Infectious pathologic changes caused by pathogens, which are harmful that enter the body by bacteria, fungus, viruses, and parasites. Infectious-diseases can range in severity from very mild to very dangerous. Numerous human diseases are caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis. Capparis spp. that have anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, including spermidine, carotenoids, quercetin, tocopherol, and rutin by the anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-leishmanial action. Carrot seed oil (Daucus carota) and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) both exhibit antibacterial action respectively. Curcumin and its derivatives were found to have more potent anti-bacterial activity against several strains of S. pneumonia. Oregano oil and carvacrol has revealed that they have anti-viral properties against respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV), that causes respiratory disease, rotavirus, a frequent condition of diarrhea in theng children, and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Sweet basil extract, which contain ingredients like ursolic acid and apigenin, have powerful antiviral properties against hepatitis B, herpes and enterovirus. Candida infections have fewer severe side effects and less cost load than chemical medications, can be treated with new pharmaceuticals, plant, and herbal items.
Original Research Article
Aug. 4, 2022
Antibiotic Emulgel: Design and Characterization for Topical Drug Delivery
Nethaji Ramalingam, Finu Sherin, A. P, Harishma, C. M, Aishwarya Jith, Fathima Thahsin, T, Babu Ganesan, Vimal Kolakkattil Ravindran
Page Numbers : 381-391
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2022.v08i08.002
Objectives: The benefits of topical drug delivery systems, which have been used for centuries, include the ability to deliver medications both quickly to the affected area where they are most effective and over an extended period of time. These systems lengthen the drug's mean resident time and contact time. The design and characterization of an antibiotic emulgel for topical medication administration is a goal of the current investigation. Methods: Cefpodoxime Proxetil emulgel were prepared using different concentration of Carbopol 934, HPMC K4M and xanthan gum as gelling agents and evaluated the relevant parameters such as physical examinations, pH, extrudability, spreadability, viscosity, swelling index, drug content, in-vitro diffusion studies and microbiology activities. Results: All formulations are neutral and viscosity of emulgel was found in the acceptable limits. On physical evaluations were found to be optimum in terms spreadability, swelling index and extrudability. Drug content of all formulations were found in the ranges 69.73% to 97.58% and CEF4 emulgel exhibiting the highest drug concentration and the lowest percentage drug release due to its controlled release pattern and proven non-fickian diffusion mechanism release. The results found that, the selected formulations proven better bacterial activities against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. Conclusions: Type and concentration of polymers can have an impact on the drug permeability studies and physical-chemical characteristics of the developed antibiotic emulgel, which had excellent results and was suitable for possible therapeutic purposes.
Original Research Article
Aug. 4, 2022
Preformulation Studies of Pantoprazole: Fundamental Part of Formulation Design
Mukesh Kumar, Mohit Saini, Lalit Parihar
Page Numbers : 370-380
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2022.v08i08.001
Once the novel molecule is planted, preformulation study is one of the fractions that is started. In a larger sense, it covers with research on a molecule's physical, chemical, analytical, and medicinal properties and offers suggestions for effective modifications that could be made to improve performance. The study of preformulation factors can contribute to the development of pharmaceutical formulations that are dependable, safe, stable, and efficacious. Pantoprazole is an irreversible proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that reduces gastric acid secretion. PPIs, pantoprazole binds to the proton pump (H+,K+ -adenosine triphosphatase) in the parietal cells to exercise its pharmacodynamic effects; however, in comparison to other PPIs, its binding may be more specific for the proton pump. When given as an enteric-coated, delayed-release tablet, pantoprazole is well absorbed and has a 77 % oral bioavailability. It is metabolized by the liver's cytochrome P2C19 into the inactive metabolite hydroxypantoprazole, which is then subjected to sulphate conjugation. Independent of dose, the elimination half-life ranges from 0.9 to 1.9 hours. Similar to other PPIs, pantoprazole is effective in promoting the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers. In the present works overall objective of preformulation studies of Pantoprazole is to engender information useful in developing stable and Bioavailable dosage forms.
Original Research Article
July 30, 2022
Comparison of Functional Outcome of Straight Anastomosis and Transverse Colonic Pouch Anastomosis after Low Anastomosis after Low Anterior Resection for Low Rectal Cancer
Islam, M. S, Hyder, C. H, Uddin, M. A, Faisal, M. S, Sheikh, S. H
Page Numbers : 362-369
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2022.v08i07.007
Background: Functional results after low anterior resection for rectal cancer are an issue of increasing attention among colorectal surgeons and others interested in this subject. The aim of the study to compare the nocturnal bowel movement and frequency of bowel movement between TCP & SA groups after low anterior resection. This study also compare the urgency of bowel movement between two groups and the incontinence of flatus & loose stool between two groups. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Surgery Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Shahbag, Dhaka, during 1st January 2016 to 30lh June 2017. For this purpose, a total of 40 patients with low rectal cancer undergoing low anterior or ultra-low anterior resection with TCP or straight anastomosis in the above mentioned hospital were both male & female patients and age group (18-75 years) were enrolled in this study. Data was expressed as mean with standard deviation (Mean±SD). Collected Data were statically analyzed applying student‘t’ test and chi-square test using SPSS-24. P value of <0.05 was considered statically significant. Results: The mean age was 45.9±13.29 years in group-I and 47.55±10.86 years in group-II. Male female ratio was 1.2:1 in TCP group and 1.5:1 in SA group. Anal tone on 3rd month 1(5.0%) in group-I and 10(50.0%) in group-II. Anal tone was significantly (p<0.05) improve in group I at 3rd month. Finger grip on 3rd month 18(90.0%) in group-I and 19(95.0%) in group-II. Finger grip was almost alike between two group, no statistical significant (p>0.05) was found between two groups. Conclusion: Most of the patients were in 5th and above decade and male predominant. Transverse coloplasty pouch anastomosis provided not only better functional results than straight anastomosis, but also improved quality of life, thus may be the better choice.
