ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 17, 2023
Comparative Study of Lipid Profile between Hypertensive Patient and Normotensive Individuals in Northern Region of Bangladesh
Dr. Md. Zainal Abedin , Dr. Md. Fakhrul Islam Khaled, Dr. Rabindra Nath Barman, Dr. Probal Sutradhar, Dr. Md. Tufazzal Hossen, Prof. Dr. Md. Zakir Hossain
Page no 1-7
Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are well-established and partially overlapping risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension affects nearly 26% of the adult population worldwide and is an important independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular accidents and death. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and Hypertension is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Hypertension has been reported to be responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all cardiovascular deaths in East Asians. Objective: To compare the lipid profile of hypertensive patients with normotensive individuals and socio-demographic and dyslipidemia patterns in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methodology: A total of 167 hypertensive patients. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. An equal number of normotensive individuals were selected at Hypertension & Research Center, Rangpur and the Department of Medicine, Rangpur medical college hospital, Rangpur, from February 2013 to November 2013. Consecutive purposive sampling method and fasting lipid profile was done. Informed written consent was taken from the patient and the normotensive individual. Results: In this study, we studied a total of 334 patients; among them, 167 were hypertensive, and an equal number of normotensive individuals. The age range for hypertensive patients was 20-89 years, whereas for normotensive patients was 20-80. The mean age of the study population was 47.58 (SD±12.027) for the hypertensive group and 40.29 (SD±15.493) for the normotensive group. Males were dominant in both hypertensive (57.5% Vs 42.5%) and normotensive individuals (66.5% Vs 33.5%). The hypertensive population lived more in urban areas (55.6% vs 53.29%). Conclusion: Sub-categorized serum lipid profile as this study shows exceptionally high total cholesterol, high triglycerides and borderline LDL-cholesterol levels are positively associated with Hypertension. Higher lipids levels may be attributed to physical inactivity and stress. So timely lipid profile assessment is necessary in all hypertensive cases, especially in northern Bangladesh, to stop further aggravation and risks of coronary artery diseases.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 21, 2023
Connection of Low Serum Testosterone Levels in Cardiovascular Disease in Metabolic Syndrome Patients with Diagnosis of Critic Iliac Artery Stenosis (TASC II A and B) and Can Exercise Improve those Levels and Primary Potency of Revascularization after Surgical and Endovascular Treatment? (Pilot Study)
Sid Solaković, Hajrudin Spahović, Ratko Pavlović, Anes Jogunčić, Nina Solaković, Mensur Vrcić, Fedja Hajrulahović
Page no 8-17
Introduction: Low concentration of free testosterone and low serum testosterone levels are associated in males patients with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease and in some cases in connection with critic iliac stenosis and also in most cases with lack of physical activity. Exercise can be also important factor to improve primary bypass and endovascular potency and general health benefits after surigal and endovascular treatment in patients with critical ishemia over 75% of lumen obstruction of short liiac artery segment have positive impact on improvemt of generely Testosterone Levels. Subjects and Methods: 72 selected Patients with Cardiovascular Disease with Metabolic Syndrome and Critic Iliac Artery Stenosis (TASC II A and B) were observed in period 3 years between ferbruary 2015 and ferbruary 2018. In focus was 1 year potency after invasive and minimalinvasive tertmant (45 patients treated with surgical dacron reconstruction and 25 patients with endovascular tretmant of short segment critical iliac artery stenosis (TASC II A and B). Results: In the total population no difference in changes of CIMT from baseline was observed between the standard exercise group and controls. However, there was no significant interaction between the effect of exercise training and primary bypass potency during 1 year. Conclusion: Primary potency of Endovascular procedure and Dacron bypass revascularization after 1 year in exercise training group significantly rise of testosterone levels higher but still not therapy adequate. With potential optimization testosterone therapy levels we can answer of the question. Is any major influence on primary bypass potency and are higher levels of free testosterone are preventing further progressing of cardiovascular disease and generel symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerosis?
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 23, 2023
General Anesthesia Complications in Different Surgeries: A Single Center Study in Bangladesh
Dr. Asma Afroz, Dr. Rehan Uddin Khan, Dr. Chandra Shekhor Kormokar
Page no 18-23
Background: General anesthesia is very common anesthetic procedure which is used in several surgical approaches. Without general anesthesia many of these surgeries are lifesaving or life-changing and would not be possible. But all medical procedures are associated with some complications, even when they are performed by experts. The severity and rate of these complications depend on patient’s state of health, age or general lifestyle. Though the general anesthesia using is considered safe, but it comes with certain complications. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to assess the complications of general anesthesia in different surgeries. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. The study was conducted in the Department of Aneaesthesia, ICU & Pain Medicine, Shaheed Suharawardy Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from January 2019 to December 2019. In total 57 participants in treatment under various department of the mentioned hospital and was prepared for surgery were included as the study subjects. All the demographic as well as clinical data were recorded. As per necessity all data were processed, analyzed and disseminated by using MS Excel and SPSS version 23.0 program. Results: As the complications of general anesthesia among our participants, we found somnolence, ‘dry mouth/increased thirst’ and pain in operated place were found in more than 50% cases separately which were found in 67%, 79% and 82% cases respectively. On the other hand, in 25>50% cases disorder of consciousness (25%), ‘weakness and pain of muscles (28%)’, ‘nausea and vomiting (30%)’, headache (33%) and ‘sore throat/hoarseness (37%)’ were found separately which was noticeable. Besides these, breathing problems, urination problems and feeling cold/chills were observed in some cases. Conclusion: Usually, general anesthesia is a safe way for ensuring patient’s safety and comfort during surgery, but till now it is associated with some complications which have to be recognized and deal with. Contentious development in the procedure of using general anesthesia is necessary to reduce unwanted complication.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 23, 2023
Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea- A Randomized Controlled Trial Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh
Dr. Md. Saiful Islam, Prof. Dr. Syed Shafi Ahmed, Dr. Salahuddin Mahmud, Dr. Abdullah Al Mamun, Dr. Md. Kamrul Hasan, Nazmul Hasan, Dr. Kanta Halder, Dr. Shahrina Afroze Tisha
Page no 24-32
Background: Acute rotavirus diarrhea is one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, acts by inhibiting the maturation of rotavirus viral protein 7 thus interferes with viral morphogenesis. Aim of the study: was to evaluate the role of nitazoxanide in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in 6 months to 2 years aged children. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Bangladesh Shishu Hospital & Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh from June 2018 to July 2020. A total of 70 children with acute onset diarrhea of <48 hours. duration was included in this study. All the studied patients were divided into two equal groups (group I and group II) by lottery, each comprising 35 children. The groupI represented the study group who received standard treatment of diarrhea plus oral nitazoxanide (15mg/kg/day) twice daily for 3 days and the group II is the control group received standard treatment only. Results: Study demonstrated that maximum number of patients 22 (31.4%) were between 14-17 months of age group and 36% patients came from rural, 64% from urban areas. Study showed before commencement of treatment most of the patients in both groups experienced some dehydration, vomiting, fever, & abdominal distension. At 48 hours’ improvement was observed in both groups, comparatively higher in group I. Difference of some dehydration and vomiting improvement between two groups were statistically significant (p <0.05). After 3 days’ treatment normal stool consistency was found in 24(68.5%) patients in group I & 10 (28.5%) in group II patients. The difference was also statistically significant (p=<0.05). Mean time of resolution of diarrhea 62.5 hours in Group-I and 96.5 hours in group-II. Compared to the group II, group I showed decrease in mean time of resolution of diarrhea (p= 0.001). The mean duration of hospital stay was prolonged in group-II (86.5 hours vs. 102.5 hours in group I & II respectively), the difference was statistically significant (p˂0.05). Conclusion: In the present study, oral nitazoxanide was found effective in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in 6 months to 2 years old children.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 26, 2023
Outcome of Classical Tubularized Incised-Plate Urethroplasty (TIP) for Primary Anterior Hypospadias Repair: 5 Years’ Experience
S M Mahmud, Ummey Hany Tashfika, Kazi Md Noor-ul Ferdous
Page no 33-37
Introduction: Classical Tubularized Incised-plate Urethroplasty (TIP) is a surgical procedure used to repair hypospadias, which is a birth defect in which the opening of the urethra located on the underside of the penis rather than at the tip. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome of classical tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bangladesh Shishu Hospital & Institute, Dhaka from July 2017 to June 2022. Total 53 patients were included in this study. Result: In the current study, the mean age of participants was 43.08±21.72 months where the minimum age was 12 months and maximum age was 103 months. The mean weight of participants was 19.25±7.78 kg. The mean penile length of participants was 35.9±8.05 mm. The mean operation time was 73.24±4.80 minutes. Mean operation cost was 277.50±40.46 US$. Mean hospital stay was 10.7±0.75 days. In our study, 15.09% had UC fistula, 5.66% had wound infection and 7.54% had meatal stenosis. Follow up period was 7.9±2.1 months. In this study, more than half (50.94%) had distal penile hypospadias, 28.30% had coronal hypospadias and 20.75% had sub-coronal hypospadias. Conclusion: According to the findings of our study, Tubularized Incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasty is found to be a safe and reliable technique for hypospadias repair. The rate of complications was found low in TIP urethroplasty.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Jan. 30, 2023
Practices of COVID-19 Pandemic Containment Measures among TVET Students in Kakamega County, Kenya
Erick Wanyama Mukoche, Dr. Maximilla Wanzala, Prof. Edwin Kadima Wamukoya
Page no 38-43
The COVID-19 pandemic affected all areas in the country. One area whose functioning had been significantly impacted by COVID-19 was education. The goal of this research was to determine practices of covid-19 pandemic containment measures among TVET students in Kakamega County. Cross-sectional research was conducted using a questionnaire. TVET students around the country filled out the survey after it was made available to them online. It was determined whether or not there was a statistically significant correlation between KAP (knowledge and attitude) and other socio-demographic factors by using chi-square testing. Using binary logistic regression, we were able to isolate and adjust for any confounding variables. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis (version 26). According to the respondents' demographic information, the vast majority of participants were male. Participants' average age was under 24. Majority of the respondents were single (n = 306, 78.1%) and were studying for diploma qualification (n = 238, 60.7%). In addition, most of them were in their second year of study (n = 192, 49.0%). With regard to practices, at least six practices were adhered to by 212 (54.1%) of the respondents. These eight PP include things like washing hands and using proper hygiene (70.7%), wearing of face masks (51.0%), and avoiding public places and maintaining a safe distance between individuals (50.9%). (74.0 percent and 64.3 percent respectively). According to the results of the binary logistic regression, females engaged in less harmful activities than men did with respect to COVID-19 (OR = 0.323, p 0.001). Age and academic year were also shown to have a role in the respondents' habits. Students aged 30 and over had a lower odd of engaging in negative behaviors than those aged 24 and under (OR = 0.631, p = 0.0083). In conclusion, over half of respondents were found to adhere to at least six measures, including hand washing and other forms of cleanliness, mask use, avoiding crowded areas, and keeping a safe space between themselves and others. However, a sizable percentage engaged in at least three harmful habits. Based on the findings of this research, the following are the recommended that for future studies, it will be important to get feedback from educators as well as students. The results of such research in the future would add to the body of data supporting the use of confinement techniques.