ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | March 8, 2021
Differences in Kinematic Characteristics Between 2-point and 3-point Basketball Shooting Motions – A Case Study
Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Andrew C. Fry, Michael A. Deane
Page no 19-23
Basketball has become one of the most popular international sports in which a successful game outcome is highly contingent upon optimal shooting performance. The purpose of this case study was to quantify and examine the kinematic changes in shooting motion as a player progresses from mid-range 2-point shots to beyond the 3-point line. One former collegiate basketball player performed 50 mid-range 2-point (5.20m) and 50 3-point (6.75m) shots divided into 10 sets separated by 1-2-minute rest intervals. Two high-definition cameras recording at 30 fps positioned perpendicular to the subject’s sagittal plane of motion were used for data collection. The first camera positioned 10 m away was used to capture body kinematics, while the second camera positioned 15 m away was used to capture the trajectory data. The kinematic variables captured at the initial phase of the shooting motion (Phase1) were knee angle, hip angle, ankle angle, elbow height, shoulder angle, elbow angle, and basketball height and at the time point of ball release (Phase 2) were shoulder angle at release, heel height, basketball release height, trajectory height, and ball entry angle. The findings of this case study indicate that greater flexion in the knee joint during the Phase 1 and greater heel height indicating larger vertical displacement during the Phase 2 of the shooting motion were the main kinematic adjustments influenced by the increased shooting distance. Therefore, we may assume that these changes were made to achieve greater ground reaction forces to compensate for the increased distance from the rim.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | March 10, 2021
Investigation of Audio-Visual Simple Reaction Time of University Athletes and Non-Athletes
Md. Hamidur Rahman, Muhammad Shahidul Islam
Page no 24-29
Reaction time (RT) is a true pointer of eye-hand coordination, response, and alertness of a person. In sports and daily life, the majority of work is done by the use of auditory and visual information. RT is a measurement of how quickly the particular tasks are done. The purpose of this study was to investigate auditory and visual simple reaction time of university male team branch athletes (basketball, handball, volleyball, football, and cricket) and non-athletes. Totally forty (40) subjects randomly participated in this study; among them (n=20) were team branch athletes and the rest (n=20) non-athletes. Audio-Visual Reaction Timer (AVRT) was used to collect auditory reaction time (ART) and visual reaction time (VRT) data. Ten values of ART and VRT of dominant and non-dominant hands were recorded. Excluding the two fastest and slowest values, and the average for the middle six values saved as two digits of milliseconds were RT data. Descriptive statistics- mean, SD, and Inferential statistics- dependent and independent t-test was applied to check the level of significance (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Paired sample t-test of university athletes and non-athletes ART was statistically significant than that of VRT (p<0.01). A significant difference was found of ART and VRT between dominant and non-dominant hands of both groups together (p<0.01). Independent t-test of ART and VRT of dominant and non-dominant hands between athletes and non-athletes was statistically significant (p<0.05). In summary, it can be said that in athletes and non-athletes groups auditory reaction time (ART) was faster than the visual reaction time (VRT) and considering both the groups together, the dominant hand was superior to the non-dominant hand in quickness. However, ART and VRT of dominant and non-dominant hands of university athletes took the upper hand over the non-athletes group.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | March 15, 2021
Special Swimming Activity, a Recommend Program for Persons with Disabilities (PWD)
Hernando P. Diaz, Estela F. Diaz
Page no 30-44
A special swimming program for the students with disabilities was started in summer year 2016 when the researcher was privileged and invited to make a physical education program in a Special Education (SPED) School in Quezon City, Philippines, through the initiative of its directress to offer a swimming lesson specifically designed for learners with disabilities (the activity just stopped due to Covid-19 pandemic). The school has 70 students with different disabilities and level of mental health problems. The directress was in need of physical activity program that she believed will enhance the total personality development of her students [22, 11]. She was hesitant at first to have the outdoor program due to the high risk responsibility, a venue outside the school, and how the students react to the environment, in a swimming program that is new to them . The partnership envisioned that the water activity provides significant benefits for children with disabilities [32, 33] that regular participation in the program would also promote positive advancements physically, can increase competency in gross motor skills, enhance fitness level, improve self-esteem, social skills, encourage and maintain a motivation to improve their health and raise their level of enjoyment [9, 21, 10].