ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 7, 2020
Variability of Polyphenols, Antioxidant Activity and UFLC Phenolic Acid Profiles of Different Sorghum Genotypes
Ranga Bhukya, Ratnavathi V. Chamarthy, Shobha Ediga, Aruna C. Reddy, Suresh Babu Marriboina, Vilas A. Tonapi
Page no 104-113
Sorghum stands as the fifth most valuable global cereal crop, widely grown in semi-arid and arid regions of the world. This present investigation details the variability of polyphenols, scavenging activity in terms of ascorbic acid equivalents of 60 grain sorghum genotypes collected from various countries and were grown at Indian Institute of Millet Research fields which include 38 white, 15 red, and 7 brown pericarp grain sorghum genotypes. Polyphenols range from 575.05 to 3161.87 mg GAE. kg-1, 888.33 to 4230.14 mg GAE.kg-1, 1274.91 to 2885.72 mg GAE. kg-1 in white, red and brown sorghum genotypes respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranges from 555.74 to 6058.80 mg AAEQ. kg-1, 1190.19 to 6549.59 mg AAEQ.kg-1 and 2174.43 to 5494.40 mg AAEQ. kg-1, in white, red and brown sorghum grain genotypes respectively. Ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) profiling of phenolic acids done in phenolic extracts of red, white and brown sorghum genotypes showed that analytes were derivatives of benzoic acid and cinnamic acid. Total of eleven different phenolic acids were identified, of which ferulic acid is highly expressed in white and red sorghum genotypes only.
REVIEW ARTICLE | May 14, 2020
A Review on Covid-19, Symptoms, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and future Challenges
Fouzia Parveen, Musawir Hussain, Nelofar Ansari, Zainab Arshad, Muhammmad Haroon, Muhammmad Ammar, Shahid Ali Chand, Hira Ghaffar
Page no 114-117
Mainly, SARS-CoV is transmitted through inhalation of respiratory droplets and direct or indirect contact. The Covid-19 has become the biggest pathogens of emerging respiratory disease outburst. These pathogens are a large family of RNA viruses that is single stranded that can be isolated in a lot of different animal species. The complete information about epidemiology, pathogenesis of Covid-19 remains unclear. There is need to study clear diagnosis and pathogenesis of this virus. The symptoms of COVID-19 infection started to appear after an incubation period of almost 5.2 days. The period from the attack of COVID-19 symptoms to death are ranged from 6 to 41 days with an average of 14 days. The patients >70-years old had shorter incubation period compared with those who are the under the age of 70. The most common symptoms at attack of COVID-19 dry cough, illness are fever, and fatigue, while other symptoms include sputum production in lungs, diarrhea, headache, hemoptysis, lymphopenia and dyspnea. The patients infected with COVID-19 showed high number of leukocytes, abnormal respiratory findings and with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Rapid reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2, and technical advancement is very helpful for development of vaccine. Rhesus monkey human ACE2 transgenic mouse for development of vaccine, and some SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are already under experimental clinical trial. Probably, the mechanism of vaccination offers the best option to control COVID-19.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 19, 2020
The Study of Plasma Homocysteine and Lipid Profile Levels as Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Pre and Postmenopausal Women
Dr. Meera S, Dr. Muruga
Page no 118-121
Postmenopausal women are at risk of cardiovascular disease due to the cessation of estrogen hormone secretion by the ovaries. Based on a few studies in the western population, the plasma homocysteine level has been shown to be a more reliable indicator of cardiovascular risk in elderly women, when compared to conventional markers like lipid profile. However, not many studies have been done in India regarding the role of homocysteine and lipid profile as a risk factor in causing the cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Objectives: 1. To estimate plasma homocysteine and lipid profile levels in pre and post-menopausal women. 2. To compare and correlate homocysteine and lipid profile levels in pre and post-menopausal women. 48 confirmed cases of postmenopausal women and 48 regularly menstruating premenopausal women were included in the study after screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood samples were collected from the subjects and processed for estimation of lipid profile and plasma homocysteine levels. The BMI was significantly higher in the postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal women. There was no significant difference in the mean values of lipid parameters between the two groups. The mean plasma homocysteine level (19.93 ±8.09) was significantly increased in postmenopausal women when compared to premenopausal women (10.52 ±2.62) and it also showed a positive correlation as age advances age. In our study we found that, there is a significant increase in homocysteine levels than lipid profile parameters, hence homocysteine may be consider as a sensitive marker of CVD’s in postmenopausal women.