ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 30, 2020
Study of Stimulated Raman Biospectroscopy in Ritonavir as a Potent Drug against Coronavirus Disease–2019 (COVID–19) Infection
Page no 188-211
Ritonavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed–dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir). In the current research, the stimulated Raman biospectroscopy of liquid sample of Ritonavir was investigated. The stimulated Raman diffractions emitted through focusing the second harmonic laser beam Nd:YAG into the sample were recorded by Echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector. Increasing the energy of laser beam from 2.6 (mJ) to 16 (mJ) was led to increase in stimulated Raman signal but after breakdown threshold of liquid sample, more increasing of energy was led to decrease in stimulate Raman signals and for energies higher than 20 (mJ), they were disappeared.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 11, 2020
Diagnostic Value of Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW), Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), and Platelets Count in Sudanese Neonates with Proven Sepsis
Albara Ahmed, Ehab Mohammed Elmadenah Mohammed, Babiker A. Mohammed, Abdelhalim M Nasr, Sahar ElderdiriGafar Osman, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Page no 175-179
Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening clinical condition that has cost humanity heavily since time immemorial. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the red blood cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV) platelet count, and neonatal sepsis in Sudan. Material and Method: A prospective cross sectional hospitalized based study was conducted in Omdurman maternity hospital, in the period from June 2013 to April 2015.Hundred Sudanese neonates were grouped equally into two; case group were neonates with proven sepsis by the culture (N=50), and control group were healthy neonates (N=50). Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and platelet count were performed by using hematological analyzer (KX-21 Sysmex) and the results compared between two groups. Result: Of the fifty sepsis group 23 (46%) were male, and 27(54%) were female. Whereas in control group 24 (48%) were male, and 26 (52%) were female. The mean age in case group was 9 days, and in control group was 4.3 days. The mean of platelet count was significantly lower in sepsis group than control, P value (<0.001). The mean of MPV and RDW CV were significantly higher in sepsis group than control, P. value (<0.001, and 0.026 respectively). In sepsis group, there were no significant change in MPV, RDW CV, and platelet count according to fate between died and recovered patient. Conclusions: The MPV and RDW were higher where as platelets count was lower in neonatal sepsis and these tests were inexpensive and commonly measured and may be with value in diagnosis and prognosis for neonatal sepsis. Further studies are required to determine the predicting value for MPV, RDW CV, and platelet count in neonatal sepsis.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 11, 2020
SARS- COV-2 among Pediatrics
Yousif M Elhaj, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Page no 180-182
SARS COV-2 has been stated a pandemic by the World Health Organization as established cases come up to more than 11.200.000 patients with what will exceed 528.000 deaths across over the world. COVID-19 can look dissimilar in different people. For numerous people, being unwell with COVID-19 would be a little bit like having the flu. People can get a fever, cough, or have a hard time taking deep breaths. The majority people who have gotten COVID-19 have not gotten very sick. Merely a small group of people who get it have had more grave problems. Most kids do not show to be at higher risk for COVID-19 than adults. As some children and infants have been sick with COVID-19, adults make up most of the known cases to date. Alterations of clinical manifestation between children and adults infected with SARS COV-2 were attributed to differences in immune response, which is depending on the levels of immuno-modulating agents. Several diagnostic methods were implemented to support the clinical diagnosis, up to date there is no constant protocol to treat SARS COV-2 whether in children or adults, extensive researches are needed to face this pandemic crisis.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 21, 2020
The Role of Remineralizing Agents Used in Dentistry: An Update Then and Now
Dr. Shakir Hussain Rather, Dr. Sajedabanu Kazi, Dr. Safikabanu Kazi
Page no 183-187
Among oral diseases dental caries is a highly prevalent multifactorial disease and has been a major public health problem for many centuries. Several remineralizing agents helps in remineralization to prevent disease progression, and to improve form and function of the teeth. Remineralization is the process of depositing calcium and phosphate ions into crystal voids in demineralized enamel, thus producing net mineral gain. The present article reviews about the various agents that enhance and promote remineralization of tooth structure and their implementation into clinical practice.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 30, 2020
Investigation of Prevention, Protection and Treatment of Ritonavir Effectiveness on Coronavirus Disease–2019 (COVID–19) Infection Using Fourier Transform Raman (FT–Raman) Biospectroscopy
Page no 212-235
Ritonavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed–dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir). In the current research, the stimulated FT–Raman biospectroscopy of liquid sample of Ritonavir was investigated. The stimulated FT–Raman diffractions emitted through focusing the second harmonic laser beam Nd:YAG into the sample were recorded by Echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector. Increasing the energy of laser beam from 2.6 (mJ) to 16 (mJ) was led to increase in stimulated FT–Raman signal but after breakdown threshold of liquid sample, more increasing of energy was led to decrease in stimulate FT–Raman signals and for energies higher than 20 (mJ), they were disappeared.