Crude Oil Polluted Niger Delta Environment: Conservation Techniques for Survival
Ebiye Asuka, Oku Hyginus O, Alexander Chinago B
Page Numbers : 252-263
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i09.004
The environment is the home of man, and anything that affects it affects man. In exploration of crude oil in the Niger delta of Nigeria, there is abundant risk to man and his environment. From inception of crude oil exploration in Niger Delta in 1956 till date the soil, river, animals, fishes, man and the environment has suffered terribly as a result of on form of pollution or another. It has been observed among other things that the release of crude oil and refined petroleum products in terrestrial and aquatic environment results in long term threat to all forms of life. It has also been observed that the presence of crude oil and spent lubricating oil in the soil adversely affects the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. It has also been discovered that crude oil affect the germination, maturity and growth of crops. Crude pollution also destroys aquatic lives and incapacitates flying creatures. Majority of Niger Deltans depend on agriculture, therefore to survive there must be a conservation and remediation techniques. This work discovered that the most effective remediation techniques that can be used in the Niger Delta region include organic treatments and inorganic treatment. The available types of remediation include Physiochemical processes, Thermal processes, and Biological processes, Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Phytoremediation. The aforementioned remediation techniques will go a long way to improve the environment. However, the best form of oil exploration in Niger delta should be the one with zero pollution tolerance.
Subject Category: Agricultural Economics
Sept. 21, 2021
Impact of Total Factor Productivity and Employment on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia
Imad Eldin E. Abdel Karim Yousif, Kamaleldin Ali Bashir
Page Numbers : 247-251
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i09.003
The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of total factor productivity and employment level on economic growth of Saudi Arabia. The data used in the analysis is a time series data covering the period 2005-2019, and a semi-log regression model was estimated. The results showed that real GDP growth is fluctuating during the study period depending on oil price level. The total factor productivity in Saudi Arabia lagged behind that of many emerging economies. The model results revealed that the total factor productivity is more important for economic growth than increasing the size of the labor force. The paper recommends policymakers seeking to foster economic growth in Saudi Arabia, to put more emphasis on improving productivity of capital inputs and labor through adoption of proper technologies, training, and research and development.
Subject Category: Botany
Sept. 6, 2021
Agricultural Impacts, Importance and Botanical Role of Different Crops
Sohail Ahmad, Muhammad Afzal, Saifullah, Muntazir Mehdi Khan, Muhammad Saleem, Arif Hussain, Muhammad Shiwal Hamza, Matloob Ahmad, Gul E Zahra, Aftab Hussain
Page Numbers : 236-240
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i09.001
Crop plants are cultivated because of their commercial values and for trading. On the other hand, the crop plants are cultivated and harvested on a large scales for profit purposes. The rice is cultivated in vast range of areas under different climatic conditions, grown in both wet and dry regions. Wheat is the most important and ancient crop which is cultivated at larger scale in many regions of the world. Cotton has hundreds applications in many things such as blue jeans to strings of our shoe, in clothing It has hundreds of uses, from blue jeans to shoe strings. The production of organic cotton promotes the biological cycles and the biodiversity. It is also used as fodder, feed for the cattle’s and in silage making. It is utilized widely as the main source of calories in the animal’s fermentation process. As the demand of crop increasing day by day due to large population entire the world, food with combinations of nutrients and minerals required to increase the production rate off different crops.
Subject Category: Physics
Sept. 6, 2021
Potential Role and Recent Applications of Nanoparticles in Physics with Emphasize on Advanced Techniques
Muhammad Nasir Akram, Salah Ud Din, Muhammad Adnan Saeed, Faisal Abbas, Muhammad Zeeshan, Waseem Abbas, Muhammad Danish Qureshi
Page Numbers : 241-246
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i09.002
Different types of nanoparticles such as silver and gold can be evaluated at higher rate than those traditional methods or techniques. Nanoparticle Spectrometer is mostly used to measure the particle size distribution. Localized surface plasmon resonance is used for studying the shape, size and composition of the newly synthesized nanoparticles in order to extract the optical properties as different bimetallic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can be synthesized through the pulsed plasma method by applying voltage across electrodes. Localized surface plasmon resonance is used for characterizing the physical as well as electrical characterizes of the some nanoparticles such as aluminum, gold and silver. Nuclear magnetic resonance is extensively used for determining of the atomic structure of different particles. Darkfield microscopy is used to find out the differences in contrast by selectively capturing light scattered by the specimen. Magnetic resonance in physics also used determination of the molecular structure of molecules bound to surfaces of nanomaterial. Liquid-phase plasma also applied for synthesis of nanoparticles in order to design the nanoparticles based on electrical and metal based properties.
