Phyto-Pharmacological Potential of Zizyphus jujube: A Review
Himesh Soni, Jitender K Malik
Page Numbers : 1-5
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2021.v04i01.001
Natural world has been a resource of curative agents for thousands of year and an inspiring number of modern drug have been isolated from natural sources, many based on their use in traditional medicine. Plants from the genus Zizyphus have been used in conventional medicine by many cultures. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds tri-terpenic acids and polysaccharides constituents have been reported as the major phyto-constituents of the Zizyphus species. This review describes pharmacological reports of the Z. jujube. Various virgin areas of investigate on the Z. jujube have been spotlighted with a sight to explore, isolate and identify the medicinally important phyto-constituents which could be utilized to alleviate diverse diseases distressing the mankind.
Original Research Article
Dec. 30, 2020
Epidemiological Risk Factors Influencing the Formation of Renal Calculi, their Chemical Composition and Association with Urinary Tract Infections
P. Sri Lakshmi, Kalyan Kumar Kakarla, Pendru Raghunath, Y. V. Ramakrishna Reddy
Page Numbers : 260-266
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i12.005
This study was conducted to assess the influence of epidemiological risk factors in the formation of renal calculi, their compositionand association with urinary tract infections (UTI) among the ethnic population of Khammam district, Telangana state. This study included 56 subjects attending the urology department, Mamata General Hospital, Khammam. Out of 56 patients with renal calculi, 50 are male, 46 from rural areas, 22 were farmers and 26 were manual labor. Twenty six belonged to socioeconomically lower middle class, 38 were non-vegetarians and 47 were consuming bore/tank water. Results of this study suggest a significant association between all the epidemiological risk factors viz., gender, residence, occupation, socio economic status, diet, and source of water and formation of renal calculi. Structural analysis of stones demonstrated that 78.6% of stones were mixed. Overall, calcium oxalate as pureor mixed with otherchemicals was the main component of stones matrix, seen in 38 (67.9%) patients. In this study, struvite is present in 21.4% of the stones. Thirty (53.6%) of 56 urine specimens were culture positive and 26 (46.4%) were sterile. All the positive urine cultures yielded a single organism and 26of 30 isolates were positive for urease enzyme. Klebsiella was the most common organism and was isolated from 16 (28.6%) urine samples. Results suggest that there is a significant association between UTI and renal calculi formation.
Original Research Article
Dec. 25, 2020
Epidemiological Profile of Hyperferritinemia in the Military Hospital Moulay Ismail of Meknes, Morocco
M. Mahha, R. Hendi, A. Laraqui, N. El Mouh, L. Balouche, Y. Bamou, F. El Boukhrissi
Page Numbers : 255-259
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i12.004
Introduction: Hyperferritinemia occurs in several medical conditions. The most prevalent underlaying causes are kidney and liver diseases, infections and tumors. The objective of our study was to establish the epidemiological profile of hyperferritinemia among patients consulting cases who attends the Military Hospital Moulay Ismail of Meknes. Materials and methods: In this study, we have enrolled all patients whose blood level of ferritin are above 600µg/l measured on Cobas® 6000 Analyzer, during a period of 12 months. Results: A total of 413 patients had values greater than 600 μg/l, which corresponds to a percentage of 7.37%. The average age was 44 years ± 8 years (18-70). The H/F sex ratio was 1.27. The mean rate of ferritin serum level was 1123 µg/l. Patients with hyperferritinemia were mostly outpatients in 76.7% of cases. Referred patients comes from internal medicine department (9.4%), nephrology (7%), gastrology (3.2%), oncology (2.7%), endocrinology and hematology (2.4%), dermatology (1.9%) and rheumatology (1.2%). The distribution of etiologies was as following: infections (56%), nephropathies (31.5%), systemic diseases (17.5%), liver diseases (15%), diabetes (8.5%), hemopathies (7.5%), hemochromatosis (7%) and neoplasia (5%). More than the half of patients (57%) had multiple causes simultaneously. The most common causes associations in patients with hyperferritinemia were respectively: infections-nephropathies (24%), infections-systemic diseases (14%) and infections-nephropathies-diabetes (6.5%). Discussion and Conclusion: Infections and kidney diseases dominated the etiological spectrum of hyperferritinemia in our population. However, the underlying causes remain various, which makes hyperferritinemia a poor specific marker for disease diagnosis.
Original Research Article
Dec. 20, 2020
To Estimate Trace Elements, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant during Preeclampsia and Eclampsia
Sonali Rajdev, Dr. B.K. Agarwal, Dr. Shreya Nigoskar
Page Numbers : 250-254
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i12.003
Introduction: Pregnancy is characterized by significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes that begin early in the gestational period. Major hemodynamic changes include an increase in the cardiac output during the first trimester, sodium and water retention leading to plasma volume expansion with a peak around week 30, and reductions in the systemic vascular resistance and systemic blood pressure. Material and Methods: This is prospective and observational study conducted at Department of Biochemistry in association of Department of General Medicine. In this study investigation was done to determine the contribution of different biochemical parameters of females suffering from preeclampsia and Eclampsia. Results: Serum iron level in case group 18.43 ± 8.49 μmol/L and control group 15.92 ± 8.23. Moreover, Serum Zinc level 8.4 ± 1.9 μmol/L and control group 9.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L. Furthermore, Serum Copper level 17.3 ± 5.3 μmol/L and control group 9.6 ± 1.9 μmol/L. Oxidative marker between Case and control group was statistically significantly difference. MDA in case group was 3.18 ± 0.43 nM/mL and Control 1.63 ± 0.32 nM/mL. Antioxidant marker between Case and control group was statistically significantly difference. In case group Glutathione peroxidase 9.53 ± 2.46 μmol/ml and control group 11.68 ± 3.63 μmol/ml. Conclusion: The results obtained support our initial hypothesis that common differences between all pregnant women and controls could be revealed, while preeclampsia and the other pregnancies would further differ indicating specific misbalance of the oxidative stress in preeclampsia.
