Impact of Inflammatory Markers in Predicting Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Patients: The why’s and how’s of Diabetic Hypertensive Patients
Dr. Ganesh P, Amina SA, Dr. Ismail HM, Drisya Kaladharan, Dr. Shaheen B Shaikh
Page Numbers : 76-80
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i05.002
Background: Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus, the most frequent co-morbidities in SARS-Cov-2 patients are considered as risk factors for disease severity and mortality. And the role of inflammatory biomarkers on these patients is still under evaluation. Methods: Retrospective data was collected study in 3 independent groups each with 24 patients: diabetes, hypertension and with concomitant diabetes and hypertension respectively of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted in the CCM. The data of age, gender, diabetic and hypertensive history, inflammatory marker, duration of stay was obtained from electronic patient data repository of the hospital and compared with Mortality. Results: The mean CRP levels in diabetes was 78.81 ± 16.8, in hypertension 82.23 ± 13.98 and in group with both the co morbidities was 79.05 ± 16.38. Serum ferritin levels were high in hypertensive group 731 ± 621.12, were as in diabetes population it was 560.31 ± 319.81, and 629.37 ± 350.8 in both diabetic and hypertensive population. The mean and SD of D-dimer it was 3726.4 ± 2411.86 in diabetic group, 2861.28 ± 2041.36 in hypertensive group and 2755.6 ± 1980.67. CRP levels and D-dimer were positively correlated with mortality and duration of stay. Conclusion: Our study concluded inflammatory markers CRP and D-dimer levels were elevated in both comorbid patients and this was statistically significant. Correlation of ferritin to the outcome was not significant and understanding the molecular mechanism of infection in co-morbid patients and assessing the inflammatory markers can provide necessary assistance at earliest, for a better clinical outcome.
May 7, 2022
Alimentary and Recuperative Prospective of Curcuma longa (Turmeric)
Umar Rehman, Qamar Abbas Syed, Hafiza Anam Asghar, Muhammad Kamran Arshad, Ghayyor Sultan, Azeem Asghar, Mueez Aslam, Muhammad Abdullah
Page Numbers : 67-75
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i05.001
Plant based traditional health care is one of the ancient remedies used to prevent and treat different health related disorders. Due to increasing cost of medicine in the modern era, people are now moving towards the utilization of ancient ethno medicinal plants based remedies to prevent and treat diseases as well as to maintain their health. Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric has been used since ancient times as ethno medicinal plant due to its pharmacological and therapeutic potential. The rhizome of this plant is commonly used to prevent the lifestyle related disorders. Its biologically active components can also be extracted and utilized directly to enhance the efficacy. Purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of turmeric as it contains various biologically active components that are beneficial in prevention and treatment of various health related disorders. Turmeric has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-cancer, immunostimulant, skin protection, ulcer treating, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, renal protection and hematological parameters maintenance properties. There is no evidence of adverse effects of turmeric in literature. Only the people who are allergic to it can have side effects otherwise it is almost stomach friendly due to which it can be used for treatment of various health related disorders.
Original Research Article
April 27, 2022
GC-MS and FTIR Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Citrillus lanatus (Water Melon) Rind
Bichi S. A, Abdulmumin Y, AbdulmuminT.M, Muhammad I.A, Murtala M, DalhatuM.M, Amina L. A, Sarki S.I, Danjaji H.I, Mustapha R.K
Page Numbers : 57-66
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i04.001
Over the years, the Citrulluslanatus rind has been considered as waste and disposed ignoring the fact that it can be utilized as a value-added product and has many health benefits. The watermelon rind constitutes nearly a third of the watermelon weight. The evaluation of Citrulluslanatus (watermelon) rind as a possible raw material for a pharmaceutical and as a value added product of the fruit rind and this will encourage cultivation, utilization and possible application of water melon rind in the treatment of various diseases. The aim of this research work is to determine the functional group using FTIR and chemical components of aqueous extract of watermelon rind using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Dried powder of Citrulluslanatus (water melon) rind extracts was used for FTIR analysis. 10 mg of the dried extract powder was encapsulated in 100 mg of KBr pellet, was prepared to obtain a translucent sample discs. The powdered of Citrulluslanatus was loaded in FTIR analysis (Shimadzu, IR Affinity 1, Japan), having a Scan range from 400 to 4000 cm-1. While The phyto-constitutes of Citrulluslanatus (water melon) aqueous rind extract were determined by Gas Chromatography (Agilent 6890 series) coupled with HP-5MS column mass spectrometer at column temperature of 30°C and was heated to 300°C at 10°C for 5min. The helium was used as carrier gas at a flow of 1.0ml/min. The identification of the constituents of water melon rind aqueous extract was performed by matching their mass spectra and retention indices with those obtained from authentic samples and/or NSIT/Wiley spectra libraries, using different types of search (PBM/NIST/AMDIS) and available literature data. The FTIR analysis Citrilluslanatus aqueous rind extract shows different absorption band which indicated the characteristic peak of different functional groups such as OH, C=O C-O, H-N, C-H etc which are associated with phenols, ketones, flavonoids, aldehydes, amides, alkenes etc. while the Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry analysis of aqueous extract of watermelon rind reveals the presence of different fatty-acid, methyl ester and volatile organic compounds this includes Hexadecanoic acid,2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, Eicosane,2methyl-, 1-Hexadecanesulfonic acid,3,5-dichloro-2,6-dimethyl-4-pyridyl ester, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid(Z,Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, Estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17β-ol etc. The finding showed that Citrilluslanatus aqueous rind extract have thirty-one (31) bioactive constituents of pharmacological important identified by GC-MS and FTIR analysis. These compounds from Citrilluslanatus rind can be used in pharmaceutical industry for development of novel lead drugs for management of diseases.
