ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 10, 2020
Change of Society Values and the Effects on “Sports for All”
George F. Zarotis, Walter Tokarski
Page no 73-81
Changes in politics, the economy and the social sphere directly or indirectly affect the social value system. The change of society values is mainly attributed to changes in value structures at work. The Protestant work ethic, which places the meaning of life at work, sees moral value as an end in itself, and puts the fulfilment of duty above the enjoyment of existence, gradually loses its relevance. To the same extent that work loses its function and value, sport experiences a fundamental revaluation. Sport becomes an integral part of every person's role. With the sportization of living conditions, sport becomes a social model. The ultimate goal of this research is to examine the causes of changes in society values and their effects on sports / mass sports. The method adopted for the study was a literature review. On the occasion of the present study, it is found that the changing value of sports in society has created new "directorial forms" in sports. So, for example, in leisure time modern sports also serve as a presentation of the independent lifestyle. This impulse finds its expression through an additional gain of aesthetic dimension, which is externally observed in athletic shoes, sports sweaters, sports bags, sports accessories, etc. The expression of individualized values in sports is closely related to the reduction of access routes for sports. This is not only due to the growing number of opportunistic and active athletes, but also to the development of new sport types. New sports such as Windsurfing, paragliding, free climbing or Bungee jumping are in line with the new orientations of values and try to match individualized hedonistic desires in sports. Sport types are multiplying, and leading the sports system, as already described, to an unprecedented complexity. The overall sports system basically becomes more open. This creates completely new access to sports. Sports forms are multiplying and leading the sports system, as already described, to an unprecedented complexity. The overall sports system basically becomes more open. This creates completely new access to sports. The initial selectivity of sports is increasingly losing its importance, so new groups of people such as the elderly, overweight, women or the disabled have more access to leisure sports and widespread sports. Due to the qualitative changes in sports socialization, strong new sport roles have become possible. With the isolation and selection of certain incentives, sport is now more easily accessible. The motivation that previously prevailed in leisure sports and in widespread sports is losing its charm, so some writers talk about the unathleticism of sports or the non-athletic sports. Instead, in sports / mass sports, one seeks pleasure, spontaneity and social contacts.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 12, 2020
Changes in Some Immunoregulatory and Haemostatic Cell Counts in Pre- and Post-Exercise
Chukwurah Ejike Felix, Udeji Louis Oguguo, Chukwurah Felix Chinedum
Page no 82-85
Introduction: There has been increasing awareness on the health benefits of physical activities or exercise and this led to community-based initiatives aimed at improving health and general well being. The duration of exercise, genetic factors, the physiologic characteristics and lifestyle of individuals are closely related to acute and chronic differences in hematologic parameters. Aim: The intent of this study was to investigate some haematological changes (PCV, TWBC and platelet counts) in male athletes pre- and post-exercise. Methods: A cross-sectional, longitudinal study was carried out on a total of 50 athletes who engaged in community-based regular fitness exercise for more than six months. The candidates were sampled before and immediately after strenuous exercise and PCV, TWBC and platelet counts assessed using standard methods. The TWBC and platelets count differed significantly (p>0.05) between pre- and post-exercise. No significant difference was observed in the PCV among the groups. Conclusion: In summary, our findings show that exercise improved significantly the cellular level of total white blood cells and platelet count. This consequently is of great importance to the immune defense and haemostatic function. There is need for future large scale evidence-based research aimed at advocacy, awareness creation and prioritizations in primary/preventive health policy formulation.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | May 28, 2020
Quantitative Analysis of Biomechanical Parameters in CMJ and SJ Jump Tests on 10-14 Years Old Players of Tirana Futball Club
Aida Bendo, Ferdinand Mara
Page no 86-90
Vertical jumping ability is of importance for good performance in different kinds of sports, and football among them. The most effective way for a football coach to improve vertical jumping ability is to enhance the maximal jump height (Hmax) and maximal force (Fmax) output in a training program, such as proprioception training. The purpose of this study is to estimate the quantitative analysis of biomechanical variables in counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests. The participating subjects of this study were 29 boys aged 10-14 years old, players of Tirana Football Club (FC). According to the results of the t-test values, it was concluded that there was a statistical improvement of 7 cm in maximal height (CMJ test) and an improvement of 320 N in maximal force (SJ test). t-test analysis applied at this team, through the mean comparisons in three different phases of measuremets, emphasizes the differences between them and their statistical and practical significance. Two way ANOVA analysis within subjects showed a significant effect of training level, as a result of which it was concluded clearly that the jumping technique strongly affect the mechanical output muscles, as the motors that generate explosion maximal force and also maximal jump height. The proprioception exercises have a huge effect in the variety of training, by changing the style, monotony, the difficulty, which results in improving all biomechanical parameters including those of the sportive technique.