Sexual Dimorphism in Facial, Nasal, Mandibular, Maxillary and Orofacial Heights of the Ikwerre People in Rivers State
Sonny Clement Okoseimiema, Kenneth Amadi, John Nwolim Paul
Page Numbers : 130-133
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i05.002
Background: An attractive face, no doubt is pleasing to behold, however the definition of an attractive face is subject to factors such as personality, culture, age, ethnic background as well as personal preferences. Beauty, ugliness and handsomeness are subjective attributes ascribed to the facial appearance of individual. Though the determination of each is personal subjective, it is obvious that the human face is the most beautiful and attractive of all the mammals. Hence, this study was aimed at determining whether there is sexual dimorphism in the facial height, nasal height, mandibular height, maxillary height and orofacial height of the Ikwerre people in Rivers State. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional that included males and females of the Ikwerre ethnicity of Rivers state of Nigeria. A total of 1,038 subjects comprising males (585) and females (453) aged between 5 – 45years were used for this study. The parents and grandparents were all from Ikwerre ethnic group. Each subject sat on a comfortable sitting position and then their facial measurements were taken including; facial height, nasal height, mandibular height, maxillary height and orofacial height. Results and Discussions: Results & Discussion: F.H. for males in the age grade 25yrs and above was 106.81±11.58, while for the females 101.24±6.98; N.H. for the males: 37.991±6.126, while for the females 38.344±6.255, Man. H. males: 47.511±8.016, females: 41.975±7.018; Max. H males: 22.08±21.16, females: 20.107±3.667, and O.H. males: 69.59±22.76, while females had 62.083±8.013. The result of the study showed that across the age categories the males consistently had higher values of the facial parameters investigated. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that there was sexual dimorphism with the male values of all the facial dimensions measured were significantly higher than female values (P<0.05).
Subject Category: Plant Breeding and Genetics
May 8, 2021
Mustard as Medicinal Plant: Sources, Botanical Features, Genetics and Applications
Syed Abu Bakr Haider Bukhari, Gohar Jahangeer, Muhammad Umair Dildar, Anila Sabir, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Ehsan Haider, Mahnoor Zafar
Page Numbers : 123-129
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i05.001
Mustard as the medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. There are 3 types of mustard: brown, oriental and yellow. Generally, the mustard seeds are mainly used in condiment or food industries in either oil or seeds form. The mustard plant is a plant species belongs to family Brassicaceae and the genera Brassica. The seed of mustard is used as spice. Derivatives of mustard constituent’s allyl iso-thiocyanate form basis for deadly agents such as anti-neoplastic drugs (e.g. bendamustine) and mustard gases. It helps for karyotyping process that centered on meiotic and mitotic chromosome and used many methods of staining comprising CMA3/DAPI fluorescence staining, Giemsa staining, silver staining, C banding, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with repetitive DNA sequences. As a source of vitamin-K plays its important role in serving with the blood clotting. It is also important and essential for the health of bone and heart. All these mustard species can also be utilized in the production of eatable oils. Both oriental and brown mustards are utilized to make the products which are spicier than the condiments which obtained from yellow mustard.
Subject Category: Chemistry
April 21, 2021
A Review on Nanoparticles, Synthesis, Characterization, Current Applications and Future Perspectives
Nanotechnology playing significant role in different fields of sciences as the multidisciplinary particularly physics, chemistry, biology as well as in biomedical sciences. There are different types of nanoparticles depends upon on the particular metals and their function at cellular level. The most important nanoparticles are the carbon based, zinc and silver. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized from silver nitrate as the main starting agent with sufficient quantity. One of the most important of synthesis of nanoparticles through green synthesis approach that are environment friendly. Through polysaccharides method, silver nanoparticles can be synthesized through the biological agent such as polysaccharides that particularly replaying impregnate role in characterization of nanoparticles in the presence of water. C. vulgaris as the active biological organism untitled for the production of silver nanoparticles at the normal room temperature. soluble polyoxometalates are capable of synthesizing noble nanoparticles through stepwise, multi-electron redox reactions inertly. TEM is a very powerful technique for the characterization of NP size, composition and crystalline structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most extensively used techniques for the characterization of NPs. Clay nanoparticles are playing important in textile industry to assist in making the long chain of fibers.