Original Research Article
March 22, 2022
Effects of Weaning Diets Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Weanling Wistar Rats
Archibong Idongesit Ekong, Essien Eka Bassey, Amadi Benjamin Achor, Anacletus Francis
Page Numbers : 50-56
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i03.001
The effect of weaning diets formulated locally were assessed on weanling wistar rats and compared with a commercial brand to ascertain its use as weaning diets for infants in resource-poor nations. The raw ingredients were processed using local methods into different diets and fed to weanling rats weighing between 45-60 g. Thirty weanling wistar rats were divided into six groups of five animals each and were allowed access to food and water ad-libitum for 28 days following standard procedures. Results of the antinutritive components of the diets revealed that phytate recorded the least amount of 0.29±0.00 mg/110g while oxalate was highest (18.12±0.07) in diet formulated majorly with plant materials. Organ weights of the experimental animals showed that animals fed the locally formulated diets compared favourably with the commercial diet while the least weights observed in animals fed protein-free diets. The Biochemical and hematological assessment of the serum of experimental animals did not show any marked difference in all the experimental groups. From the result, it can be deduced that the locally formulated diets did not pose any adverse health effect on rats and therefore is safe for use as infant diets.
Original Research Article
Feb. 24, 2022
Optimization of Valine Production Using Bacillus Cereus Isolated from Soil
Aliyu A, Nasiru S, J U Mari, B B Sadiq, ND Tanko, Ibrahim HM, M Bala
Page Numbers : 37-49
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i02.002
The Production of amino acids such as valine by fermentation has become an essential technology of Industrial microbiology. Valine has extensive industrial applications, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of agricultural pesticides and semi-synthetic veterinary antibiotics. This research work was aimed to isolate Bacillus cereus from the soil capable of valine production and optimize the condition for maximum yield. The valine production was optimized initially by one factor at a time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum valine yield (3.53mg/ml) was obtained at pH 7.5, temperature of 40℃ incubation time of 58hrs and 125rpm agitation rate, the response surface plots (3D and contour) revealed a significant interactions between pH, temperature and incubation time to valine yield. The results of the characterized valine produced using Bacillus cereus shows similar properties with the commercially produced valine by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and boiling point. Based on the study, the isolated Bacillus cereus could have a potential for industrial production of valine under optimized conditions.
Original Research Article
Feb. 10, 2022
Ameliorating Potential of Annona muricata on Testosterone Propionate-Induced benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Male Wistar Rats
Onyegeme-Okerenta BM, Anacletus FC, Agene KR, Ubana EM
Page Numbers : 28-36
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i02.001
This study investigated the ameliorating potential of Annona muricata on Testosterone Propionate-Induced Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. Sixty (60) adult rats weighing 150 to 250g were grouped into six (6) of ten (10) rats. Group 1 (positive control) was fed with regular rat feeds and water. Group 2 (negative control), and Groups 3 - 6 were given regular feeds, water, and 3 mg/kg propionate for 28 days to induce benign prostatic hyperplasia. Group 3 to 6 were treated with 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg A. muricata extract respectively for 28 more days. Semen quality, Benign prostatic hyperplasia biomarkers, oxidative stress enzymes, Biomarkers of cardiac, renal, and hepatic function, Haematological indices as well as testis histology were investigated in treatment groups relative to controls. Results of Groups 3 to 6 show a significant (p<0.05) increase in sperm motility, viability, and count, with a significant decrease (p<0.05) in dead and abnormal sperm cells relative to the negative control. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a BPH indicator, showed a decrease and Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) an increase, however, both changes were non-significant (p>0.05). Cardiac biomarkers creatinine kinase MB (CKMB), D-dimer, and myoglobin, as well as liver, were not affected. The photomicrographs showing lesion in negative control were ameliorated by different concentrations of A. muricata extract and the tissues were restored to normal in treatment Groups 3 to 6. Annona muricata possesses ameliorative potentials on testosterone propionate-induced benign prostate hyperplasia. It has a positive effect on spermatogenesis and therefore, can boost semen quality.
Original Research Article
Jan. 30, 2022
High Sensitive C Reactive Protein (hsCRP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Nazrana Martuza, Rezwana Haque, Shamima Afrin, Abu Jafar Md Tareq Morshed, Afia Shahnaj, Md. Tufazzal Hossain, Mohammad Shiblee Zaman
Page Numbers : 22-27
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2022.v05i01.004
Background: Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders, characterized by hyperglycemia which results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes are rising rapidly worldwide. Diabetes has been linked to a shorter life expectancy mainly because of its complications, including heart disease, strokes, retinopathy, and chronic kidney disease and bone disease. Objective: To examine the relationship between high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This study was a hospital based cross sectional study conducted at Dept. of Biochemistry, Ashiyan Medical College Hospital from January to June 2020. The study consists of 180 patients out of which 90 were normal healthy controls (Group I) and 90 patients having type 2 DM were included in case (Group II). FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, hsCRP and ALP of all subjects were measured. Results: Mean serum hsCRP and ALP level were statistically significant higher in case group compared to control group. Moreover, significant positive correlation was observed between hsCRP and ALP level as well as both with FBS, PPBS and HbA1c. Conclusions: Oxidative stress and inflammation appears to be a key component and also associated with poor glycaemic control and further pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. All our finding suggest a link between oxidative stress, inflammation and glycaemic control in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.