Outcome of Hemi Arthroplasty Using Cemented Bipolar Prosthesis in Neglected Fracture Neck of Femur in Elderly: A Study of 1156 Cases
Md. Munzur Rahman, Dr. Md. Hassan Jamil Hedyatullah, Dr. Abul Kalam Azad, Hasibul Hasan
Page Numbers : 123-128
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i05.007
Introduction: A much controversy exists regarding treatment of neck of femur fractures in elderly. Currently, choices available options for an Orthopaedic surgeon for treating these fractures in elderly are Canulated cancellous screw fixation, Girldstone, unipolar hemiarthroplasty, bipolar hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty. One of the most common treatments of Garden type-III & IV fracture of femoral neck in elderly in low- and middle-income countries is bipolar hemiarthroplasty. This study was conducted to evaluate functional outcome of fracture neck of femur treated with cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty in elderly. Materials and Methods: Multicentered based non randomized quasi experimental prospective study was performed in Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Dhaka Medical College Hospital and Spine & Orthopaedic Specialized Centre, Rajshahi, Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2019.Total number of patients n=1156 with fracture neck of femur were operated with cemented bi-polar prosthesis of femoral component and their functional outcomes were assessed on the basis of modified Harris Hip Score. Results: At the end of 10 year after surgery, the functional results were analyzed by SPSS 18.0. All patients were in the age group of 50-85 years with mean age of 62.09 years for males and 69.42 years for females. 48% percent of the patients had sub-capital fracture radiologically, while 52% had Transcervical. In 68% of cases, the mode of injury was trivial trauma. Complications observed were superficial surgical site infection (1%), affected sided mild hip pain (15%), LLD < 1.25 cm of 0.01% and post-operative dislocation within 3 months in another patient. There were 64% excellent results, 28% good results and 8% fair results. No poor results were found in our study. Conclusions: Elderly neglected patients with displaced fracture of neck femur are able to ambulate early after Cemented bipolar hemi arthroplasty. The complication rate is very low and pre injury functional status is restored in majority of patients.
Original Research Article
May 11, 2021
The Study of TNFα Regulation in the Management of Spinal Tuberculosis Using Instrumentation
Tjuk Risantoso, Mohammad Hidayat, Hidayat Suyuti, Aulanni’am
Page Numbers : 108-113
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i05.005
Introduction: Tuberculosis is still commonly found in many developing countries. Spinal tuberculosis can cause vertebral deformity and neurological disorders. It was discovered thousands years ago and its management was aimed to eradicate infection and maintain the integrity of the vertebrae. Previously, the management of spinal TB was using drugs and external stabilization. Surgical techniques were developed afterwards to clean the infected vertebral segment. Because of the vertebral deformity remained inevitable and had impacts on neurological disorders, new paradigm had been developed by using instrumentation to stabilize the deformity of infected vertebral segment and to restore and maintain neurological function. TNF-a has a major role in immune process of spinal TB. Spinal TB instrumentation uses metal devices composed of ions and particles that can interact each other so it could produce physical and chemical energy that is transmitted to the vertebrae. The energy is expected to enhance the biomolecular and biocellular activity of the body's immune cells so the healing process could be better. Methods: An experimental study was carried out on New Zealand Rabbits which were given TB H37Rv strain infection in the vertebral body. Samples were divided into five groups namely control rabbits, infected rabbits without intervention, infected rabbits treated by instrumentation, infected rabbits given anti-tuberculosis drugs and infected rabbits treated by instrumentation and given drugs. Then the cytokine levels of TNFa were evaluated and compared. Results: The results showed a significant TNF-a level increase in infected rabbits given drugs alone and instrumentation alone compared to infected rabbits without intervention. There was a significant TNFa decrease in infected rabbits given drugs and treated by instrumentation compared to control rabbits and rabbits who received drugs only. Conclusions: Instrumentation can improve the healing process in spinal tuberculosis by increasing the body's cytokine levels.
May 11, 2021
Effects of Different Parameters on the Production of Streptokinase Enzyme
Hadia Naseem, Zain ul Ain Ali Pal, Bushra Salamat, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Haseeb Anwar Tarar, Mehtab Maratib, Sara Siddique
Page Numbers : 114-122
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i05.006
Streptokinase is a novel bacterial enzyme that binds with plasminogen and activates it. Streptokinase is produced by different species of streptococcus. Activity of streptokinase is determined by different methods such as fibrin clot method, casein hydrolysis and Chromozym test. High production of streptokinase was obtained in experiments with batch cultures. Production of streptokinase increases 2-3 times in continuous culture. Different species of streptococcus was selected for Optimum production of streptokinase by using different concentration of substrates such as CSL, molasses, sugarcane bagass, rice polishing. Maximum activity was overserved by 0.3% CSL, 0.5% molasses, 0.4% sugarcane bagass and 0.5% rice polishing. Physical parameters such temperature, pH at optimum conditions (370C, 7.0) enhance the streptokinase activity by using RSM. Nitrogen sources, carbon sources, incubation time, Growth factors such as glycine, thiamine and traces elements such as FeSO4, MgSO4, when uses in limited amount enhance the enzyme production. 1% (v/v) inoculum increase the yield of streptokinase (0.360 U/ml).
Original Research Article
May 8, 2021
Universal Oral Health Coverage: A Case Study in Haryana
The review was undertaken to evaluate the pattern, type, characteristics and availability of oral coverage in Haryana. This was established by focussing on the levels of accessibility and availability of oral health care infrastructure and to address the strengths, challenges, issues, barriers and opportunities for promotion, prevention and cure of oral diseases in Haryana. Literature survey was carried out in March 2021 in electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using key words such as “dental manpower [AND] Haryana”, “Oral health care [AND] Haryana”, “Oral disease [AND] Haryana”, “Oral health infrastructure [AND] Haryana”. After scrutinizing all retrieved data only six highly relevant articles were included in the final analysis. It was established that Universal Oral Health Coverage in Haryana needs a foresighted vision and consistent efforts based on the evidence.
