MNAD Hypothesis Based Protocol Proposed for Treatment of COVID.19: Assessment of Minocycline, N. acetylcysteine, Aspirin & vitamin D (MNad) Theory for treatment of COVID.19 Adults Patients
Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Mohammed Abdelgafoor Abdelgadir Salih, Mohammed Omer Mohammed Hussein, Sufian Khalid Mohammed Nor, Haifaa Mohamed Saeed, Fatima Omer Mohamed
Page Numbers : 325-330
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i11.007
COVID.19 Pandemic is a real disaster facing the globe, and up to date its uncontrollable , due to absence of data about the real mechanism upon which this virus overcome immune system and induce lethal symptoms certainly among aged and those with low-level of immunity. MNAD hypothesis based protocol aimed to measure validity of combination Minocycline as antibiotic, N. acetyl cysteine as antioxidant, aspirin as anticoagulant and vitamin D as immune regulator to treat COVID.19 infection. This protocol opened and implemented by any institutions or health authority after permission of the corresponding author of it.
Original Research Article
Nov. 23, 2020
Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characterization of Juice Produced from Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Consumed in Côte d’Ivoire
Combo Agnan Marie-Michel, Niaba Koffi Pierre Valery, Ekissi Alice Christine, Kouame Gnakri Amah Salomée, Beugre Grah Avit Maxwell
Page Numbers : 335-342
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i11.009
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Ivorians. The present study was initiated to evaluate the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of watermelon juice produced in an artisanal way. For this purpose, the effect of pasteurization (82°C for 20 s) and storage (8°C for four days) on different parameters were evaluated. The pH decreases from 4.83 to 3.78 (unpasteurized juice) and from 5.13 to 3.84 (pasteurized juice), the acidity increases from 0.09 to 0.34 g/L (unpasteurized juice) and from 0.09 to 0.25 g/L (pasteurized juice), the Brix values drop from 5.95 to 4.65°B (unpasteurized juice) and from 6 to 4.80°B (pasteurized juice), and the dry matter and reducing sugars respectively varied from 4.49 to 2.12%, 0.069 to 0.06% (unpasteurized juice) and from 5.25 to 2.21%, 0.064 to 0.06%. No change was observed in the ash content in the two juices. It varied from 0.32 to 0.08%. Regarding vitamin C and lycopene, the average contents were respectively 7.57 g/mL and 0.055 mg/100 mL (unpasteurized juice) and 2.45 g/mL and 0.047 mg/100 mL (pasteurized juice). Microbiological analyzes of unpasteurized and pasteurized juices have shown the absence of coliforms and staphylococcus aureus. However, the number of mesophilic aerobic germs is lower than that of the standard. The sensory test shows that watermelon juice products have a good acceptance by the panelists. Finally, this study showed that heat treatment influences the antioxidant content and not the physicochemical parameters and ensures a healthy juice.
Nov. 23, 2020
Storage Media for Avulsed Tooth-A Review
Dr. Shakir Hussain Rather, Dr. Niveda, Dr. Salman bhai Karbhari
Page Numbers : 331-334
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i11.008
Dental avulsion is the complete dislodgement of a tooth from its alveolar socket caused by certain traumatic injuries. The ideal treatment is to reimplant the tooth in its respective socket. The success of reimplanting an avulsed tooth depends on the viability of PDL cells, the available peridontium to support the tooth and the storage media where the avulsed tooth is temporarily preserved. The proper use of storage media helps in maintaining the viability of the PDL cells whereas the incorrect use of the storage media may lead to necrosis of PDL cells or root resorption. This literary review discusses the significant importance of storage media and its biological properties in reimplanting an avulsed tooth.
Original Research Article
Nov. 13, 2020
Albendazole Reduces Serum Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines: Potential Strategy for the Management of Cytokine Storm
Abdul Fattah Adekunle Onifade, Ganiyu Olatunbosun Arinola
Page Numbers : 320-324
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i11.006
Background: The phenomenon of cytokine storm is responsible for the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19, which lacks specific drug treatment and vaccine for prevention. Thus, this report suggested that albendazole anthelminthic drug administration might reduce cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Method: This longitudinal study assessed serum levels of cytokines (IFN–γ, IL-4 and IL-8) usig ELISA in apparently healthy Nigerian adults before and 4 weeks after oral 400mg single dose of albendazole anthelminthic drug administration. Data presented as Median (Interquartile range) were analysed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, with levels of significance set at α0.05. Results: Serum median levels of IFN–γ and IL-8 were significantly reduced at 4weeks post- albendazole administration (p < 0.05) while IL-4 was insignificantly reduced at 4weeks post- albendazole administration (p > 0.05) compared with median levels before albendazole administration. Conclusion: Since albendazole administration reduces serum IFN–γ and IL-8 which are involved in COVID-19 cytokine storm, it is suggested that albendazole has potential for the management of cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. This however needs further clarification.
