Lipid Profile and the Severity of Periodontitis among Tertiary Hospital Patients in a Semi-Urban Population in Southwestern Nigeria
Olagundoye Olufemi O, Dosunmu Elizabeth B, Arowojolu Modupeola O
Page Numbers : 177-183
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i05.001
The prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Nigerians is established, while the relationship between it and periodontitis has been studied globally. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between lipid profile and severity of periodontitis among Nigerians. 195 patients were drawn from the family medicine clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife Osun state Nigeria. Sociodemographic data was obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire, simplified oral hygiene index (OHI), periodontal disease index (PDI), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and periodontal pocket depth (PPD) were also estimated. A full mouth mean CAL ≥0.6mm was considered as periodontitis. Lipid profile was carried out at the chemical pathology department of the same institution by spectrophotometry. Appropriate parameters were determined for descriptive variables. A two-way t-test was done for the mean values of the intraoral and the lipid parameters. Data was exposed to logistic regression to eliminate confounders. Male to female ratio was 1:1.6 with a mean age of 37.42±12.95. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and triglycerides have a statistically significant relationship with CAL and PPD (p<0.05). Logistic regression showed statistical significance for total cholesterol (p<0.05) in females only. Following the trend with other associated chronic diseases, HDL was higher in the periodontally healthy subjects and those with mild chronic periodontitis, while it was lower in those with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. This relationship was inverse for low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Increase in LDL/HDL had a linear relationship with the severity of chronic periodontitis from mild to severe. This emphasises the need for oral health education in the community and regular lipid investigations.
Original Research Article
April 30, 2022
Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbosacral Region in a Population of Normal Adult Female Volunteers in Port Harcourt Nigeria. Normal Values, Implication for Depth of Epidural Space in Spinal Anesthesia
Oyakhire, M.O, Amasiatu, V.C
Page Numbers : 168-176
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i04.008
Background: The L5/S1 intervertebral foramen which houses the largest nerve trunk in the lumbosacral region is the smallest in the vertebral column, and studies on spinal health has revealed that certain clinical conditions of the lower back and the predisposition to them such as spondylosis, spondylolysis and lower back pain may be associated with anatomical variations in the size of the bony components in this region. The study seeks to evaluate normal measurement values of the LSA, LSA and LLD of the spine of healthy female Nigerians, and find out if there exists significant associations between these normal values and with respect to age. A secondary purpose is to provide an indirect method for estimating the epidural space by measuring the depth of lumbar lordosis (LLD). Materials and Methods: Lateral x-ray films of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine of 45 informed volunteers who met the inclusion criteria were studied with respect to the LLD, LLA and LLA using standard radiologic procedures. Results and Discussion: Lumbosacral parameters were 32.04±6.080, 49.84±8.260 and 3.36±0.45cm for LSA, LLA and LLD respectively. Average values of spine parameters varied significantly with age; except for LSA, significant differences were found between age groups. Mean LLA was significant between age group 18-22 and 23-27 years, while mean LLD was significant between age group 18-22 and 23-27, as well as 18-22 and 33-37 years. Statistically significant correlation (at P < 0.05) was found between LLA and age and also between LLD and age. On the average, the size and shape of lumbosacral curve dimensions as determined by lateral x-ray in healthy female Nigerians, fall within the range considered normal and are significantly influenced by age. Conclusion: The findings of this research will be helpful to physicians in the management of low back and also in drawing treatment plans for other back related conditions.
April 30, 2022
Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a COVID 19 Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review
Fatima Babokh, Btissam Ait boucetta, Soumia Nachat, Fatimzahra Rahali, Awatif El Hakkouni
Page Numbers : 163-167
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i04.007
As the COVID 19 pandemic evolves, concerns about fungal co-infections and superinfections are increasing, mainly towards invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which increases significantly the risk of mortality in these patients, thus requiring early detection and diagnosis for better treatment efficiency. We’re describing the case of a young, non-immunocompromised patient with SARS COV 2 infection, who developed an IPA due to Aspergillus flavus.
