Anti-Cancer Properties of Clove Bud Essential Oil in Colon Cancer Cell Line
Walaa Salah, Salwa E. Mohamed, Adel A. Guirgis, Shaden Muawia, Hany Khalil
Page Numbers : 103-112
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i08.001
Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon). Its aggression is owing to late diagnosis so poor prognosis and higher mortality rate are reported. Colon cancer has become a thorny research region that requires more examination in cellular pathways involved in its emergency. Here we aim to investigate the possible anticancer properties of the clove oil as natural and popular oil in colon cancer CaCo-2 cells. Accordingly, cell viability rate and number of survived cells were monitored in response to the clove oil treatment compared with the black seed oil and DMSO-treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) production was also considered as an indicator for necrotic event following treatment. The relative gene expression of Raf-1, MEK, and ERK was detected as proliferation effectors that linked to the expression profile of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Interestingly, here we identified Raf-1 pathway as a potential targeted singling by the clove oil resulted in controlling colon cancer cell proliferation. The current study elucidates the anticancer activities of the clove oil in colon cancer division through restoring the relative gene expression of PTEN and TP53 accompanied by over-production of interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) and IL-1β. Accordingly, treatment of the CaCo-2 cells with different concentrations of the clove oil increased programmed cells cell death (PCD) and inhibited the proliferation singling when compared with the black seed oil. Collectively, our results demonstrate that controlling of Raf-1 activity and PCD by clove oil treatment provide evidence for its anticancer effect in colon cancer cells.
Original Research Article
July 3, 2022
Methionine Production and Optimization Using Bacillus cereus Isolated From Soil
J U Mari, Aliyu A, Nasiru S, A B Muhammad, A A Ibrahim, H Magaji, M Bala
Page Numbers : 95-102
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i07.001
Fermentation processes have become a common practice for overproduction of amino acids nowadays as it is cheaper and easier than other processes for commercial production of methionine and other essential amino acids. Methionine is a sulfur-containing essential amino acid required in the diet of humans and other animals for normal growth and functions of the body. It is widely used in feed, pharmaceutical and food industries. The research was focused on fermentative production of Methionine by Bacillus cereus isolated from soil. Methionine was produced under optimized conditions (Temperature, pH, Incubation time and agitation rate) using one factor at a time (OFAT). Optimum methionine yield of (4.520 mg/mL) was obtained at temperature of 35oC, pH of 7.5, and agitation rate of 125 rpm and incubation time of 96 h using OFAT. Characterization of methionine produced using Bacillus cereus shows similar properties with the commercially produced methionine by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which shows the amino and carbonyl group spectrum at 1640 cm-1 and 3257 cm-1 respectively. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) showed a band of methionine produced by bacillus cereus aligned with the commercial methionine.
June 30, 2022
Potential of Different Plant Genes in Stress Conditions and Applications in Agriculture
Zeemal Gul, Hadia Bilal, Kaenat Nazir, Naila Azam, Uzma Irfan, Abida Bibi, Alina Zahid, Noor Zaman, Abdul Rauf
Page Numbers : 90-94
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i06.003
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors in plants that devastatingly affect the plants growth and reduce productivity. The major causes of soil salinity are dry climates and low precipitations, high evaporation rate, which adds salts to the ground surface; poor drainage or waterlogging. Tracking the genetic sequences and control of switching on/off of such transcriptional genes may help in mitigating influences of several biotic and abiotic stresses. PtSOS2, AtNHX1, and OsRab7 are the most important salt tolerant genes. Under drought treatments, induction of NAC and homeobox domain containing TFs illustrates their regulatory roles. Uptake of compatible solutes, synthesis of antifreeze proteins and antioxidants, and expression of cold responsive genes perform significant preventive roles against cold stress. Glucanase gene is one of the reflective examples of disease resistant enzyme. It catalyzes the synthesis of phytoalexins. Through this is strategy, the process involved in defensive mechanisms of plants contouring abiotic stress. Heat shock (HS) is often lethal to plants and exert negative impacts on the structural as well as functional profiles in many crops. It occurs by genetic modification in the Arabidopsis by viral DNA from recognition by the guide RNA.
Original Research Article
June 12, 2022
Phytochemicals Screening and Nutritional Profile of Cnidosculus aconitflius Leaves collected in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria
Yusuf, A. B, Abubakar, J, Lawal, A
Page Numbers : 85-89
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i06.002
Plants materials contained some bio-active ingredients which help in treating of so many diseases and also provide vital components for human and animal nutrition. Preliminary phytochemical screening and some nutritional profile of Cnidoscolus aconitofolius leaves were investigated in this study. The dry leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitofolius were subjected to proximate, vitamins and mineral contents analysis. Furthermore, the samples were subjected to soxlet extraction using methanol and water of different polarities for qualitative phytochemical screening. The preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, steroids and absence of tannins respectively. Among the proximate composition carbohydrate was found to be high (65.54%), followed by crude fat (13.33%) and ash (12.08%), while moisture, proteins and crude fibre were 0.67%, 5.55% and 2.83 % respectively. The results showed that the sample contained 18.12mg/100g vitamin A and 15.20mg/100g vitamin C concentrations. The levels of some selected mineral elements of public health important are Potassium 378.62mg/100g, Sodium 82.02mg/100g, Phosphorus 5.73mg/100g, Magnesium 1.72mg/100g, Iron 1.02mg/100g, Calcium 1.02mg/100g, Copper 0.30mg/100g, Zinc 1.14mg/100g and Manganese with 0.08mg/100g respectively. This study revealed that the leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius contained some phytochemicals constituents of medicinal importance. The nutritional compositions also showed an appreciable amount of vitamin A and C and some minerals elements. Therefore, the plant may be considered as a good source of macro and micro-nutrients of potential nutritional importance.
