ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 16, 2019
Determination of Effects of Location of Loading on Mechanical Properties of Different Cultivars of Yam (Dioscorea Spp) Tubers
Ijabo, O. J, Irtwange, S. V and Uguru, H
Page no 447-451
In this work, the effects of storage period on nine mechanical properties and moisture content of stored yam (Dioscorea spp) tubers were investigated. The mechanical properties of whole intact yam tubers of three yam (Dioscorea spp) cultivars in various treatments including: four levels of storage time at 75 days interval spanning 225 days, and four levels of loading positions namely at the head, middle, tail and vertical, were presented in this study. Mechanical compression tests were performed on three different cultivars namely: Ogoja, Gbangu and Agbo-yian. The results of the study showed that the force at bio-yield point, force at peak point, force at breaking point, and energy at bio-yield point during compression test in general is significantly higher in the middle of the tuber than other locations. The value for bio-yield force range from 1059 N for Agbo-yian to 4,500 N for Gbangu. So for safe stacking of Dioscorea alata in containers and stacks 1059 N is safe while for Dioscorea rotundata 4,500 N would be adequate. Energy follows the same pattern as forces. Results obtained from this study will be helpful in the design and fabrication of yam tubers harvesting and handling machines.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 20, 2019
Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Plastic Bottle Brick
Sanuar Ahmed Saikat, Golam Gaffar Khan, H Golam Morshed
Page no 452-456
Introduction: Cement and bricks manufacturing process will contribute to a high emission carbon- dioxide (CO2) that may lead to global warming. The alternative way thatcan solve the problem is replacing by the use of bricks in construction by plastic bottles filled with sand, mortar and other types of materials. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of using plastic bottles in concrete block. The plastic bottles are used to reduce the cost, Environmental effects and the usage of concrete in the masonry units. Method: Concrete is placed around each bottle to encase it in the masonry units. The study utilizes 500-mL plastic bottles filled with soil and cement mortar placed inside concrete masonry units and analyzing the compressive strength. The testing for compressive strength was determined according to the ASTM C140 standard. Result: This study shows Soil Brick Block and Mortar Brick Block has a similar average compressive strength of 4.6 N/mm2 and 4.4 N/mm2. This abruptly high compressive strength of soil brick block is found due to the ‘Confinement Effect’ shown by the plastic bottle. Thus the use of concrete can be reduced, introducing the soil bottle brick in concrete masonry. Conclusion: Further research on the other properties, economics and environmental benefits can be conducted to confirm the practice of using water bottles inside concrete blocks. And this study recommends the Soil Brick Block can be used in footpath, river banks and other such structures where only high compressive strength is necessary.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 28, 2019
Reconnaissance Geochemical Exploration in Kaiama, North Central, Nigeria
Alepa VC, Bale RB, Alimi SA, Bonde DS
Page no 457-472
Reconnaissance exploration for ore mineralization in Kaiama and environ have been carried out using integrated geological mapping and geochemical survey of soils, stream sediments and exposure of pegmatite/quartz veins. This was done in order to define the ore forming elements distribution and recognising type and area of possible mineralization in Kaiama and environ.. Eighteen samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Petrological description of thin sections of rocks was also carried out under the petrological microscope.The rocks underlying Kaiama consist of amphibolites, mica schists and granites along with fracture controlled mostly sheared mineralised pegmatite and quartz veins The fractured filled veins mainly trend NW-SE, NNE-SSW and E-W, N-S as to compare closely to the general trend of structures resulting from Pan-African orogeny. The mineralisation notably includes columbite-tantalite, rutile, cassiterites, ilmenites, wolframites, gold and gem stones. Geochemically, the trace elements concentrations shows significant anomalous concentrations of Sn, S, Ti, W, Au, Cu, Ti and Nb in the soil and stream sediments and Sn, W, and Nb in the veins. In addition, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, Sb, Mo, V, As, Pb, Rb occurs in less significant anomalous concentrations in all the geologic media. The anomalous magnitude however decreases from soil to stream sediments and least in the veins. Further exploration work should be concentrated on soils and stream sediments towards delineating the possible ore deposit in the area of Kaiama and environs.