ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 13, 2020
Exploring Livelihood Strategies Pursued by Households in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya
Owino Lilian Adhiambo, Dr. Dennis Mamboleo, Dr. Romborah Simiyu
Page no 438-445
Gold mining is one of the most important economic activities that has the potential of improving livelihoods of households that engage in its extraction. The study was guided by the following objective: to determine livelihood strategies pursued by households in Rongo Sub-County. Descriptive research design and mixed methods were used. Quantitative data was collected using household survey tecnique while Key Informant Interviews, Focused Group Discussions and Case Studies were deployed to collect qualitative data. This study was also supported by Subsistence Livelihood Approach theory. The study was conceptualized on the target population which is 246 which included 223 mining households’ heads, 2 ward administrators, 2 area chiefs, 8 secretaries, 8 treasurers and 3 chairmen of gold miners’ welfare, two groups from the mining community and two groups from the non-mining community. A household survey technique was used to get the 223 mining household heads. Purposive sampling was used to get 2 ward administrators, 2 chiefs, 8 secretaries, 8 treasurers and 3 chairmen because they were few and the only existing ones. Simple random sampling was used to get two groups from the gold mining community and two groups from the non-mining community members. To ensure the reliability of the study research instruments was 0.67 which was done by test re-test through piloting study. Content validity of research instruments was ensured by two experts from Kisii University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Geography who helped at scrutinizing them. Anonymity, confidentiality, privacy and informed consent of the respondents was assured. Data was analyzed qualitatively and SPSS Programme was used. The finding of the study revealed that Gold mining generated higher income than other activities, about 61% of the miners considered gold mining as their primary activity. The study concluded that gold mining had a direct relationship with other livelihood strategies that people of Rongo sub-county engage in and further recommended that it is significant to formulate regulatory measures to ensure that gold mining is practiced within the thresholds of addressing environmental safety. The study helped in giving insights on gold mining as an activity and the bottlenecks that impede it in Rongo sub-county.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 17, 2020
Development of Science Learning Module Based on Laboratory Activity in Electricity Topic on Student Learning Outcomes
Arisa Desfiyani, Muhammad Zaini, Suryajaya
Page no 446-452
The achievement in the science national examination of SMPN 1 Kertak Hanyar was low. The laboratory has not been optimally used for supporting learning activities. The main books used were not so interesting that they influenced the teaching and learning process. Development research was needed to get a good quality of science learning module based on laboratory activity. This research was aimed to (1) evaluate module validity; (2) evaluate module practicality, and (3) evaluate module effectiveness. The development research used Tessmer’s formative evaluation design. The research subjects were grade IX students of SMPN 1 Kertak Hanyar who were selected by convenience sampling of the probability method. Data obtained through research were those of the students’ learning achievements including cognitive learning achievement, science process skills, critical thinking skills, and critical thinking abilities. The results of the research indicated that the module based on laboratory activity can be used in learning activities because it has the criteria: (1) valid, mean 3,83 based on six criteria, such as design, language, and organization, material, format, presentation, supporting innovation and improving the quality of teaching and learning activities; (2) practical, based on five criteria, such as content attractiveness, appearance attractiveness, ease of material description, ease of illustration or image, and ease of practicum steps, and (3) effective, based on four criteria, such as cognitive learning achievement, science process skills, critical thinking skills, and critical thinking abilities.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 17, 2020
Development of Learning Tools Using the Guided Inquiry Model to Train the Critical Thinking Skills of Islamic Junior High School Students
Asy’ari, Rahmat Yunus, Suryajaya
Page no 453-457