Original Research Article
Dec. 13, 2020
Association of Hemoglobin Levels with Stroke Mortality in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Dr. Shaheen B Shaikh, Dr. Ismail HM, Miss Roshni, Dr. Shaheena Yassir, Dr. Saiqa R, Dr. Sarfaraz Shaikh
Page Numbers : 246-249
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i12.002
Background: In stroke scenario, decreased hemoglobin levels have the potential to worsen brain ischemia; however, the association between the levels of hemoglobin with stroke mortality is not well understood. Aim: The study investigated the association of hemoglobin levels with 28 days mortality rate after ischemic stroke (IS). Methods: This was a retrospective study, where data of 74 patients admitted to ICU was collected with a diagnosis of stroke .The data were analyzed in the terms of demographic details, plasma glucose, HbA1c and hemoglobin levels. Results: Among 74 analyzed patients, 56.70% were men and 43.30% were females. In our study 32.4 % of stroke patients had anemia. Out of 45.9% non survivors, 21.6% stroke patients had hemoglobin level less than 11mg/ dl and 24.30% stroke patients had hemoglobin level more than 11mg/dl. Out of 54.1% survivors ,10.8.% and 43.20% stroke patients had hemoglobin level less than 11mg/ dl and more than 11mg/dl, respectively .The data was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, we showed that a significant proportion of stroke patients have low hemoglobin at the time of stroke onset and this is associated with increased mortality up to 28 days. Targeted interventions in this patient population may improve outcomes and require further evaluation.
Original Research Article
Dec. 5, 2020
Differential Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Tissues of Tilapia Zilli Exposed To Liquid Habitat from River Challawa in Kano, Nigeria
Dr. Inalegwu B., Akyengo O, Dr. Ogo O.A, Jato J.A
Page Numbers : 238-245
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i12.001
Increased water body contamination by heavy metals (HMs) is a serious health hazard to both aquatic biota and their predators. The degree of contamination is a function of bioavailability and bioaffinity to an organism. Metallothioneins (MTs) –a protein with high metal binding ability was used to assess the differential bioaccumulation of HMs in liver and skeletal muscles of Tilapia Zilli. HM concentration in all the liquid habitats was above the permissible limits of Federal Ministry of Environment with Zinc having the highest concentration ranging from 6.791-11.825 ppm. Exposure of T. Zilli to the three liquid habitats for 72 hours with sample collection twenty-four (24) hourly showed significant (P ≥ 0.05) induction of MTs by HMs accumulated in liver and skeletal muscle tissues of T. Zilli exposed to test habitats. Fishes showed higher induction in the downstream liquid habitat, where accumulation of HMs was higher in liver than muscle tissues. Fishes exposed to that habitat recorded MT concentrations of 102.859µg/g WWt and 83.947µg/g WWt after 72 hours of exposure for liver and skeletal muscle respectively. The liver demonstrated higher bioaccumulation potential than muscle tissues and the highest bioaccumulation factor for most of the HM was associated with the downstream habitat. T. Zilli from this study bioaccumulated HM and MTs played a vital role bioaccumulation assessment of HM. Though HM in skeletal muscles were relatively low, it still poses health threat through bioaccumulation. Thus, consumption of fish from polluted bodies needs to be avoided.
Original Research Article
Nov. 26, 2020
A Case-Control Study on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant in Haemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke Patients
Dr. Moin Sabeer, Dr. Khaja Moinuddin
Page Numbers : 232-237
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i11.002
Introduction: Stroke patients with haemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were compared with regard to stroke severity, mortality, and cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was done during January 2019 and September 2020. This case-control study was conducted on an overall population of 120 individuals (40 haemorrhagic, 40 ischemic strokes and as the case groups; 40 healthy individuals as the control group). The diagnosis was made by the clinical examination and brain CT scan. Our excluding criteria were a previous history of a cerebrovascular event, history of a recent infectious or inflammatory disease, cancer, autoimmune disorder, haematological disorder, renal or hepatic disease, or use of immune-suppressive or anti-inflammatory drugs in the previous two months. Result: A total of 120 individuals (40 haemorrhagic strokes and 40 ischemic strokes as the case groups; 40 individuals as the control group) were identified during the study follow-up. The increase in MDA in ischemic stroke (ISPs) and Haemorrhagic stroke patients is highly significant (P < 0.001) when compared to control subjects. This indicates that lipid peroxidation is significantly increased in ISPs and the increase in MDA is more in ISPs than haemorrhagic stroke patients (p<0.001). Similarly, nitric oxide levels are also increased in both ISPs and HSPs. GPX levels are decreased significantly in ISPs and HSPs compared to control subjects(p<0.001). Maximum decline in GPX is found in ISPs with HSPs (p<0.001). The Uric acid levels are significantly increased in ISPs and HSPs when compared to control subjects (p<0.003) and the increase is more in ISPs with HSPs (Table 3). The SOD levels are decreased significantly (p<0.05) in ISPs and HSPs when compared to control subjects, whereas its levels are slightly decreased in ISPs with HSPs. Similarly, Catalase levels also decreased in both ISPs and HSPs. Conclusion: Hence, showed a direct positive correlation with infarct size (Ischemic stroke) but less in hemorrhagic stroke when compared with the control group. The antioxidative parameters like Catalase and superoxide dismutase were decreased both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke when compared with control.