Original Research Article
April 16, 2022
Diagnosis of Thyroid Malignancy Using Chemical Elements of Nodular Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis
Page Numbers : 152-162
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i04.006
Thyroid benign (TBN) and malignant (TMN) nodules are a common thyroid lesion. The differentiation of TMN often remains a clinical challenge and further improvements of TMN diagnostic accuracy are warranted. The aim of present study was to evaluate possibilities of using differences in chemical elements (ChEs) contents in nodular tissue for diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. Contents of ChEs such as calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), iodine (I), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and sodium (Na) were prospectively evaluated in “normal” thyroid (NT) of 105 individuals as well as in nodular tissue of thyroids with TBN (79 patients) and to TMN (41 patients). Measurements were performed using non-destructive instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was observed that in TMN tissue the mean mass fraction of I was lower while the mean mass fractions of K and Mg were higher than in NT and TBN tissue. It was demonstrated that I content is nodular tissue is the most informative parameter for the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. It was found that “Sensitivity”, “Specificity” and “Accuracy” of TMN identification using the I level in the needle biopsy of affected thyroid tissue was significantly higher than that using US examination and cytological test of fine needle aspiration biopsy. It was concluded that determination of the I level in a needle biopsy of TNs using non-destructive instrumental analytical method is a fast, reliable, and very informative diagnostic tool that can be successfully used as an additional test of thyroid malignancy identification.
Original Research Article
April 11, 2022
Individual Uniqueness of Cheiloscopy among Ikwerre Indigenes of Rivers State
Ibeachu, P. C, Amasiatu, V. C
Page Numbers : 143-151
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i04.005
Background: Personal identification remains the primary goal of every forensic investigation. In the present study, lip print was considered as a tool in personal identification as well as establishing ethnic differences.
Materials and Methods: The study involved 300 randomly selected subjects (72 males and 78 females) from the Ikwerre ethnic group in Rivers State Nigeria. A 500 watts Solar powered HPG 3110 Photo scanner was used to capture the lip print of the subjects. The lip was divided into four (4) quadrants and five (5) lip types were identified in each quadrant (Type I, I’, II, III, IV and V). Descriptive statistics (frequency) was done to determine the distribution of the lip print patterns, while chi-square test was done to determine the association between sex and cheiloscopy.
Results and Discussion: In the upper left quadrant; Type I [53 (35.33%)] was the most occurring pattern, followed by II [28 (18.67%)], Type I’ [27 (18.00%)], Type IV [22 (14.67%)] and Type III [20 (13.33%)]. In the upper right quadrant; Type III [44 (29.33%)] was the most occurring pattern, followed by Type II [33 (22.00%)], Type I’ [24 (16.00%)], Type IV [20 (13.33%)], Type I [17 (11.33%)] and Type V [12 (8.00%)]. For the lower left quadrant; Type IV [42 (28.00%)] was predominant, followed by Type I’ [35 (23.33%)], Type II [28 (18.67%)], Type III [24 (16.00%)], Type I [16 (10.67%)] and Type V [5 (3.33%)]. While in the lower right quadrant; Type I [36 (24.00%)] occurred most, followed by Type IV [33 (22.00%)], Type III [30 (20.00%)], Type II [23 (15.33%)], Type I’ [22 (14.67%)] and Type V [6 (4.00%)]. Except in the lower right quadrant, sexual dimorphism was observed in all quadrants; upper right quadrant (X2 = 21.75; P-value = 0.001), upper left quadrant (X2 = 22.60; P = <0.01) and lower left quadrant (X2 = 20.15; P-value = 0.001). The most occurring pattern for the population was type I [122 (20.3%)], followed by III [118 (19.7%)], while the least was type V [23 (3.8%)]. Type III [Male (M) = 64 (22.2%); Female (F) = 54 (17.3%)] and V [M = 13 (4.5%); F = 10 (3.2%)] were predominant in male subjects. While Type I [M = 54 (18.8%); F = 68 (21.8%)], I’ [M = 50 (17.4%); F = 58 (18.6%)], II [M = 51 (17.7%); F = 61 (19.6%)], and IV [M = 56 (19.4%); F = 61 (19.6%)] were predominant in female subjects. Differences in the distribution of various types between male and female subjects were not statistically significant at p < 0.05.
