A Review on Bacterial Pathogens, Types and Their Inhibition by the Action of Medicinal Plants
Tazeem Zahra, Aleena Alam, Asim Munir, Adnan Shahid, Sarfraz Khan, Sahib Jan, Nouman Shoukat
Page Numbers : 9-13
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i02.002
Bacterial infections are one cause of food borne illness. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, chills, and abdominal pain are common symptoms of food poisoning. Campylobacter jejuni is a diarrheal illness often accompanied by cramps and fever. Clostridium botulinum is a potentially life-threatening bacterium that produces powerful neurotoxins. Escherichia coli is a diarrheal (often bloody) illness that may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fever, and abdominal cramps. Listeria monocytogenes causes fever, muscle aches, and diarrhea. Pregnant women, elderly individuals, infants, and those with weakened immune systems are most at risk for acquiring this infection. Salmonella causes fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Symptoms typically last between 4 and 7 days. Vibrio causes diarrhea when ingested, but it can also cause severe skin infections. Bacterial vaginosis, which causes an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial meningitis is a severe infection of the meninges, the lining of the brain.
Subject Category: Agriculture
Feb. 13, 2021
Internships Dos and Don’ts
Dr. Wandra Arrington
Page Numbers : 7-8
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i02.001
Internships assist college students in better understanding their field of study, career goals, and provide them with career-related experiences that employers seek. The article’s purpose is to educate college students on internships Dos and Don’ts that will help them to have a successful experience.
Subject Category: Biotechnology
Jan. 5, 2021
Estimation of Total Phenol, Flavonoid, Tannin and Alkaloid Content in Different Extracts of Catharanthus roseus from Durg District, Chhattisgarh, India
Catharanthus rosea is an important ethno medicinal plant rich in bioactive compounds mainly alkaloids used widely in treatment of cancer disease. The aim of present study was to determine the total phenol, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid content in leaf stem and root parts of Catharanthus rosea in benzene, methanol, aqueous, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts by spectrophotometric method. Phytochemical analysis showed presence of saponin, tannin, terpenoid, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloid, steroid, quinones and phenolic compounds whereas protein was found absent. The total phenol, flavonoid, tannin, and alkaloid content of plant in different extracts were determined in comparison to standard gallic acid, rutin, tannic acid and quercetin respectively. The higher concentration for phenol was found in benzene leaf extract (0.65±0.02) µg/ml, flavonoid in chloroform leaf extract (0.62±0.02) µg/ml, tannin in methanol root extract (21±0.01) µg/ml and alkaloid in benzene leaf extract (0.61±0.03) µg/ml. The presence of such metabolites indicates therapeutic importance of plant.
Subject Category: Business Management
Dec. 30, 2020
The “Flipped Classroom”: A Tool for Higher Education in Times of Confinement
Dr. Laura Georgina Carmona-García, Dr. J. Emilio Méndez-González, M.A. Lorena Araceli López-Guzmán, M.A.R.H. Liliana Álvarez-Loya
Page Numbers : 269-274
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i12.004
Education must meet the needs required by today's students; the new generations known as the Net Generation; they demand an updated educational system. There are multiple teaching systems at the higher level, some focused on the use of competencies, as well as on Bloom's Taxonomy; having as a common goal, professionals prepared for globalization when exercising their profession. It is critical to be at the forefront of changes in tools that facilitate the cognitive process. The mechanism of the methodology developed in the “Flipped Classroom” is reviewed, with the “Bloom's Taxonomy”, since the latter is the preamble for the design of various educational models. The Flipped class is an integration strategy, strengthens the educational process, and helps in the administration of the student and the teacher's time, meeting learning requirements, interacting with the Tics that the student executes, being the learning process dynamic, and adaptable to the learning capacity, achieving their attention, generating knowledge through their experiences, and expanding it with that of their peers.
Subject Category: Law
Dec. 30, 2020
Illegal Access to a Computer System: White Collor Crime in India
Jitender K Malik, Dr. Sanjaya Choudhury
Page Numbers : 262-268
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i12.003
Many jurisdictions encourage the adoption of electronic commerce by enacting statutes that enable contractual dealings to be conducted electronically, and also allows people to use an electronic signature to satisfy any legal requirement. Even the electronic transfer of land is covered under certain statutes as in the case of the Indian Information Technology Act, 2000. However, in the era of globalization; and in the absence of any geographical boundaries for the cyberspace, such new legislations also raise some questions: for how long will these statutes be valid? What are the boundaries of these statutes? Who should be forced to follow them? Most of these questions are unanswerable today. The exponential growth of the internet and online activity raise a number of legal questions. How does copyright apply to digital content? How can national laws apply to cyber wrongs in cyberspace? Can privacy and data protection exist on the cyber space? Can electronic commerce really be secure? Can cyberspace be regulated by one, or by many authorities? In seeking to apply the law to the Internet, problems arise owing to the fact that most laws largely apply to the pre-cyber space world. As the technology improves and ownership of home computers increases, one competently navigate his way around cyberspace, downloading information, reading and writing to newsgroups, and receiving and sending emails. Cyberspace represents the new medium of communication, electronic communication, which is fast outmoding, or even replacing, more traditional methods of communication. The present Study attempts a comprehensive definition of the term ‘cyberspace,’ traces out the evolution and growth of cyber space; and enumerates the pros and cons of information technology. In traditional and online trading environments, consumers are entitled to have their privacy respected. While shopping on the internet; most people typically do not think about what is happening in the background. In the modern era of electronic technology, people want to get their work done quickly with little effort. At times, people forget or ignore the legal and ethical values of their actions. Consequently, cyber wrongs in different forms are increasing day by day: cracking/hacking, e-mail spoofing, spamming/Denial of Services (DOS attacks), carding (making false ATM Debit and Credit cards), cheating and fraud, assault by threat, impersonation, intellectual property rights (IPR) infringements (software piracy, infringement of copyright, trademark, patents, domain names, designs and service mark violation, theft of computer source code, etc.), online gambling and other financial crimes including the use of networking sites and phone networking to attack the victim by sending bogus mails or messages through internet, forgery, URL hijacking or squatting (using the domain name of another person in bad faith), cyber vandalism (destroying or damaging the data when a network service is stopped or disrupted), virus transmission, internet time thefts, pornography, cyber terrorism etc-the list is endless. Customer information has to pass through several hands; and the safety and security of a customer's personal information lies within the hands of the business. Therefore, security and privacy of the information are a major concern. E-commerce has a tremendous impact on copyright and other intellectual property rights (IPRs).