This study aims to evaluate the practicality, validity, and effectiveness of learning tools for the ecosystem topic in MTs (Islamic Junior High School) students. Learning tools include syllabus, lesson plans, teaching materials, student worksheet, and critical thinking assessment sheets. The research model used is the Tessmer model which includes 1) self-evaluation, 2) expert testing, 3) individual testing, 4) small group testing, and 5) field testing. The data analysis technique used is descriptive quantitative. This type of research data is validity data including content validation of the expert team and students, practicality data, and effectiveness data. This type of research is development research. The research was conducted at MTsN 6 Banjar. The research subjects consisted of the subject of validation of 5 experts, individual trial subjects of 3 students, small group trials consisting of 10 students and field testing consisting of 64 students. The results showed that the learning tools developed were valid, practical and effective. Valid based on the results of the validation of 5 experts who are categorized as very valid. Practical use because the model teacher and students are able to carry out learning activities well and students give good responses. Effective based on: 1) the learning outcomes of students in the experimental class have exceeded classical mastery. 2) Critical thinking skills include formulating problems, providing reasons, grouping, analyzing and formulating conclusions in the experimental class in the good category. The results of the comparison between the experimental class and the control class through the Whitney Test found a significance value below 0.05 indicating that the tools developed and applied to the experimental class were able to train students' critical thinking skills better than the control class. 3) The mastery of the critical thinking skills indicators of students in the experimental class is categorized as good. Individual mastery in the experimental class exceeds the 75% limit which means that learning mastery has been achieved classically.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 17, 2020
Development of Science Learning Tools to Train Critical Thinking Skills of Junior High School Students in Static Electricity Topics
Mutiara Havina Putri, Suryajaya, Yudha Irhasyuarna
Page no 458-462
This study aims to evaluate the practicality, validity, and effectiveness of the static electricity subject matter learning tool for junior high school students. Learning tools include syllabus, lesson plans, teaching materials, student worksheet, and assessment sheets. The research model used is the Tessmer development model which consists of five steps, namely as follows: 1) self-evaluation; 2) expert opinion (expert review); 3) Individual trial (one to one); 4) small group trials; and 5) field test. The data analysis technique used in this research is quantitative analysis which includes data analysis on the validity of learning tools, data analysis on the practicality of learning tools, and data analysis on the effectiveness of learning tools. This type of research is development research. The research was conducted at SMP Negeri 2 Bati-Bati. The research subjects consisted of the subject of validation of five experts, the subject of individual trials of three students, the small group trial consisting of five students and the field test consisting of 27 students. The results showed that the learning tools developed were valid, practical and effective. Valid based on the results of tool validation by the validator including syllabus, lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and LKPD assessment sheets which are categorized as valid and readability test of teaching materials and worksheets by students who are categorized as good. Practical based on the activities of teachers and students who are categorized as good from the lesson plan implementation sheet. Effective based on the results of worksheets that show an increasing trend in indicators adapted from Watson-Glaser's critical thinking skills.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 17, 2020
Improving 4c Skills and Student Learning Outcomes through Device Assisted Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Learning Models on Static Electricity Topics
Page no 463-468
Education in the 21st century where information technology can become the basis of information in the world of education, so it requires teachers and students to be critical and creative. Science learning cannot be separated from 21st century skills known as 4C skills (Creativity Thinking, Critical Thinking, Communication, and Collaboration). The problem faced by researchers as science teachers is the lack of 4C skills of 9th grade students, especially on the topic of electricity resulting in low learning outcomes of students. The solution to fix these problems, the teacher applies learning using the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) model with the help of a device or cellphone. Given that almost all students already have this device. This research is a classroom action research (PTK) with two cycles, each cycle consisting of two meetings. Based on the research results it can be concluded that 4C skills, namely Creativity Thinking in the first cycle an average of 85% and the second cycle of 96.25%. Critical Thinking in the first cycle an average of 86.75% and the second cycle of 98%. Communication the first cycle average of 89% and the second cycle of 98.50%. Collaboration average for the first cycle was 84.75% and the second cycle was 97.50%. The learning outcomes of students in the first cycle of learning completeness were 70.97%, while in the second cycle it was 90.32%. There are still three students who have not finished receiving remedials. Learning using the CPS learning model with device assistance gets a positive response from all students.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 17, 2020