May 7, 2021
Role of Glycan-Lectin Interaction in Diseases: A Review
Dr. Sharique Ahmad, Shivani Singh, Dr. Saeeda Wasim, Dr. Silky Rai, Dr. Zarina Farheen, Dr. Saba Naziya
Page Numbers : 85-94
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i05.002
The glycans are carbohydrate present with other macromolecules where it could act as ligand for glycan-binding protein called lectin. This glycan-lectin interaction plays important role in cell and organ functioning and immune regulation in both animals and humans. Glycan-lectin interaction is also utilized in viral pathogen interaction which is encoded through host genome or own genome replication and enhancement of infection. Current advancement in glycobiology investigations had revealed interaction between glycan and lectins mediating prominent interaction between host and virus which regulates spread of virus and activation of immune system. Carbohydrates are also found to be involved in viability and growth of cells. Glycosylation process occurs in the cells for regulated processing of secondary protein in the cells, it had an integral functioning in multiple processes ultimately to apoptosis. Glycan with glycan binding protein or solely could convey intracellular signals or extracellular signal control process which leads to initiation, execution of apoptosis program. Glycans and its binding proteins are important cell death machinery, glycan-lectin interactions could alter the spread of viral infections either profitable for virus or host. The interaction of glycan-lectin could be useful as can be used as a diagnostic or prognostic tool in tumor because it had ability of controlling cell apoptosis or cell functioning. This interaction also play prominent role in ocular infection associated pathogenesis and its immune response. The viral disease recently known had been spread in entire world cause due to coronavirus this interaction provide help in forming antiviral agents and gave various thoughts in field of vaccination for this virus. Therefore, all these findings reveled that glycan-lectin interactions are advantageous for various disease and also multiple process of our body.
Original Research Article
May 7, 2021
Comprehensive Data Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (Snps) in Human FOXP3 Gene
Mohammed Yousif Mohammed, Mona Abdelrahman Mohamed Khaier
Page Numbers : 73-84
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i05.001
Background: The FOXP3 gene provides instructions for producing the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) protein. The FOXP3 protein attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of genes that are involved in regulating the immune system. Aim: This study intended to analyze SNPs in FOXP3 gene in the coding region, 5`UTR and 3`UTR using bioinformatics tools and visualizing the 3D structure of the gene. Methods: SNPs were retrieved from NCBI, and the protein sequences were retrieved from UniprotKB. SIFT and Provean software was used to predict whether the nsSNPs were tolerated or deleterious. Polyphen- 2 for nsSNPs function prediction on the produced protein.I-mutant and Mupro software to check the protein stability, finally PHD software to see whether the nsSNPs were related to a disease or not.Regulomedb to predict the regulatory element for 5`UTR region. For the 3`UTR PolymiRTs database to predict the variation in microRNA (miRNA). FuncPred software to show the unknown function for the selected SNPs.TheI-TASSER to visualize the 3D structure. Results: A total of 205 SNPs were retrieved, 180 SNPs in the CDS region, 20 in 3`UTR, 5in 5`UTR. SIFT prediction resulted in 93 deleterious and 87 toleratednsSNPs, Proveanrevealed60 deleterious and 120 tolerated,Polyphen-2 resulted in 29 probably damaging,11 possiblydamaging, 3 benign and 2 no result. I-mutant showed 12nsSNPs increasing, and 25 decreasing the protein stability, MUpro resulted in 3nsSNPs increasing the protein stability and 42 decreasing the protein stability, PHD resulted in 17 nsSNPs as disease related and 28 as neutral. For noncoding SNPs, Regulomedb resulted in 11 SNPs, PolymiRTs result in 11, and FuncPred result. Conclusion: The analysis of FOXP3 gene showed that from 205 nsSNPs only 11 SNPs are highly damaging and 20 SNPs found in the 3UTR region which predicts its function using different methods. Still bioinformatics software have their limitations, the results from this study may be convenient in future for further population based research activities and towards development of perfect medicines.
Original Research Article
May 7, 2021
Estimation of Sex and Stature Using Craniofacial Variables in the Yoruba Ethnic Group of Nigeria
Adefisan, Idowu Elijah, Oladipo, Gabriel Sunday, Paul, Chikwuogwo Wokpeogu
Page Numbers : 95-102
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2021.v06i05.003
The development of a biological profile involves the estimation of sex and stature of the deceased individual usually by the comparison of the antemortem and postmortem data. Due to inadequate studies on the development of a biological profile from the craniofacial region in the Nigerian population, this study aimed to determine sex and stature from craniofacial variables in the Yoruba ethnic group of southwest Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out on 368 students and staff (217 males and 151 females) of the Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria within the age range of 18 – 55 years. Twelve craniofacial variables and stature were taken using standard anthropometric procedures and equipment. Data were analyzed using IBM® SPSS version 25.0, Armonk, New York, USA. Student’s t-test Correlation analysis (Karl Pearson’s), multivariate regression and discriminant function analysis were carried out. The results revealed sex differences as the males have higher mean values compared to the females except for the bizygomatic breadth. Physiognomic facial height offers a significant model for stature estimation in both male and female subjects. However, the craniofacial variables produced weak correlations with stature and are not suitable for estimating stature in the ethnic group. Multivariate regression analysis provided better results. The discriminant function analysis sufficiently discriminated sex and after cross-validation, it produced an accuracy of 86.2% for males and 89.4% for females. Sex and stature can be reliably inferred from the craniofacial region but caution should be applied as it has proven to be sex and population specific.