Original Research Article
June 2, 2022
Ecosystem Biology of Soil Polluted with Spent Engine Oil
Ebulue, M. M
Page Numbers : 81-84
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i06.001
Soil communities, the microorganisms, are the initial and primary recipients of hydrocarbons or any xenobiotics incidented on the soil. This study evaluated the biology of soil organisms, ex-situ; the hydrocarbonclastics and non-hydrocarbonclastics, following an exposure to spent engine oil. The result demonstrated that at low and moderate contaminations of 1.5 and 2.5% w/w, hydrocarbons reduced the microbial population from control, 1.28 x109 cfu, to 3.42 x108 and 3.06 x 108cfu on week one respectively. However, at increased contaminations of 3.5% w/w, hydrocarbons from large oil spills weaken microbial ability to degrade the added hydrocarbons as the prejudicial nature reduced the population to 1.62 x 108cfu on week one. Overall, across the weeks, there was insurgence of hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, the hydrocarbonclastics, which on the other hand induced a limitation in microbial diversity. The isolated hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms in the descending order of their biodegradation potentials are: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Arthrobacter, Alealigena, Corynebacter, Flavo-bacterium, Archromobacter, Micrococcus, Norcardia and Myco-bacterium. Thus within the ecosystem they devised metabolic diversity with increased catabolic properties primarily aimed at biodegrading the xenobiotics; making them hydrocarbonclastic organisms.
Original Research Article
May 7, 2022
Impact of Inflammatory Markers in Predicting Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Patients: The why’s and how’s of Diabetic Hypertensive Patients
Dr. Ganesh P, Amina SA, Dr. Ismail HM, Drisya Kaladharan, Dr. Shaheen B Shaikh
Page Numbers : 76-80
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i05.002
Background: Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus, the most frequent co-morbidities in SARS-Cov-2 patients are considered as risk factors for disease severity and mortality. And the role of inflammatory biomarkers on these patients is still under evaluation. Methods: Retrospective data was collected study in 3 independent groups each with 24 patients: diabetes, hypertension and with concomitant diabetes and hypertension respectively of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted in the CCM. The data of age, gender, diabetic and hypertensive history, inflammatory marker, duration of stay was obtained from electronic patient data repository of the hospital and compared with Mortality. Results: The mean CRP levels in diabetes was 78.81 ± 16.8, in hypertension 82.23 ± 13.98 and in group with both the co morbidities was 79.05 ± 16.38. Serum ferritin levels were high in hypertensive group 731 ± 621.12, were as in diabetes population it was 560.31 ± 319.81, and 629.37 ± 350.8 in both diabetic and hypertensive population. The mean and SD of D-dimer it was 3726.4 ± 2411.86 in diabetic group, 2861.28 ± 2041.36 in hypertensive group and 2755.6 ± 1980.67. CRP levels and D-dimer were positively correlated with mortality and duration of stay. Conclusion: Our study concluded inflammatory markers CRP and D-dimer levels were elevated in both comorbid patients and this was statistically significant. Correlation of ferritin to the outcome was not significant and understanding the molecular mechanism of infection in co-morbid patients and assessing the inflammatory markers can provide necessary assistance at earliest, for a better clinical outcome.
May 7, 2022
Alimentary and Recuperative Prospective of Curcuma longa (Turmeric)
Umar Rehman, Qamar Abbas Syed, Hafiza Anam Asghar, Muhammad Kamran Arshad, Ghayyor Sultan, Azeem Asghar, Mueez Aslam, Muhammad Abdullah
Page Numbers : 67-75
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i05.001
Plant based traditional health care is one of the ancient remedies used to prevent and treat different health related disorders. Due to increasing cost of medicine in the modern era, people are now moving towards the utilization of ancient ethno medicinal plants based remedies to prevent and treat diseases as well as to maintain their health. Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric has been used since ancient times as ethno medicinal plant due to its pharmacological and therapeutic potential. The rhizome of this plant is commonly used to prevent the lifestyle related disorders. Its biologically active components can also be extracted and utilized directly to enhance the efficacy. Purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of turmeric as it contains various biologically active components that are beneficial in prevention and treatment of various health related disorders. Turmeric has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-cancer, immunostimulant, skin protection, ulcer treating, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, renal protection and hematological parameters maintenance properties. There is no evidence of adverse effects of turmeric in literature. Only the people who are allergic to it can have side effects otherwise it is almost stomach friendly due to which it can be used for treatment of various health related disorders.