Inhibiting Aspects of ICT Infrastructure in Kenyan Technical Institutions for Teaching Electrical Engineering
Mr. Solomon K. Kiplimo, Prof. Kitainge M. Kisilu, Dr. Wanami Simon, Dr. Paul Wanyeki
Page no 469-472
Information Communication Technologies have been incorporated in many sectors of the economy globally in the last two decades. In education, Governments around the world are investing large amounts of capital to achieve sustainable development through science, Technology and innovation. The use of ICT’s as an addition to existing traditional methods of teaching is one of the evolutions that is transforming the education sector. This study investigated existing ICT infrastructure in the Kenyan Technical institutions so as to establish as to what extend they contribute to low integration of ICT’s in teaching Electrical Engineering courses. The study achieved this by investigating the availability and use of computer systems and ICT equipment, influence of Supportive ICT infrastructure, Classroom internet connectivity and Conventional teaching by blackboards. The study adopted a descriptive survey study design. The study targeted Heads of departments and Trainers of Electrical Engineering in TVET institutions in Nairobi County. Data was collected using questionnaires; quantitative techniques were employed in data analysis. To a limited extend, the study established Mat Lab, presentation slides, CAD software; Smart boards, Desktop and Laptop computers among other ICT infrastructure are available for teaching Electrical Engineering in TVET institutions. Private institutions recorded higher level of ICT usage than public institutions. The study concluded that, computer systems and ICT support infrastructure as key determinants for successful ICT integration in Teaching Electrical Engineering courses. The findings of this study are essential to the government and stakeholders in TVET education and training towards the achievement of sustainable skills training that embrace technology and innovation.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 19, 2020
Educational Aspects in Efforts to Realize SDGs in Indonesia
Page no 473-477
This paper aims to analyze Indonesia's readiness in realizing SDGs 2030 in the field of education and the things that hinder the implementation of SDGs 2030 in the education sector in Indonesia. This type of research is normative by using a statutory approach and a conceptual approach. The data used is secondary data obtained through library research. All data collected were then analyzed qualitatively. The results show that Indonesia's readiness in realizing SDGs 2030 in the education sector is due to a commitment to play a strong role in achieving SDGs in three main ways, namely policy advocacy and consultation, capacity building and knowledge sharing. In terms of access to education, UNESCO can provide significant assistance to the Government of Indonesia, particularly in areas related to the promotion of quality education for all; improving the quality of education at the basic education level; and literacy quality for all. In addition, UNICEF also has a focus area in terms of Basic Education for All, which can make a useful contribution to the Government of Indonesia. The main thing that hinders the implementation of SDGs 2030 in the education sector in Indonesia is related to the quality of education as well as the quality of teachers which is still lacking.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 19, 2020
The Effectiveness of Parole for Prisoners during the Covid-19 Pandemic
Margie G. Sopacua, Elsa R. M. Toule, Leony Lokollo, Yonna B. Salamor, Astuti Nur Fadillah M
Page no 478-482
This paper aims to analyze whether conditional release for prisoners during the Covid-19 pandemic is considered effective so that prisoners do not repeat crimes. This type of research is normative by using a statutory approach and a conceptual approach. The data used is secondary data obtained through library research. All data collected were then analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that parole for prisoners during the Covid-19 pandemic was ineffective. This is because some prisoners who received assimilation and integration rights (parole, pre-release leave, conditional leave) have repeated their actions or committed crimes and have to undergo legal processes. The ineffectiveness of parole during the corona pandemic was influenced by several factors, including the assessment before release by careless officers, as well as weak supervision for prisoners undergoing assimilation and integration rights by the government.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 23, 2020
Influence of Teachers’ Assessment Competency on Pupils’ Academic Achievement in Kisumu County
Nyanjom, Anolyce Omondi, Dr. YAMBO, J. M. O., Dr. Ongunya, Raphael, O.
