Antifungal Effect of Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis) and Myrtle (Myrtus communis L) Essential Oil on Chickpea Blight (Ascochyta rabiei)
Yusuf BAYAN, Melih YILAR, Abdurrahman ONARAN
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 625-629
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.1
Abstract: The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate, antifungal activities in vitro conditions of the essential oil retrieved from laurel (Laurus nobilis) and myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) on three different isolates of the chickpea blight disease (Ascochyta rabiei). The antifungal activity study was conducted in 60 mm in diameter petris with 10 ml PDA environment, and the plantation of fungi was done in the middle of the petri in a diameter of 5 mm. The effected of essential oil was added to sterile blotting paper attached on the lids of the petris in 0,5, 1, 2, 4 ve 8 μl doses with the help of a micropipette. The petri lids covered with parafilm were incubated in 23 ° C for 14 days. Measurements were done after the incubation period and the percentage of mycelial growth was calculated. The results of the study revealed that the essential oil obtained from Laurus nobilis inhibited the disease growth of isolates-1, isolates-2 and isolates 3 in the dose of 8 μl by 72,53%, 67,37 % and 45,8%, respectively. It was found that the essential oil obtained from Myrtus communis L inhibited the disease growth of isolates-1, isolates-2 and isolates 3 in the dose of 8 μl by 45,19%, 57,35% and 39,36%, respectively. Furthermore, it was established that the fungus growth was inhibited in different degrees in the different doses. It was concluded that the essential oil of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis L possess a high rate of antifungal activities in vitro conditions.
Dec. 15, 2017
The Detection Microbiologycal Quality Ground Water in Sivas
Ozlem Pelin CAN
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 630-632
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.2
Abstract: In the present study were studied microbiological qualities of drinking water obtained of Sivas. A total of 100 water samples (once week, during six mounth), collected from ground water and 3 tankers filling from same ground water in spring and summer (March-August), were used as material. The samples were evaluated microbiologycal (total mezophile aerobe bacteria, enterobacteria and E. coli). According to the analysis results; all of the examples were found total mezophile aerob bacteria. The enterobacteria in samples were detection between <10- 103 cfu/ ml. The sample of 12 was analyzed E. coli. Results of, microbiological analysis of the water sources performed at regular intervals for public health. Because, it is very important to transmitted by water diseases. This is the first step of the protective precautions.
Dec. 17, 2017
The Use of Gaseous Hydrogen in Spark Ignition Engines
Maan Jenan Basher
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 633-639
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.3
Abstract: The world suffers from air pollution from burning fossil fuels to produce energy. Cars consume a large proportion of fuel, especially spark ignition engines. The pollutants produced by these engines can be reduced using new types of alternative fuels, including hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is characterized by its high speed and high resistance to knock, making it an acceptable option for use in spark ignition engines. Among the disadvantages that prevent the use of hydrogen is its ease of ignition, safety requirements, lack of energy on the volume basis. In this study, we are trying to review a number of new researches which have tested practically and theoretically the use of hydrogen in ignition engines.
Dec. 19, 2017
Geothermal Water Potential of Bursa (Turkey) Province
Beşir Dağ, Ali Bilgin
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 640-654
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.4
Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical properties of hot spring water of Bursa province and Erikli cold water were investigated. Erikli cold water is bottled for commercial use. Water samples were collected in-situ for testing and some physical measurements were carried out. Other major analyses were carried out in the geothermal laboratory. Water samples were evaluated by both field observations in-situ and also geological and petrographical observations. Data collected were evaluated by using Aqua-Chem software program in consideration of field observations and the geology and petrography of the sampling area. Data obtained from Aqua-Chem and field observations of the sampling area in consideration of geology and petrography were used for interpretations of hot water samples and cold spring water. Consequently, water samples were characterized according to sources of magma or meteoric waters with the aid of isotope studies and cation and anion data. Also, information on water circulation leading to water-rock interaction where the water passes the Bursa Geothermal system helped the interpretation. The water sample radioactivity results were shown to be within acceptable limits. Water resources were determined for Bursa province and vicinity using Piper diagram. Waters in Cekirge, Kaynarca, Kükürtlü, Zeynine, Dumbuldek, and Inegol Oylat contain Ca-Mg-Na-SO4, Na-Ca-SO4, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4, Ca-Na-Mg-SO4, Na-Ca, Ca-SO4-HCO3 ions respectively.
