ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 6, 2022
The Determinants of Balance of Payments in Nigeria
Adelegan, Abiodun Edward, Abraham, Anthony
Page no 222-229
The Balance of Payments in Nigeria was studied using annual data from 1981 to 2019 in this article. The paper's major goal was to examine the long-term factors that influence Nigeria's Balance of Payments. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) was used in the investigation. Long-term results from the ARDL regression showed that the exchange rate coefficient was negative, whereas short-term results showed a positive value. Also, the coefficients of FDI, GDP growth, interest rates, and crude oil prices were positive and significant. There is a strong case can be made for governmental intervention to improve economic productivity, as evidenced by this study. To help the economy thrive, capital investments and expenditures should be made. The government should make incentives to prospective foreign investors in order to attract FDI inflows into the country. Government should also enhance safety and security and build a sense of belonging in the Niger Delta in order to promote peace and ease of doing business in the petroleum industry there.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 12, 2022
Analysis of Factors Affecting CO2 Emissions and the Kuznets Curve Environmental Hypothesis: Study on G-20 Countries 2013-2018 Period
Nanang Rusliana, Muhamad Ferdy Firmansyah, Ade Komaludin
Page no 230-238
This study aims to determine the effect of economic growth, population, industrialization, energy consumption and fossil fuel consumption of CO2 emissions in G-20 countries. Panel data is used as a data analysis technique in this study. The variables used are based on the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The Kuznets hypothesis explains that an increase in economic growth reduces inequality and poverty in a certain period of time (or referred to as the turning point limit). This study focuses on the G-20 countries in the 2013-2018 period. Based on the regression results of the CO2 emission variables (CO2), gross domestic product (GDP), energy consumption (KE), population (JP), industrialization (IND) and fossil fuel consumption (BBF) it was found that all independent variables simultaneously (GDP, KE, JP, IND and BBF) have a significant effect on the dependent variable (CO2). Furthermore, partially significant variables that affect CO2 emissions are GDP, JP, IND and BBF, while the variables that have no significant effect on CO2 emissions are only KE. Support and commitment to policies both nationally and regionally are needed to reduce environmental degradation through inclusive economic growth in G-20 countries.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 13, 2022
Climatic Change and Economic Growth: An Evidence from Low-Income Economies
Faizan Shabir, Muzffar Hussain Dar, Mohammad Azhar Uddin
Page no 239-243
Climate change is a threat not only to the affected country but to the entire world. Over the last few decades, incidents of climatic change have increased drastically, and these incidents have both direct and indirect impacts on the economy. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Adaptation Gap Report 2016 warns of the increasing impacts of climatic risks and, as a result, an increase in global adaptation costs. The prediction is that international costs will increase by two to three times by 2030 and four to five times by 2050. This study investigates the short-run and long-term impacts of climate change on economic growth across low-income countries from 2005 to 2018. The study uses the Panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag (PARDL) approach. This model allows us to study both the short-run and long-term effects of climate change on economic growth and capture the possible links in the short run. For the study purposes, twenty-two low-income countries were chosen from almost all continents on the basis of their income levels. The data for the GDP, as a proxy of a country's economic growth, is taken from the World Development Indicators (WDI), and for climate change, we use the global climatic risk index (CRI) developed by German watch (CRI) is used as an explanatory variable in the model. The empirical results show that climatic change, especially weather-related events, negatively impacts the economic growth of low-income countries during the studied period in the long run. But in the short run, climatic change does not significantly affect the economic growth of countries. Moreover, climate change has been severely affecting low-income countries over the last few decades, as reported in the study. As climatic risk increases, the vulnerability in these countries also increases, and this study supports the need for a global mitigation approach.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 16, 2022
Does Financial Reporting Quality Moderate Factors Affecting Fraud Tendency?
Feiby Novita Wantah, Agustin Fadjarenie, Dwi Asih Surjandari
Page no 244-256
This research examines the influence of Narcissism, Board of Directors Bonus Scheme, Age, Gender and Term of Service with the moderating variable of Financial Reporting Quality on the tendency to commit fraud. Research respondents are CEOs of banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2015-2018 and the sampling technique uses the Purposive Sampling method. This study uses statistical regression analysis to see the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable or the response to the moderating variable. The regression parameter test consists of the F test, to find out whether the independent variable has a simultaneous effect on the response variable or not. Then the t test, to test the effect of the independent variables one by one on the response variable. By using panel data regression modeling using an unweighted Fixed Effect Model and a weighted Fixed Effect Model, also using partial testing on the unweighted Fixed Effect model and the weighted Fixed Effect model. The results showed that panel data regression modeling using the unweighted Fixed Effect Model resulted in a significant simultaneous test, meaning that the variables of narcissism, directors' bonus scheme, age, gender and tenure affect the tendency to commit fraud simultaneously. Partial testing on the unweighted Fixed Effect model shows that individually only the tenure of service variable affects the tendency to commit fraud. The Fixed Effect Model with weights produces significant simultaneous tests, meaning that simultaneously the variables of narcissism, directors' bonus scheme, age, gender and years of service affect the tendency to commit fraud. And a partial test on the Fixed Effect model with weights shows that individually there are no independent variables that affect the tendency to commit fraud.