Nov. 9, 2020
Genomic annotation of Human Coronavirus strains: A Review
Shivani Singh, Dr. Sharique Ahmad, Dr. Saeeda Wasim, Dr. Silky Rai, Dr. Sudarshana Gogoi, Dr. Zarina Farheen
Page Numbers : 308-319
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i11.005
Coronaviruses are the fascinating group of viruses with the unusual molecular mechanism of recombination and transcription and also consist newly emerged pathogens. The emergence of SARS and coronavirus as its etiological agent was found totally surprising in community of coronaviruses. As it was the first strain found to be causing severe illness in humans and also in moderate cases causes death. Till now there are found to be seven strains of coronaviruses affecting humans including newly found coronavirus. The NL63 strains and HKU1 strains both provide model for newly described identified human coronaviruses. Other strains OC43 MERS-CoV, 229E and SARS-CoV associated genome analysis showed identification and characterization of protease and replicase as well as various enzymatic activities of open reading frame ORF1a and 1b of these strains. All this provides us target for which potential drug can be evaluated. Various novel respiratory viruses including SARS-COV and NL63 were found in past 3 years. Then the discovery of another coronavirus HKU1 found in china. The other which had been recently emerged in Wuhan, China named as COVID-19. The genome of all strains of coronaviruses is described in this paper which will be helpful in decoding genome, diagnostics and prognosis of COVID-19.
Original Research Article
Nov. 7, 2020
Biochemical Evaluation of a Potentially Ubiquitous Element in Snake Bite: Myths and Facts-A Tertiary Rural Hospital Study in India
Harish Rangareddy, Shashidhar K N, Deena C Mendez, Prabhavathi K
Page Numbers : 303-307
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i11.004
Introduction: Snake bite is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Snake venom is a complex mixture containing peptides, polypeptides, enzymes, glycoproteins and other substances which have pharmacological properties. It mainly affects the vital organ systems such as the cardiovascular, nervous, renal and respiratory systems. Studies have shown that following the bite krait snake, patients suffer from hypokalemia and sink into coma. However, no clear conclusive result has been arrived at in studies conducted in rural Kolar district. Objective: To explore the biochemical changes with respect to renal disturbances in snake bites. Methodology: This is a hospital based observational study since these parameters were studied after the snake bite and at the time of admission; data was collected from our hospital records and includes the measured values of blood urea, serum creatinine, serum sodium and potassium levels, bleeding time and clotting time at the time of admission in 30 snake bite victims. These cases were compared with age and gender matched healthy controls. Results: Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were not elevated in the victims while serum potassium level was decreased (p<0.001) and serum sodium was increased (p<0.05). Bleeding time was also increased (p<0.001) when compared to controls. Conclusion: The hypokalemia observed may be due to increased urinary excretion or intracellular shifting of potassium.
Original Research Article
Nov. 6, 2020
Microplastic Identification in the Faeces of Pregnant Women
Microplastics come from various types of materials in the form of pieces, fibres, fragments, granules, slabs, or tiny flakes between 0.1-5000 µm. It is very resistant to degradation and is insoluble in water. Microplastics are widely distributed in the oceans, sediments, land, and consumed by marine organisms such as fish and shellfish. This study aims to describe the presence of microplastics in the faeces of pregnant women. This type of research is an analytic observation with a cross-sectional design. The sample in this study amounted to thirty pregnant women. Data obtained through interviews using a questionnaire and examination of faeces samples. The results showed that all stool samples contained microplastics. The number of microplastics found ranged from 5 to 21 microplastics with the types of fiber, fragments, and films. The length of the microplastics ranges from 0.2 - 4.9 mm. It is concluded that ingested microplastics are disposed of through feces but the residue will accumulate in the body and can pose health risks in the long term. Encouraging the role of the government through education and regulation so that the community obeys and does not throw garbage anywhere.