ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 15, 2022
An Investigation of Soccer Coaches’ Preferred Learning Style and Gender
William Steffen, Brendan Meany
Page no 11-15
The objective of this study was to investigate learning style preferences of soccer coaches to improve coaching efficacy. Limited research exists on the best methods to instruct coaches, especially underserved groups (e.g., women and minorities), in developing their craft. Understanding individual learning styles can influence performance and achievement in learning outcomes of educational programs (Manolis et al., 2003). The Kolb (1984) Learning Style Inventory (LSI) was distributed amongst the United Soccer Coaches (USC) association (n = 1,852) to understand members preferred learning styles. Data was processed to determine the subjects' preferred learning style: Convergent (32.97%), Divergent (11.52%), Accommodative (39.46 %), and Assimilative (16.20%). Chi squared analysis (189.63) and z-score test (z = 13.49) revealed gender was a factor in learning style choice. Female coaches were more likely to possess a CON learning preference than male coaches. 46.78% of CON coaches were female, while females made up only 26.31% of all responding coaches. Male coaches were 53.21% of coaches favoring CON, yet accounted for 73.69% of all participating coaches. These findings could be a catalyst to refocus soccer coaching education to accommodate all learning styles with broader ideas of purposely designing educational curricula to meet the needs of all learners.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 16, 2022
Assessment of Physical Activity Using Pedometers in a Structured Greek Traditional Dance Session in Adults: A Pilot Study
Ioannis A. Pappas, Ermioni S. Katartzi, Sofia G. Monastiridi, Eirini Argiriadou, Carla C. V. Lourenço
Page no 16-23
The aim of the present study was twofold: a) to test pedometers’ reliability of measuring physical activity level and recording steps, and b) to record the level of physical activity using pedometers in adult participants, in a structured 60-minute Greek traditional dance session. Twenty adult members of a dance club aged 20-55 years old (7 men and 13 women) participated in the study. Pedometers were placed above the right hip of the individuals and recorded steps, distance, time of participation, calories, burnt fat during a structured 60-minute Greek traditional dance session. Steps per minute were, also, calculated. The measurement was performed twice for each individual, with the same dancing protocol, with an interval of one week between measurements. The results for reliability showed that intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was significantly high for all variables, ranged from .91 to .99. Paired sample t-test analysis showed no significant differences between measurements, in all variables (p>.05). Moreover, according to results regarding the level of physical activity during participation in this session, participants recorded an average of 5,231.25 (±468.86) steps and they covered an average of 125.01 (± 7.81) steps per minute, meeting the needs based on the daily recommended number of steps, contributing to health benefits. In conclusion, pedometers were found to be an easy and reliable way of assessing physical activity in an hourly structured Greek traditional dance session. Thus, Greek traditional dance sessions may be planned and structured based on the principles for organizing an exercise session, and following the official physical activity guidelines. As a result, Greek traditional dance can be a means for participants in different age groups not only to obtain recreational benefits, but also, to achieve psychological and physiological health benefits, as well.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 18, 2022
Effect of Circuit Training Combined with Speed Agility Quickness Drills and Jump Rope Drills on Upperbody Muscular Endurance
Dr. S. Lourdu Raj, Dr. D. Maniazhagu
Page no 24-30
The purpose of study was to find out the effect of two modes of circuit training on muscular endurance in term of upper body of school boys. To achieve the purpose of the study, thirty school boys from different schools from of Alagappa Sports Foundation at Karaikudi, were selected as subject at random. Their age group range between 11 to 14 years. The study was formulated as pre and post test random group design, in which thirty subject were divided into three equal groups. The experimental group-1 (n=10, CT-SAD) underwent circuit training combined with speed agility quickness drills, the experimental group-2 (n=10, CT-JRD) underwent through circuit training combined with Jump Rope Drills and group 3 served as a control group (n=10, CG) did not undergo any specific training. In this study, two training programme were adopted as independent variable, i.e., circuit training combined with speed agility quickens and circuit training combined with jump rope drills. The physical fitness variable muscular endurance in term of upper body was selected as dependent variable. It was measured by push-up measured in counts. The selected two treatment groups namely circuit training combined with speed agility quickens drills and circuit training combined with jump rope drills were performed five days in a week for the period of six weeks, as per the stipulated training program. The muscular endurance in term of upper body was collected before and after the training period. The collected pre and post test data was critically analyzed with apt statistical tool of analysis of co-variance, for observed the significant adjusted post-test mean difference of three groups. The Scheffe’s post hoc test was used to find out pair-wise comparisons between groups. To test the hypothesis 0.05 level of significant was fixed. The performance of the muscular endurance in term of upper body is similar in circuit training combined with the jump rope drills and the circuit training combined with speed agility and quickness drills.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 28, 2022
The Effect of Manipulating Task and Environment Constraints on Performance of Selected Fundamental Movement Skills
Farshid Tahmasebi, Sayed Kavos Salehi, Mehdi Pak
Page no 31-37
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of task and environment manipulation on the performance of selected basic motor skills. For this purpose, 30 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected using the available sampling method. First, the pre-test of over hand throwing was performed using the accuracy of throwing and kicking, and then the participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: manipulation of task restraints, environment constraints, and control. According to the research plan, the intervention groups performed the program for 6 weeks and two 60-minute sessions each week. The task constraint group practiced according to the task ecological analysis method, the environment constraint manipulation group practiced in the based on enrichment of the environment and the control group had no activity. After the last training session, a post-test was performed and the results were recorded. The data were analyzed with analysis of covariance test and Bonferroni was used for paired comparisons. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the remaining mean scores of kicking and over hand throwing of the subjects in terms of group membership (experimental and control groups) (P <0.05). Also, the results of Bonferroni post hoc test showed that the groups of manipulation of task constraints and performance environment had better than the control group in the studied skills, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P <0.05). The finding generally support and provide an insight into the idea of the effect of constraints manipulation on performance. Therefore, when teaching and working with children, manipulation of task constraints and environment can be used to improve the performance of children's fundamental movement skills.