Subject Category: Academic library
Aug. 30, 2021
E-Learning Platforms for COVID-19 Nigerian Academic Libraries
Aliyu Abdulkadir, Hafsat Wada Mohammed
Page Numbers : 229-235
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i08.005
The paper discusses the concept of E-learning which is research, learning, and teaching in the digital environment and how Nigerian Academic Libraries can support it in the COVI-19 global pandemic period. It primarily focused on the transition of academic libraries from mainly analogue to hybrid. The paper traces the outbreak of Covid-19 from Wuhan to Nigeria and the subsequent disruption of academic activities in Nigerian Universities and Libraries. It went further to discuss E-learning in the Academic Library, its benefits and the expectation of the e-learner on the academic Librarian. E-learning plat forms such as CMS, MLearning, Library Websites, YouTube, Pinterest, Podcasts, Instant Messaging (IM), Rich Site Summary (RSS), LinkedIn, Skype, and Google+, MySpace, Library thing, Ning were highlighted. The paper concludes that librarians and academicians ought to work together to assess and give links to legitimate web assets identified with projects and courses of instruction, and the Library should conduct online tutorials for improving the information searching skills of the e-learners and, by so doing, contributing greatly to improving e-learning in Nigeria.
Subject Category: Agronomy
Aug. 16, 2021
Agricultural Industrial Significance of Cotton, Types, Cotton Varieties and Role in Disease Control
Zain ul Abadin, Mustansar Hussain Akif, Muhammad Sheeraz Javed, Zia ur Rehman, Muhammad Adil, Sohail Ahmad, Mehwish Farooq, Saba Asghar
Page Numbers : 225-228
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i08.004
Cotton is the most important crop that is used for the production of fibers based products, textiles, agricultural products, medical devices and bioelectronics devices. It makes chemical bonded structure during paper making in which cellulose molecules are cross linked to the each other as forming massive structure. It is biochemically compressed of monoterpenes such as myrcene, pinene, camphene, limonene, and sabinene. Gossypium barbadense is comprised of proteins, fatty acids, and long chains of carbohydrates that makes through cross linked network and form intra molecular bonding. Gossypium hirsutum is a short-staple cotton fiber, which means that it is not as high-quality as other forms of this textile fiber. Its seeds also have applications in food industry as edible oil that can be used in shortening, margarine, salad and cooking oils, and for protective coverings. Gossypium arboretum has much significant economic value as compared to other cotton varieties due to its fibrous characteristics. One of the most important applications is their use in clothing for manufacturing of large varieties of clothes thus significant role in leading industries.
Subject Category: Chemistry
Aug. 12, 2021
Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy as Instrumental Tool for Detection of Nanoparticles
Muhammad Kashif Qamar, Muhammad Zahid, Azra Yasmeen, Muhammad Faisal Yasin, Muzammal Manzoor, Awais Shaukat, Sanwal Piracha, Sadia Saleem
Page Numbers : 220-224
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i08.003
Nanotechnology playing important role for the synthesis of chemical compounds by emphasizes on their applications in different fields due to their physical and chemical properties. ICP-OES is the most advanced technique with modifications in their instrumental working leads to effective analysis of chemicals compounds, nanoparticles characterization, trace elements in water and other geographical applications. Failure to achieve the calibration leads to ineffective characterization through ICP-OES that especially functioned in high recoveries of Au NPs when using such a special macerating enzyme that appeared to release the NPs from plant tissue without changing the size distribution of the NPs. ICP-OES is used for capturing the toxins and heavy metals in environment as the biological pollutants. Its efficiency to remove the nearby metals and other portents deliberately increased due to advances in the fields of the biomedical engineering in conjugation with the environment sciences. ICP-OES is widely used in mining processes, mining purity control, rocks analysis, etc.