurements as a public health tool for monitoring ACV. Its measurement at different levels of NCD prevention shall result in efficient implementation of global action program for control of NCDs burden. Points in approval are ease, reliability, specificity, reproducibility, and the inexpensiveness of the method. We also contend that further research could lead to development of a proper cocktail of antioxidants to be used as adjuvant therapeutic measures to delay or reverse existing NCDs and their impact in individuals. We propose TAC as an early indicator that can be used to detect and control ACV and related NCDs.
Original Research Article
March 30, 2017
Contraceptive awareness in reproductive aged Saudi women of Hail region
Nuzhat Parveen, Buthina Hammoud AlShammari, Linh Abdullah AlRashedy, Alanoud Bader Fahad AlRashed, Tahany Amesh Saad Alarjawe, Meznah Saud AlDuhaim
Page Numbers : 57-62
DOI : 10.36348/sjm.2017.v02i02.006
Abstract: The Aim of the study was to ascertain contraceptive awareness in Saudi women of Hail region and to reveal their knowledge with respect to their specific socio demographic factors. Cross sectional survey (n=500) conducted in reproductive age Saudi women of Hail region. Sample population was approached by direct interview by undergraduate medical students and questionnaire shared by social media. Questionnaire included their age, education, knowledge, use of any method and contraceptive preferences. 500 Saudi women of Hail region were approached from 15 to 55 years. Most women (82%) interviewed were highly educated up to university level. 47% of respondents were young 25 to 34 years of age, 31 % were 35 to 44 years. 93% of women were familiar to contraception before but 77.8 % used it ever in their lives. A good percentage of women (88.0%) used it without prescriptions. 71.2% get this information from media (social, print and broadcasting media), 68.8% from discussion with relatives and same percentage were educated by their doctors. Oral contraceptive pills are the most familiar method while other methods need to be publicized. 55.2% of respondents feel that their knowledge about different contraceptive methods is not enough and they urged on the need to provide more awareness and education about this. There is a great need to create more awareness about different methods and their appropriate use in Hail region. Health professionals as well as social media should be involved in this education and motivation.