ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 14, 2021
Predictors of Alcohol Abuse among University Students- A Case of a Kenyan University
Oloo Micky Olutende, Martin Sisa Yauma, Prof. Edwin K. Wamukoya
Page no 151-160
Problem: Despite the growing problems of global alcohol abuse, accurate information on the prevalence of alcohol abuse among university students in Kenya is still inadequate. Objective: The study therefore aimed to determine the prevalence and socio demographic determinants of alcohol abuse among university students Design. The study design was a cross-sectional analytical, that utilized quantitative methods. Setting: The study was conducted in Kakamega County, located in Western Kenya. Sample: Stratified random sampling was utilized to select the study group. Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Data presentation was done using frequency tables, charts and in narratives. The alpha level for all the computations was considered significant at an α <0.05. Main outcome measures: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questionnaire (AUDIT) was used to assess the prevalence of alcohol abuse Results. The participants included 112 students in year 1, 101 students in year 2, 80 students in year 3 and 162 students in year 4. Prevalence results showed that majority of the respondents (78.9%) claimed to have never taken a drink containing alcohol and most of the respondents (86.5%) were at low risk level of alcohol abuse with scores of between 0-7 in the AUDIT. The study found significant association between the prevalence of alcohol abuse and the year of study, marital status, family's economic status and the living arrangements (with whom). There was no significant association between the prevalence of alcohol abuse and age, course of study undertaken and place of residence. Conclusion: It was concluded that alcohol abuse is generally less prevalent among university students and is associated with year of study, marital status, family economic status and living arrangement. Recommendation: Based on the findings of this study, there is need to detect, strengthen various policies and programs and accordingly make changes to address the factors that contribute to alcohol abuse in the institutions of higher learning in Kenyan.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 14, 2021
Study on the Kinematic Characteristics of Different Level Jumpers Squatting and Jumping Under Different Ground
Page no 161-171
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the kinematic differences of different level jumping athletes in the process of squatting on different ground, and to reveal the photomechanical mechanism of the effect of squatting on the different ground on training effect. Methods: The subjects were 11 first-class and above jumping athletes (excellent group) and 11 second-class athletes (ordinary group). The kinematic data were photographed by SONYDCRHC52E high-speed camera with a sampling frequency of 50 frames per second, and the data were analyzed by SIMI-Motion three-dimensional motion analysis system. Subjects squatted and jumped on four kinds of ground (force platform, balance pad, gymnastics pad, and sand) with their hands on their hips. Results: In the intra-group analysis, it was found that the athletes of different levels squatted and jumped on four different kinds of ground, but there was no significant difference only on the balance pad and gymnastics mat (excellent group p=0.344, ordinary group p=1). In the inter-group analysis, it was found that there were significant differences between different levels of athletes in balance pad (p=0.043) and sand (p=0.02). In the buffering stage of the squatting jump, there was no significant difference in the buffering angle displacement of lower limb joints of different athletes on different ground. In the stage of pedal and extension, the angular displacement of the ankle on the middle platform of the excellent group was significantly different from that of the balance pad (p=0.014), gymnastics pad (p=0.017), and sand (p=0.013), but in the ordinary group, the ankle angular displacement of the middle platform was only significantly different from that of the gymnastics pad (p= 0.048) and sand (p=0.017), but not significantly different from that of the balance pad (p=0.166). The maximum angular velocity of the hip joint of athletes of different levels was significantly different among different ground groups. The maximum angular velocity of the ankle joint of the common group was significantly different in force platform and sand (p=0.032), gymnastics ma,t and sand (p=0.008), but there was no significant difference in balance pad. Conclusion: Different places have a great influence on the ordinary group, and on the ground with lower elastic coefficient, the maximum angular velocity of the ankle joint in the ordinary group is much smaller than that in the excellent group, which indicates that the rapid contractile ability of ankle muscles in the ordinary group is poor on the ground with low elastic coefficient. When squatting and jumping on the ground with a lower elastic coefficient, the excellent group has better body control and coordination and lower joint energy loss, which makes the jumping effect better, while the ordinary group squats and jumps on the ground with a low elastic coefficient and unstable ground. The jumping effect is poor.