ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 13, 2022
Impact of the Mouth Breathing Occurred During Childhood with Lordotic Changes; An Analytic Study
Maham Waseem, Asmi Shaheen, Muhammad Ilyas, Waheed Ul Hamid, Saba Iqbal, Gul Muhammad Shaikh
Page no 94-98
Introduction: Nasopharyngeal passages are the primary passageway for respiratory exchange in humans. But chronic obstruction of the nasal passage encountered in youth causes a physiological shift in normal breathing pattern from nasal to oral breathing. Oral breathing results in craniofacial modification and postural adjustments. This study will be helpful for orthodontists to observe the cervical vertebral column area in growing children to prevent changes in cervical lordosis and associated sequelae from developing by early intervention, when required. Material & Methods: In this case control study conducted at the ’Montmorency College of Dentistry over 6 month period from 10th July, 2017 till 10th January, 2018, 60 patients fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, were recruited from OPD and divided into two groups. Group “A” patients showing alteration in their cervical lordosis as observed on lateral cephalograms and group “B” patients with normal cervical lordosis on lateral cephalograms. Their breathing pattern, BMI and other demographic information were recorded. All the collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 23.0. Results: Mean age of the patients in group A (altered cervical lordosis) was 9.13 (+/- 1.68) years and in group B (normal cervical lordosis) was 8.77 (+/-1.91) years). Chi square test was applied for comparison of groups, p-value ≤ 0.05 considered as statistically significant. The alteration in cervical lordosis had a statistically significant association with oral breathing when compared with nasal breathers, chi square value 27.149 (p value 0.000). Conclusion: Significant association between alteration in cervical lordosis and oral breathing.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 16, 2022
Retrospective Analysis of Complications from Prostate Cancer among Nigerians
Dr. John E. Raphael, Dr. Victor Abhulimen
Page no 99-104
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) may be asymptomatic at an early stage and may run an indolent course that requires minimal or no treatment. Early diagnosis through screening reduces the rate of advanced diseases. Whereas, in the western countries where screening is more prevalent, many presents early with a chance for curative treatment. In Africa, late presentation is often the case with palliative treatment sadly the only choice. Objective: To evaluate the associated complications in patients with prostate cancer and assess the Gleason’s grade as a risk factor for complications observed in patients with prostate cancer, in Port Harcourt, Rivers, Nigeria. Method and Methodology: This was a retrospective study carried out over ten years, between January 2011 and December 2020. All patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer who presented to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Sophia clinic, and Rosivylle clinic were evaluated. The folders were retrieved and their age, presenting complaints, skeletal survey, and biopsy reports were evaluated. Patients with incomplete records were excluded from the study. These data were collated using Microsoft Excel 2016 version and they were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: There were 335 patients with PCa with a mean age of 68.71year. The commonest complication was urinary symptoms observed in 192 with urine retention 119(35.5%) and nephropathy 73(21.8%). The spine was the commonest site of bone spread observed in 160(47.8%) followed by the femur 62(18.5%). Anaemia was the next common. There was an association between age, presence of urinary symptoms, and bone involvement with the Gleason’s Grade. However, there was a strong association of the overall presence of complications with Gleason’s score. Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer tend to present with advanced disease in Port Harcourt. The most common presentation was lower urinary tract symptoms followed by low back pain. Complications are associated with high Gleason’s grade cancers. Screening may aid in early diagnosis and cure of the disease especially for men of African descent.