Dec. 20, 2017
Specification of Mineral Composition, Heavy Metal Content, Microbiological Characteristics of a Traditional Anatolian Cheese-Aho Cheese
Asya Çetinkaya, Sibel ÖZÇAKMAK
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 655-661
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.5
Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to determine certain microbiological characteristics, mineral contents heavy metal levels in 16 Aho cheeses of Sürmene and Araklı districts of Trabzon and to determine the suitability of the Turkish Food Codex. Mineral ingredient and heavy component contents have been identified based on ICP-OES implementation and in mg kg-1 unit type. In Aho cheese samples the average levels of the mineral contents and heavy metals in the Aho cheeses were determined as; calcium 3628.30±355.07 mg kg-1, potassium 461.20±33.48 mg kg-1, sodium 8463.75±658.97 mg kg-1, magnesium 163.42±10.96 mg kg-1, iron 5.46±1.29 mg kg-1, zinc 27.04±2.62 mg kg-1, copper 1.358±0.13 mg kg-1, manganese 0.31±0.17 mg kg-1, phosphorus 4187.05±327.60 mg kg-1, lead 0.174±0.04 mg kg-1 and cadmium 0.028±0.04 mg kg-1. The microbiological values obtained were as follows; yeast and moulds 4.12±0.09 log cfu g-1, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria 6.72±0.11 log cfu g-1, Lactobacilli bacteria counts in the MRS agar 6.42±0.05 log cfu g-1. Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were <10 in all samples. As a result, it was determined that the mineral contents and heavy metal levels of the cheese samples were within the limits determined by the Turkish Food Codex for some foods.
Dec. 20, 2017
Effects of Cutting Time and IBA Treatment on Rooting of Rhododendron Summer Cuttings Collected from Turkish Flora
B. Altun, H. Celik, H. Gumus, S. Saglam, O. Eminagaoglu, M. Turet, T. Yucel, I.T. Kaya
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 662-666
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.6
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the possibilities of vegetative propagation of the widespread 5 Rhododendron species (R. ponticum L, R. luteum Sweet, R. smirnovii Trautv, R.ungernii Trautv, and R. caucasicum Pallas) in Turkey. The plant material was obtained as shoot tip cuttings from Black Sea Region flora at three times (June, July and August). The respective cutting materials were subjected to 5 Indole-3-butryic acid (IBA) doses (0, 4000, 8000, 12000 and 16000 ppm) and planted in acidic peat and perlite mixture under mist propagation in greenhouse condition. Sixty cuttings (20 cuttings with 3 replicates) were used for each treatment. Totally, 300 cuttings were used. Results showed that three rhododendron species (R. ponticum, R. luteum and R. smirnovii) were successfully rooted but the others (R. ungerni and R. caucasicum) were not. Only 16.000 ppm IBA gave the highest rooting rate (46.67%). The highest rooting rates were obtained in R. ponticum as 46.66 % from August cuttings, in R. luteum as 38.33 % from June cuttings and R. smirnovii as13.33% from August cuttings. To conclude, when the cutting materials were obtained in summer season, their rooting rates were quite low in Rhododendron species, suggesting that when it is difficult to reach these plants in heavy winter conditions, it can be worked on summer cuttings even low rate of rooting.
Dec. 20, 2017
Influence of Suitable Admissible Functions for the Lateral Displacement in Thermal Post-Buckling Response of Orthotropic Circular Plates
Anju V Nair, Sharidan Shafie, Abdul Rahman, Mohd Kasim, Mohd Zuki Salleh
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 667-679
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.7
Abstract: An accurate formulation to predict the thermal post-buckling load carrying capacity of orthotropic circular plates based on von Kàrmàn nonlinearities is reported in this paper. The governing differential equations of circular plates with orthotropic material properties are converted into linear differential equations employing the nondimensional parameters. The radial edge load is evaluated by assuming suitable admissible functions for the lateral displacement. Simply supported and clamped boundary conditions are considered in this study. The Rayleigh - Ritz method of total potential energy gives the values of linear buckling load. The thermal postbuckling load of orthotropic circular plates is evaluated using the radial edge load and linear buckling load. The influences of suitable admissible functions on the lateral displacement are also discussed. The numerical results obtained from the present investigation are compared with the known results reported in the literature and are in good agreement within the engineering accuracy. The error percentage of the results has been predicted and a maximum error is found out to be 4.02 % for simply supported and 3.67 % for clamped boundary conditions respectively.