Page no 483-493
Purpose of the study was to establish the influence of teachers’ assessment competency on pupils’ academic achievement in Kisumu County. The study employed survey research design. The study was conceptualized on principles of high-quality teaching and learning. Study Population comprised 3290 teachers, 658 head teachers, 7 assurance officers and 7 directors. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill table was used to select sample of 294 teachers and 203 head teachers. Study sample were selected by stratified, random and purposive sampling. Samples selected comprised 294 teachers, 203 head teachers, 7 assurance officers and 7 directors. Informed consent, confidentiality of respondents were observed and data collected at work place. All sources were cited to avoid plagiarism Data was collected using questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist. Validity was ensured by comprehensively including all the study variables after which they were presented for assessment to the specialists in Curriculum and Instruction in Kisii University. Reliability of the instruments was determined by test-retest method. Correlation coefficient of teachers’ questionnaire, Head teachers’ questionnaire, QASOs interview schedule, ADDTMs interview schedule and teachers’ observation checklist yielded 0.75, 0.71, 0.73, 0.74 and 0.77 respectively. Level of significance was set at 5%. Data was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Quantitative data was sorted, coded and processed using SPSS version 20 to generate frequencies and percentages. Hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlations and Multiple Linear Regressions to establish presence or absence of correlations and association. Qualitative data were sorted into themes and sub-themes, analyzed in an on-going process then reported in prose. Teaching skills and assessment competencies had statistically significant relationship with pupils’ academic achievement at (0.125), p-value (0.027) < 0.05 and (0.121), p-value (0.033) < 0.05 respectively. It was recommended that teachers’ competencies be enhanced through in-service courses; review tests and measurements in professional studies offered in colleges.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 25, 2020
Effectiveness of Character Strengths Intervention Model on Overall Academic Performance and Performance in English and Maths among Middle School Children
Mrs. Mamatha K, Dr. Sumita Chowhan
Page no 494-499
Academic performance has a greater influence on many aspects in a child’s life. Academic achievement has a greater influence on self-esteem, motivation and perseverance among students. Academic performance assesses the thinking, absorbing and information processing of students. Experts in the field of education system have consistently tried to make it a better place for learning. Research works in the field is running parallel in implementing new ideas to have an effective learning practice. The present study focused on developing intervention model using character strengths from Positive Psychology to identify the effectiveness of intervention model on overall academic performance and performance in English and Maths among middle school children. Pre-Post analysis was executed on the control and the experimental group. Results show that there is significant difference in the Effectiveness of Character Strength Intervention Model on the overall academic performance and performance in English and Maths among middle school children.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 28, 2020
The Nigerian Army and Rural Banditry: Issues and Challenges
Oyinloye Olaoluwa Babatunde A.
Page no 500-515
Violent conflicts resulting from rural banditry have become a recurring decimal in Nigeria’s drive to nationhood. It has assumed a grievous dimension in recent time thereby threatening peaceful coexistence but with dearth of literature on the environmental dimension of the Taraba areas of the country. This study therefore examines the conflict management mechanism put in place to check to curb the problem of rural banditry and its effect on socio-economic development in Taraba State. The research also adopts the primary source of data collection which is qualitative in character base on the triangulation method. This methodology affords the research the opportunity to generate data from semi-structured interview, focus group discussion and observation of informants and conflict areas. The investigation shows that the nature and causes of the conflict is multifaceted, thereby assuming different dimensions that include ethnic, religious, economic, political and environmental. It has led to change in inter-group relations and mutual mistrust among the peoples between famers and herdsmen taking its toll on people’s standard of living, while the vulnerable groups which include women and children have suffered severely as a result of the conflict. The study also shows that the conflict has affected economic activities in the form of trading, markets and agricultural production, and livestock production like meat, dairy products, hides and skin and bones have also been affected. It also shows that the conflicts have led to break down of law and order which culminates in destruction of lives and property and displacement of people which explains the humanitarian effect of the conflict. It recommends that the various responses by the community, government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) in finding solutions to the conflict must cooperate to frontally confront the menace of this recurrent rural banditry debacle. And concludes that the conflicts can be resolved only when the most important stakeholders in the conflict, the bandits who are mostly Fulani’s and the settlers who are mostly famers, are made to sheath their sword for dialogue and willing to make compromise on areas of conflicting environmental interest.