Subject Category: Medical Laboratory Science
Dec. 30, 2020
Distribution of ABO, Rh Blood Grouping and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors With Blood Transfusion Service In Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State Nigeria
Oke T. O, Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Adekunle Joke Mary, Hassan A. O
Page Numbers : 257-261
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i12.002
The study was done to determine distribution and frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors and to establish the existence or widespread of this hepatitis B virus among this group of people in FMC Owo. The study was carried out in Owo and the analysis of the samples was done in the Department of Haematology and Blood Bank, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State. After an informed consent was obtained 120 blood donors (110 male and 10 females) volunteered to participate in the exercise. Demographic data forms which carried all the information, personal details such as occupation, educational back ground, age, sex, medical history e.t.c were filled by each donor. All the donors were apparently healthy, age 18 to 60 years with body weight 50kg. About 5ml of blood was collected from each donor with the donor in a sitting position. The blood was transferred into plain bottles and allowed to clot, centrifuged at 1500rpm for 3 minutes to obtain serum. The serum samples were transferred to vials for use and preserved at -20C until use. ABO and Rh grouping were determined using tiles methods by the agglutination of red cell in the presence of the corresponding antigen after a drop of antisera was placed on a clean tile. Hepatitis B surface antigen was determined by the Rapid Response TM Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) test strip. Simple percentage distributions and tables were used to represent the results. Phenotypic frequencies were calculated and expressed as percentage. Table-1 shows the age distribution and ABO blood group among various occupations of 120 subjects that participated in the research. The artisans were 26(12.6) with their age range 31-40. Their ABO blood group number and their percentages were as follow: A 2(1.66), B 5(4.17), AB 1(0.83) and O 8(5). Other groups of people % frequency, age range and ABO distributions were as shown in the table. Table-2 shows the occurrence of hepatitis B virus among the various groups of people that participated in this project work. The total number of people that were positive and negative and their percentages were 13(10.83) and 107(89.17). Artisans group showed the highest number 6(5) and Civil servants were the group with the least number 1(0.83). The ABO, rhesus (D) blood group and Hepatitis B virus distribution among the Owo blood donors were shown in Table-3. Out of the 120 donors only 4(3.3%) were rhesus (D) negative belonging to blood ABO blood group O. Other ABO blood groups were rhesus (D) positive. Blood group O also has the highest number of hepatitis B virus 13(10.9) while AB has the least (0). The Government should intensify and encourage the artisan to surrender themselves to be immunized against HBsAg and also encourage the adults to participate in voluntary blood donation in order to safe life.
Subject Category: Pharmacology
Dec. 24, 2020
Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Atorvastatin plus Fenofibrate versus Atorvastatin plus Saroglitazar in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Dyslipidemia
Dr. Mohd Faheem Mubeen
Page Numbers : 247-256
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i12.001
Introduction: In India, the number of people with diabetes is increasing day-by-day. Due to a sole “Asian Indian Phenotype,” Indians develop diabetes an era earlier and have an earlier onset of complications. Dyslipidemia with diabetes commonly manifests as raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, or elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. It is also reported that plaques are more vulnerable to rupture among patients with diabetes. Material and Methods: The present study was Prospective, open label, comparative, randomized, parallel group, single center study. Comparison of two active treatment groups over a period of 24 weeks. Total 184 patients of either sex in the age group of 30-60 years with diabetes and dyslipidemia according to NCEP. The effect of Atorvastatin plus Fenofibrate and Atorvastatin plus Saroglitazar were observed on various parameters i.e. Total Cholesterol, Serum Triglyceride (TG), Serum Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), Serum Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), Serum High-density lipoproteins (HDL). Results: In Atorvastatin plus Fenofibrate group the mean change of Total Cholesterol from baseline to 24 weeks was 304.80±49.22 to 256.20±49.12; on the other hand, in Atorvastatin plus Saroglitazar group from baseline to 24 weeks was 312.57±53.81 to 226.16±46.75. Whereas, Serum TG from 247.71±56.51 to 211.86±82.52 in Fenofibrate group; in Saroglitazar group from 244.05±66.97 to 174.91±57.61. Whereas, Saroglitazar group improve HDL from 38.43±5.82 to 51.07±6.86. Conclusions: Though Atorvastatin plus Fenofibrate and Atorvastatin plus Saroglitazar were effective in improving dyslipidemic indices yet Saroglitazar statistically highly significant than Fenofibrate group in improving dyslipidemia. Saroglitazar showed better results in decreasing Total Cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL and improving HDL as compared with Fenofibrate.