Dec. 20, 2017
Genetic Diversity of the Karayaka Sheep Breed in Samsun, Turkey
Koray Kırıkçı, Mehmet Akif Çam, Levent Mercan
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 680-684
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.8
Abstract: The Karayaka sheep is the most populous sheep breed in the Black Sea region of Turkey and a significant portion of the breed (30-35%) has been raised for centuries in Samsun province. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Karayaka sheep raised in Samsun, Turkey. The blood samples used in this study were collected from unrelated animals and were analysed using nine microsatellite markers. A total of 72 alleles were determined with an average of eight alleles per locus. The highest number of alleles (12) was observed for locus BM1314, while the lowest (4) was observed for locus CSSM47. The expected heterozygosity value (He) ranged from 0.654 at locus BM757 to 0.867 at locus BM1314, with an average of 0.757, whereas the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.125 at locus CSSM47 to 0.438 at locus BM757 and HUJ616, with an average of 0.329. The Wright’s fixation index (FIS) values ranged from 0.360 at locus BM757 to 0.833 at locus OARFCB304, with an average of 0.572. The results obtained from this study showed that Karayaka sheep population has a high level of genetic diversity and the studied markers were highly informative.
Dec. 25, 2017
Parametric Analysis of Vertical Deflections of Bridges under Moving Loads
Lezin Seba Minsili, Gilbert Tchemou, Ayina Ohandja Louis Max, Mandegue Lotin Josette A
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 685-694
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.9
Abstract: In order to develop the sustainability of bridge engineering design in many design offices of underdeveloped countries, this work outlines design guidelines by examining the behavior of bridges vertical displacement in relation to several parameters such as the moving speed, the track irregularities, the span-length, the elasticity modulus, the cross-section geometry and the material damping. A simply supported Euler-Bernoulli bridge-beam model coupled to a multiple moving point loading under different conditions is developed based on the Hooke’s law, the Navier’s hypothesis and the Saint-Venant’s principle. Obtained results give a deeper understanding on the influence of these parameters in the initial design, and show that the use of a single dynamic magnification factor alone, for different bridge parameters, is not technically optimal for an improved dynamic analysis of existing and under-design bridges, and that local Design Bureau should implement a more sustainable design methodology to tackle uncertainties in bridge behavioral responses for its wider understanding.
Dec. 25, 2017
Current Trends in Reducing Emission and Fuel Consumption in Diesel Engines
Saad Abdulqader Abdulaziz Al-Sheikh
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 695-705
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.10
Abstract: Diesel engines are used around the globe in many transportation and power production activities. These engines consume large amounts of fuel and produce many dangerous pollutants. If we add to this all, the coming day for the depletion of oil, all these things together require consideration of alternatives to reduce the consumption of diesel oil and its pollutants. In this study, we navigate through the scientific research space and review the latest findings of science in this regard. There are substitutes for diesel, including fully compensated, or mixing with it to reduce pollutants. All these alternatives have their positives and negatives. To this day, diesel fuel is still dominating the ignition engines and has not yet achieved a competitive advantage in terms of combustion efficiency.
Dec. 25, 2017
Influence of Graphite Waste Incorporation on the Properties of Epoxy Matrix Composites
Calis Acikbas N, Ozcan S
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 706-712
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.11
Abstract: The addition of filler materials to a polymer is a common practice to improve strength, stiffness, toughness, hardness, conductivity, wear resistance, as well as reducing the processing cost significantly. In this study the effect of waste graphite as a cost effective reinforcement in epoxy matrices for improving the mechanical properties was investigated. As the graphite content increased bending modulus, hardness and bulk density increased and bending strength and total porosity decreased.