Subject Category: Economics and Finance
April 19, 2021
Determinant of Devidend Policy and Its Implications on Company Value (Study on Construction and Building Issuer Year 2014-2019)
Bambang Mulyana, Ahmad Badawi Saluy, Karlina
Page Numbers : 104-117
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.007
The purpose of this research was to determine and analyze the effect of financial performance on devidend policy and its implications for corporate value in the construction and building industry sub-sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2014-2019. The population was 18 companies and sampling technique is purposive sampling, so that the sample in this study amounted to 8 companies. The data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis with the help of Eviews Statistic application. The results of this research indicate that Cash Ratio has a negative not significant effect on DPR. DER has a positive not significant effect on DPR. ROA has a negative significant effect on DPR, while RTO has a negative not significant effect on DPR, and DPR has an effect negative not significant on Tobin’s Q.
Subject Category: Botany
April 15, 2021
Novel Approach and Biological Techniques to Improve the Crop Yields under Stress Conditions
Syed Asad Raza Shah Naqvi, Maham Saddique, Asma Bibi, Alyan Ashraf, Muhammad Mudasser Aslam, Faisal Nadeem, Muhammad Huzafa
Page Numbers : 98-103
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.006
Plants have defensive proteins to survive in drought and heat conditions by activation extensive stomata systems. Different factors affected the plant growth such as drought as one of major cause in seed growth inhibition. Biotic as well as abiotic stresses cause changes in morphology and also involve at the molecular alteration or activations of certain genes. Adverse effects of high temperature on cereal crops vary with the timing, duration, and sternness of the heat stresses. Harmful mutations that have drastic effects tend to be fixed in modern breeding pools. Drought also affects the growth of certain growth promoting factors also on turgor. It leads to problems in transport of water to different parts of plants such as xylem and other cells that playing significant role in prompting the plant growth. Different techniques and software’s are currently available to under table the nature, type and function performed by each gene in biotic and abiotic stresses. Microarray as one of the best technique used for the gene expression in the plants thus helping the rescuing of disease rate in plants. Different genetic traits have been placed in special groups in order to communicate the stress groups of plants in relation to environment. Different genes are activated under stress conditions that can be potentially recognized and sequenced at the genomics level due to different methods of sequencing used for checking their specific sequence of genes.
Subject Category: Biochemistry
April 13, 2021
Review on Cellular, Molecular and Industrial level Role of Microbial Enzymes
Marya Bibi, Gulnaz Ashraf, Muhammad Omer Iqbal, Maria Rafiq, Hafiza Yusra Nazeer
Page Numbers : 87-92
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.004
Enzymes act as a biocatalyst that particularly catalyzed the reactions in the living organism by them to carry out the reaction. Enzymes have application in food, detergent, pharmaceutical and paper industries. Nowadays, the enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme-based processes are preferred to the chemical ones due to the environmentally friendly nature, efficient process control, high yield, low refining costs and process safety. There are many enzymes that are used in different industries for the production of chemicals, drugs as well as other pharmaceutical products. Synthesis of enzymes can be carried out in different ways such as organic as well as inorganic synthesis but it depends upon on the nature of chemicals and reagents used for their synthesis both in laboratory and industrial level. Xylan is the major compounds found in the inner part of hemicullulose to make the cell of plants thicker as compares to the other cells. Ligninase as one of the important industrial based enzyme used to control the pollution in the environment. This enzyme has biotechnological applications in the fields of agricultural sciences for the production of agricultural products. Lipase is one enzyme that is used in fat metabolism for catalysis the fat molecules. It has also other activities other than digestion such as transportation of lipids in the form of triglycerides.
Subject Category: Botany
April 13, 2021
A Review on Current Advances in Crop Productivity, Applications and Impact on Agricultural or Biological Farming
Anam Saira, Hafiza Maria Mahmood, Asma Bibi, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Faizan Ullah, Mahnoor Aslam, Muhammad Amjad Farooq
Page Numbers : 93-97
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.005
Crop models are a formal way to present quantitative knowledge about how a crop grows in interaction with its environment. One of the possible appliances of remote sensing in farming is the estimation of crop acreage and recognition of crop situation because of either water stress or pest. APSIM model is composed of several modules that enable the simulation of agricultural systems based on plant, animal, soil, climate, and management interactions. As pesticides have various effects on the growth of crops, but the use practical applications of crop modeling plant extracts as the source of weed killers can be very beneficial for plant growth. Although there is a range of crop modeling crops, but sorghum and sunflower are the mostly studied crops effectively controlled by crop modeling. The main theme of agricultural research is very complex and diverse topic involving cooperation and antagonism of various processes in crops. Crop modeling has been a core theme of the agricultural research for controlling the various diseases. So, there is a need to conduct more research on the crop modeling relations of wheat with respect to increase the yield and productivity in order to increase the quality of crops to contribute to the human life.