REVIEW ARTICLE | June 26, 2020
Study of the Major League Baseball Collective Bargaining and Baseball
Yen-Chieh Wen, Ming-Sung Tsai
Page no 91-93
This research analyzes the main reasons for major league baseball strikes by collecting relevant literature and applying negotiation theory. The study found that in addition to tensions and hostility between employers and employees over a history of unharmonious negotiations, there was also a delay in reaching a consensus on the "salary cap" issue in the main reasons leading to the strike. During the entire negotiation process, the player union and the team owner most of the time adopt a distributed negotiation model and apply competitive strategies and tactics to try to make the other party concede, resulting in a serious negotiation deadlock. Therefore, this study suggests that in the future professional sports leagues should expand the resources available to both employers and employees in the common interest when facing controversial issues such as salary, so as to avoid the occurrence of labor disputes.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 30, 2020
Instability Tools and Reactive Motor Tasks: Effects of 8 Weeks Training Program on Motor Abilities in Healthy Women Over 65 Years Old
Sannicandro Italo, Cofano Giacomo, Rosa Anna Rosa
Page no 94-100
Background: The balance ability represents a significant senior health factor, in particular for the individual maintenance autonomy and individual mobility. In the literature an open problem is understand the walking exercises and one-foot stance exercises effectiveness performed using tools or enviroments/conditions that give an unpredictable instability. The aim of this study is to verify the effects of motor task through instability tools and through reactive motor tasks on motor abilities in older women. Methods: A sample of 58 elderly women (67.9±5.6 years, 59.6±7.4 kg, 156.1±5.2) participated in the investigation and divided randomly into 2 groups: n=27 were included in the instability training group (IG) while n= 26 were included in the control group (CG). The instability training period lasted 8 weeks (3 sessions/week, total= 24 sessions of about 50 min). Results: The most significant interactions between program type and time in the 8-foot-up-and-go (p= <.05), 2 Minutes Step test ( p<.01), Arm Curl test (p<.005), Chair stand test (p<.01), Single Leg Stance test right foot (p<.05) and left (p<.005), 3-m Backwards Walk test (p<.005), Tandem Walk test (p<.005). Conclusions: The tools and the tasks, that generate instability and the structuring of an environment that determines sudden disturbances, increase the senior over 65 years old balance ability.