July 27, 2022
Burden of Diabetes and Role of Medicinal Plants in Its Treatment
Diabetes is a growing health concern worldwide and now emerging as an epidemic world over. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia or increased blood glucose levels, resulting from insufficient or inefficient insulin secretion, with alterations in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Type-2 diabetes is the most prevalent form, of the total diabetics about 90% have type-2 diabetes, which is characterized by post-prandial hyperglycaemia (increase in blood sugar level after a meal). Many medicinal plants are reported to have insulin-mimetic effect, modulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes. The currently available anti diabetic agents include sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and alpha glucos idase inhibitors and are widely used to control the hyperglycemia. These drugs fail significantly to alter the course of diabetic complications. They have limited use because of undesirable pathological conditions and high rates of secondary failure. This it is essential to look for more effective antidiabetic agents with fewer side effects. Traditional medicinal plants having anti diabetic properties can be a useful source for the development of safer and effective oral hypoglycaemic agents. More than 350 traditional plants are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which have been recorded. Only a small number of these have received scientific and medical evaluation to assess their efficacy. However, plant remedies are the mainstream of treatment in underdeveloped regions. This review focuses on diabetes mellitus and the role of plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Original Research Article
July 15, 2022
A Study to Assess the Management of Febrile Neutropenia in Oncology Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Dr. Finciya C. Pappu, Dr. Helna Shaji, Dr. Steffi Bennis, Dr. Soumya Mary Alex, Dr. C. S. Madhu
Page Numbers : 343-354
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2022.v08i07.005
Background: The cytotoxic chemotherapy is the mainstay treatment of cancer and it is usually complicated with infections. Appropriate antibiotics and other supportive medications must be started immediately as bacterial infections may progress with the absence of granulocytes. Improved outcomes can be seen with empirical administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics and they remain as the standard of care. Patients with intermediate-risk for Febrile Nuetropenia (FN) (10%-20%) need to be evaluated for additional patient risk factors, after assessment, patients who present with at least one of the risk factors for FN is recommended for treatment with a G-CSF. Methodology: Our study was a retrospective cohort single centered observational study carried out randomly in 104 patients in the oncology department of Lourdes hospital, Cochin Data of the patients were collected from Mediware system, medical records and Statistical software SPSS were used for analysis of the data. Results: In our study febrile neutropenia was managed using antimicrobials, of which antibiotics and antifungals prescribed were 12.09% and 1.97% respectively and with granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs) (6.15%). Principally used empirical monotherapy was meropenem sulbactum / meropenem (n = 48) which was followed by piperacillin tazobactum (n=18) and cefoperazone sulbactum (n=15) This study had a leading prescription of Cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimens which led to neutropenia. Breast cancer patients accounts the majority of febrile neutropenic episodes despite of receiving GCSF prophylaxis. The most common type of cancer patients who are suffering from neutropenia were breast cancer. The compliance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines were analyzed in that we can see 84.6% patients had partial compliance and 14.4% patients had full compliance. Conclusion: A total of 66 patients received both antibiotics and G-CSF treatment however 13 patients and 25 patients were managed only with G-CSF and antibiotic therapy respectively. This study had a leading prescription of Cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimens which led to neutropenia. These regimens were used mainly in breast cancer patients. Breast cancer patients accounts the majority of febrile neutropenic episodes despite of receiving GCSF prophylaxis. The most common type of cancer patients who are suffering from neutropenia were breast cancer. The NCCN guidelines, majority of patients showed partial compliance(86.6%) and about (14.4%) showed full compliance.
July 13, 2022
A Rare Cause of Afferent Loop Syndrome: A Case Report
A.P. Irambona, M. Borahma, I. Benelbarhdadi, F.Z. Ajana
Page Numbers : 340-342
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2022.v08i07.004
We report a case of a 25-year-old female, with a history of gastrojejunal anastomosis 6 years ago for pyloric stenosis due to intentional corrosive ingestion, who was admitted for jaundice related to the common bile duct stones diagnosed at MRI. The patient had undergone Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and upper endoscopy that allowed the diagnosis of afferent loop syndrome related to pyloric stenosis and duodenal stenosis. The afferent loop syndrome was related to hyper pressure in this afferent loop and was managed surgically by performing a jejuno-duodenal anastomosis.