Dec. 26, 2017
The Investigation of the Effects of Various Low Temperature Processing Organic Materials on the Ceramic Wall Tile Surface Morphology
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 713-717
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.12
Abstract: It would be required to impart hydrophobic and hence antimicrobial property to inherently hydrophilic ceramic wall tiles in order to reduce health risks. For this purpose an industrially applicable ceramic wall tile opaque glaze was modified by the addition of the various organic materials. The organic matter included in the industrial glazes most probably acted as agents leaving pores behind and changing the liquefaction temperature of the glaze on the pore borders, and forming protruding microscale surface structures by burning and gasifying out during gloss firing. The optimum temperature range for gloss firing of the modified industrial opaque wall tile glaze was determined as 960-980°C by thermal microscope measurements and TG analysis. The SEM images of the surfaces revealed microscaled surface morphologies which might be potentially instrumental in the hydrophobic surface formation due to the trapped air gaps between the tile surface and the sessile water drops in accord with Cassie-Baxter model. The surface topography obtained in this way by polyvinyl butyrate and modifications provided hydrophobic contact angles.
Dec. 26, 2017
The Assessment of Nıgde Omer Halısdemır Campus wıth Regards to Landscape Qualıty
G. Sandal Erzurumlu, Barış Kahveci
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 718-726
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.13
Abstract: In this study, it is aimed to determine the factors causing visual pollution in Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University campus, to remove the visual pollution and to take measures to prevent it. A survey was conducted to determine the perceptions of the academic and administrative staff and students of the Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University about the visual pollution of the campus. As the survey study was planned to represent the whole campus, it was aimed to include 2 academicians, 2 administrative staff and 2 students in each department in equal proportion to all faculties within the campus. The questionnaire was conducted by face-to-face interview with 100 people at random selection. The survey results were evaluated in the SPSS package program. As a result of the study, the opinions of the students, academic and administrative staff of Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University about the visual pollution of the structural and plant equipments in the campus have been determined. Preventive measures have been developed to eliminate visual pollution in designated areas.
Dec. 27, 2017
Effects of IBA Treatment and Root Thickness on Some Rooting Parameters in Root Cuttings of Rosa damascene Mill
M. Erol, B. Altun
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 727-730
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.14
Abstract: In this study, the effects of IBA doses (0, 500 and 1500 ppm) and root thickness of the R. damascena Mill cuttings on rooting rates, root counts, root lengths and shoot numbers were investigated. The results showed that IBA doses significantly affected rooting rates (p<0.05). The highest rooting rate (77.67%) was obtained from thick root cuttings with 500 ppm IBA dose application. The highest root number per cutting was found as 6.00 in thick cuttings and cuttings having no IBA application. The longest root branch per cutting was determined to be in the thick root cuttings and control cuttings (7.93 cm). The average number of root branch per cutting was determined as 0.77 in thin root cuttings and control cuttings. To conclude, R. damascena can easily be propagated with root cuttings with appropriate IBA doses, suggesting that the thicker root cuttings should be chosen for R. damascena propagation.
Dec. 27, 2017
Analysis of Network User Behavior on Campus Network
Liu Xiang Wei
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 731-736
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.15
Abstract: This thesis analyzes the behavioral characteristics of network users on the campus network. After capturing and processing communication data and recovering sessions, we can know the group behaviors of the campus users. What’s more, the use of the diskless computer among the cadets can also be seen from this analysis. On the one hand, such analysis can offer the theoretical basis for campus network. On the other hand, this work can help the administrative know more about the cadets’ study situation on the campus network and make better management. To some degree, the analysis reflects the importance of network users’ behavior analysis network management.
Dec. 30, 2017
Investigating the Role of Foreign Trade in FDI of Pakistan
Sara Rafiq, Liu Hai Yun
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 737-745
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.16
Abstract: FDI is considered to be an essential catalyst for trade liberalization and economic growth in both developing as well as developed countries. From the past several-decades countries around the world are struggling to attract foreign investors for filling their capital, skills and technological gaps and consequently FDI had grown at least twice as rapidly as trade This study is an attempt to thoroughly analyze these two crucial modes of resource and knowledge diffusion for Pakistan by empirical analysis of foreign trade and FDI from 1980-2016. ARDL approach is utilized for the statistical analysis with support of various techniques applied to FDI in Pakistan being dependent variables in econometric models. The empirical results of this study shows the positive and significant effect of foreign trade in FDI of Pakistan, coinciding with theory, supported by both sign of the coefficient and probability value.
Dec. 30, 2017
From Verbal to Visual
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 746-749
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.17
Abstract: Almost every verbal component can be converted to a visual one. This conversion emerges when meaning is produced by structural use of the material. In this paper there are two example which are designed by Nazmiye Ozturk. One of them is “Inflection and Surflexion”. The second one is “Equal Combinations and Structural Continuity”. Inflection, and Equal Combinations, which are constitutive concepts in Robert Venturi’s book “Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture”, are transformed into two design experiments.