Conclusion: Lip print was observed to be unique among individuals and also sexually dimorphic when considered according to quadrants. This finding will serve as a useful tool in forensic investigations.
Original Research Article
April 11, 2022
Assessment of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Eggs and Eggshells of Gallus gallus domesticus, Coturnix coturnix and Anas platyrhynchos from Bangladesh
B. M. Rokanuzzaman, Umme Salma, Nasrin Akter Bristy, Shoumik Kundu, Sayeda Sadia Alam, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
Page Numbers : 137-142
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i04.004
Background: Despite playing an essential role as micronutrients, when exposed to an excess level, heavy metals can augment the risk of potential health diseases among humans and animals. Due to environmental degradation and food adulteration, many people are becoming the victims of those diseases by ingesting heavy metals from those food sources. Eggs are one of the principal sources of proteinaceous food and eggshells are also a good source of calcium, therefore, it is necessary to estimate the frequency of heavy metals as the poultry feeds, nowadays, are contaminated with heavy metals. Materials and Methods: Five types of egg samples were collected from the Jahangirnagar University area including indigenous, white and brown layer chicken eggs, duck eggs, and quail eggs. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn was estimated both for egg contents and eggshells (10 samples) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry compared with the standard curve. Estimated daily intake (EDI), Target hazard quotient (THQ), and Hazard Index (HI) were also calculated to observe whether egg intake possesses any health hazards or not. Results: Among all the trace elements estimated, the highest concentration was 35.36±0.4 (Zn) in white layer chicken eggs, and for eggshells, the highest concentration was 0.69875±0.082 mg/kg (Fe) in Quail eggshell. Except for Fe, Pb was relatively higher compared to other elements in eggs, the amount of Pb was the highest in Quail eggs (0.486±0.09 mg/kg). All the six elements were also within the acceptable range in eggshells where the amount of Pb was the highest in Brown layer eggshells, and Cu and Zn were the highest in indigenous eggshells. Cd and Cr were below the detection limit for all types of eggshells. Estimated daily intake (EDI), Target hazard quotient (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) values indicated that intake of eggs does not possess any health risk. Conclusion: Interestingly, the heavy metal concentration of our samples belongs within the PTDI and USEPA limit. Therefore, based on our study, all egg samples were safe considering the average egg ingestion in our country. If the average egg consumption rises, people might be at risk for higher Pb consumption through egg intake.
April 6, 2022
The Role of Nanotechnology in the Fight against COVID-19
Nnaoma Ikenna E, Joseph Rich, Ojimelukwe Chizoba N, Onuoha Nmasinachi
Page Numbers : 131-136
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2022.v07i04.003
COVID-19 has lately emerged as one of the most difficult pandemics of the twentieth century, with lethal consequences and a high rate of replication. It emphasizes the critical importance of developing effective vaccines to prevent virus infection, early and rapid diagnosis using high sensitivity and selectivity diagnostic kits, and effective antiviral and protective therapeutics to reduce and eliminate viral load and tissue damage-related side effects. As a result, non-toxic antiviral nanoparticles (NPs) are being developed for therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Nanoparticles have shown considerable promise in the development of nano vaccines to combat viral diseases. In this paper, we look at the potential of nanoparticles as a medicine or as a platform for drug and vaccine repurposing and development. Meanwhile, sophisticated virus detection methodologies based on NPs will be detailed, with the goal of inspiring scientists to develop cost-effective Nano platforms for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.