CASE REPORT | Feb. 18, 2022
Prolapsed Cecoureterocele an Unusual Cause of Female Acute Urinary Retention: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Dr. John E. Raphael, Dr. Itekena Wakama
Page no 105-108
Background: Urinary retention in females are rare. Ureterocoeles are uncommon causes of acute urinary retention in females. There are a wide variety and presentations of ureterocoeles with potentially diverse treatments. Open and endoscopic options have been described. We present a case of a 38-year-old female with acute urinary retention from a prolapsed ureterocoele associated with a stone. Objectives: To highlight caeco-ureterocoele as a rare cause of Acute Urinary Retention in females. A 38-year-old female presented with a history of severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) along with a urethral protrusion of a few weeks’ duration. Examination showed she was in retention with a tender irreducible and inflamed mass covered with mucosa protruding from the urethra. A urethral catheter was passed beside the mass to relieve the retention. A calculus was palpated in prolapsing mucosa consistent with a prolapsing caeco-ureterocoele. Under local anesthesia, the mucosa was incised and 1.5x1.5cm spherical calculus was extracted. Urine was observed flowing out of the ureterocoele. The patient improved significantly from her symptoms and a follow-up ultrasound scan did not show hydronephrosis. Conclusion: Prolapse caeco-ureterocoele with stone could cause acute urinary retention in females. A heightened index of suspicion is needed when a female presents with an associated urethral protrusion.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 18, 2022
Diagnosis Efficacy of Serological Test in Echinococcosis Cysts: A Retrospective Study
Salma Rouhi, Rajaa Nakhli, Maryem Tarmidi, Redouane Moutaj, Elmostafa Elmezouari
Page no 109-112
The diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is based on imaging, but it is recommended to use serological test to support imaging in inconclusive cases. We performed a retrospective analysis of serology results of patients with CE lesions, seen from January 2016 to March 2020, to evaluate the contribution of the serology in the diagnosis accuracy and sensitivity of CE. Sera from eligible patients, including 86 patients with probable CE lesion, were used, with 2 commercial seroassays (NovaLisaTM Echinococcus IgG; NovaTec Immunodiagnostica, Germany and Western Blot; ECHINOCOCCUS Western Blot (WB) IgG from LDBIO diagnostics). Sensitivity of seroassays to liver cyst wasn’t significantly higher than lung cyst, but a statically significant correlation has been found between positive CE serology and complicated cysts (82% versus 55% p<0.001). Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of ELISA test combined to Western blot (WB) were higher than those obtained with ELISA test alone (65% versus 82% p= 0,001). Combining a first level seroassays as ELISA test with a high specific test as WB provide the best diagnosis accuracy for CE.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 19, 2022
Evaluation of Illizarov Principle of Infected Nonunion Tibia
Dr. Md. Hasan, Dr. Md. Bahauddin Al Mamun, Dr. Masum Billah, Shahidul Islam, Nozrul Islam, Dr. Gulshan Ara Akhter
Page no 113-117
Background: Among several treatment options for the management of infected nonunion tibia, Illizarov technique is a newer one.Illizarov technic has many good advantages and features. But in Bangladesh we have very few research-based information regarding the effectiveness and outcomes applyingIllizarov principle in treatinginfected nonunion tibia. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and outcomes Illizarov principle in treating infected nonunion tibia. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Holy Family Red Crescent Hospital Dhaka Bangladesh during the period from January 2018 to December 2019. In total 27 patients with infected nonunion tibia were selected as the study population. Illizarov technic was applied for all of the patients. Before starting data collectionproper written consentsfrom all the participants were taken. A pre-designed semi-structured questioner was used in collecting necessary patient data. All data were processed, analyzed and disseminated by MS Office and SPSS version 20.0 as per need. Results: In this study, as postoperative complications, local pain with motion, local oedema, painful tenting of skin and pin tract infection were found in 3.705, 7.41%, 14.81% and 18.51% participants respectively. There was not a single case of deep infection or unacceptable malunion or non-union. As the final outcomes of this technic as per the Karlstrom and Olerud criteria, the highest 59% patients got ‘excellent’ result. Then 30%, 7% and the rest 4% patients got ‘good’, ‘fair’ and ‘poor’ result respectively. Conclusion: For the management of infected nonunion tibia,Illizarov technic opened a new era. Considering the god features of this technic like less blood loss, lower complication rate, shorter duration of hospital staying and prompt healing physicians can take this principle as the method of choice in treating infected nonunion tibia.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 24, 2022
COVID-19 Vaccine Development in India during Janaury 2021- December 2021: A Narrative Review
Neha Chauhan, Manjunath B.C, Vipul Yadav, Adarsh Kumar, Bhavna Sabbarwal, Jadhav Sachin Kumar
Page no 118-126
The review was undertaken to evaluate the development of COVID-19 vaccines in India. This review highlights the different types of platforms to develop COVID-19 vaccines, about the safety and efficacy of available COVID-19 vaccines and various strategies applied by government to increase vaccination doses in India. The analysis was done based on data extraction from online electronic databases and utilized all the data available from the WHO, CDC, Indian Government and State Government official portal for COVID-19 vaccines. Search engines like Google Scholar and PubMed were thoroughly searched for keywords like term “COVID-19 vaccines [AND] India, COVID-19 vaccine development [AND] India”, “COVID-19 vaccine Safety and efficacy [AND] India”, “COVID-19 vaccination [AND] India”. Forty articles were searched based on titles, 10 were excluded after reading the abstract. After scrutinizing all retrieved data only ten highly relevant articles were included in the final analysis. Data available from official portal for COVID-19 vaccination daily updates were collected and used as source data for the current study. Hence the data given in the study completely available from the public source. Despite significant increases in the number of well-trained health personnel, facilities, and sophisticated medical equipment, as well as increased access to and sharing of up-to-date scientific and medical information in many countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has proven that pandemic preparedness remains a major global issue that must be addressed urgently.