Dec. 30, 2017
Appropriate Best Fit Model for Insurance Claims Modeling: A Catalyst for Managerial Planning. Evidence from Ghana
Iddrisu Abubakari, Ernestina Linda Bonny, Zakari Abubakari, Paa-Grant Rexford
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 750-758
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.18
Abstract: It is always important to determine the distribution of insurance claims in order to estimate future expected values. This study seeks to determine the appropriate best fit model using sample data from Dormaa Health Insurance Directorate. Sample data collected from Dormaa Presbyterian Hospital of the Dormaa Municipal Health Insurance Scheme was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), Excel spreadsheet, and Easy fit. It was found that the appropriate best fit model for the sample claims of the Dormaa Presbyterian Hospital follows lognormal distribution.
Dec. 30, 2017
Policy Decision Making and Management Effectiveness: Avoiding the Risk of Credibility Premium Goof
Iddrisu Abubakari, Paa-Grant Rexford, Zakari Abubakari, Ernestina Linda Bonny
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 759-770
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.19
Abstract: This article reports on estimating credibility factor using Empirical Bayes Credibility Theory. The credibility factor determined will help insurance companies to determine accurate credibility premium in order to charge aggregate premium that is reasonable in the coming year per risk using credibility premium formula. Thirteen risks/portfolios, from the Metropolitan Insurance Company, Ghana were used for the study. Among other things, the study results reveal that the distribution of all number of claims follows poisson distribution. . The study indicates that motto comprehensive, third party, workman compensation, fire material damage and asset risk had the highest credibility factors (Z_i>0.5 ) showing reliance on expected individual aggregate claims X ̅_i and those with credibility factors (Z_i<0.5) indicating reliance on risk parameter of overall risk E[m(θ)] or Expected Aggregate Claims. The results further indicate that expected range of volume of business in the coming years for all risks/portfolios was estimated as (V_B±t_(α/2) s/(√n) ) and the empirical bayes credibility theory premium was R_p×(V_B±t_(α/2) s/(√n) ).
Dec. 30, 2017
Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Rare Malignity
Selçuk Kuzu, Erol Güldün
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 771-774
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.20
Abstract: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal is an uncommon malignancy. Patients of such disease often initially present with nonspecific symptoms, such as ear discharge and otalgia as in chronic otitis media. reatment of EAC carcinomas is generally based on the combination of surgery and radiotherapy. Patients with EAC must initially be treated radically, and for them, early diagnosis and referral to an institution with experience in this kind of surgery is important. In this case report we aim to present a patient with ECA SCC who was misdiagnosed and treated for chronic otitis externa for a long time.
Dec. 30, 2017
Effects of Tree Canopy Shade on Soil Bacterial and Fungal Load
Unanaonwi Okpo Esio, Okezeke, Roy Nebolisa
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(12): 775-781
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.12.21
Abstract: Effects of tree canopy shades on Below Ground Microbial Load (BGML) were investigated within Federal University Otuoke. A homogenous forest stand was purposefully demarcated into three sample areas of 1 hectare each in order of limited canopy, and total canopy cover. An open field within the same terrain was also demarcated. A 10m×10m sub-samples were demarcated within each sample area and three sample plots were randomly selected from each area for investigation. Twenty trees (10/sample plot) under limited and total canopy cover were randomly picked. Twenty Leaves were randomly collected from each sample tree for leaf area index measurement. Soil samples were collected from 0-30cm under each canopy shade and taken to the laboratory for microbial load analyses. Chi-square test and correlation analyses were used in data analyses. Results showed that closed canopy has the highest microbial load with mean value of 167 x 10-5, followed by Limited canopy (138 x 10-5). Open canopy had the lowest microbial load of 67x105. Chi- square test shows that microbial load was significantly (P<0.05) higher under close canopy than open field. Microbial population was 501 x 10-5 CFU under close canopy, 415 x 10-5 CFU under limited canopy, and 201 x 10-5 CFU in open field. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.15 for closed canopy, R2 = 0.21 for limited canopy. There were weak positive correlations between canopy shades and soil microbial load. The practice of clearing woody trees to improve grassland for livestock production is not recommended. More trees on agricultural lands could improve soil health by attracting below ground populations.