Agricultural Insights for Development of Genetically Modified Foods, Horticultural Crops and Role of Nanotechnology
Mahnoor Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad Khubaib, Bilal Ahmed Awan, Arsalan Ali, Soha Fatima, Akasha Ashraf, Hafiza Zainab Ikhlaque, Hadia Bilal
Page Numbers : 158-162
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2022.v07i05.003
Agricultural productivity under stress conditions can be accomplished by modifying cellular metabolism and molecular transformations of genetically modified plans with the help of nano-material-mediated facilitations. Horticultural crops are the main source of nutritional compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids. Osmotic stress combined with temperatures over 28°C caused a 30-45 percent blossom decline in several tomato varieties. Chili too is susceptible to drought stress, which can result in production losses of as much as 50 to 60 percent. Pigment and color retention are important determinants of vegetable and fruit quality and nutritional values. Genes involved in the enhancement of anthocyanin synthesis and accumulation during postharvest storage in red-fleshed kiwi. Targeted implementation of fruit-specific promoters with distinct up and low regulated epigenetic biomarkers might be useful in the expression of genes and reduces the side effects developed by constitutive promoters. Chitosan is one kind of these nanomaterials over-coated on post-harvested mangoes to secure its edible portion from rotting, increase its vitamin C contents, maintain its freshness, and increase shelf-life. The use of nanomaterials in the food industry reduces the cost of electricity applied in refrigeration for preservation purposes alongside maintaining the original vigor and vitality of the fruits like tomatoes.
Original Research Article
May 17, 2022
Formulation and Evaluation of Mango Leaf Tea Supplemented with Moringa and Ginger Powder
Yusuf AB, Turaki AA,a Adetunji AA
Page Numbers : 151-157
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2022.v07i05.002
Herbal teas contain bioactive compounds which have been reported to have beneficial effects in the prevention of various metabolic diseases. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical composition, functional properties and sensorial attributes of different formulations of mango leaf teas supplemented with Moringa oleifera and ginger powder as supporting and activating herbs using standard analytical methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance and results expressed as mean ±standard deviation of triplicate determinations. The qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. While quantitative analysis revealed that flavonoids ranged from (0.17-0.52 mg/g), tannins (0.07-0.11 mg/g), cardiac glycoside (1.08-1.89 mg/g) and terpenoids (50%-70%). The results obtained for functional properties revealed that pH ranged from (5.94-6.62), reconstitution index (4-6.6 g/cm3), swelling index (0.33-1.33cm3/g), wettability (3.08-3.14 mins), bulk density (0.25-0.29 g/cm3) and water absorption capacity (27.3-31.9). Mean scores of sensory evaluations for taste ranged from: (7.2-8.9), color (7.6-8.5), flavor (7.3-8.3), consistency (7.3-8.4) and overall acceptability (7.9-8.7). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that mango leaf teas supplemented with Moringa oleifera and ginger powder are good sources of bioactive compounds with potential nutritional and health benefits.
Original Research Article
May 15, 2022
Estimation of Fertility Status of Coastal Soils for Agricultural Planning in Bangladesh
A study was conducted to know the fertility status of coastal soils of Bangladesh for agricultural planning. Thirty composite soil samples were collected from different locations of Kalapara upazila under Patuakhali coastal district in Bangladesh with Geographic Positioning System (GPS) positions. The soil samples were analyzed for physical properties (moisture, texture, bulk density, particle density and porosity) and chemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, organic carbon, exchangeable sodium, exchangeable potassium, available sulphur and available phosphorus). The range of moisture contents of collected soils was 24 to 29% and the textural class was silty clay. The bulk density ranged from 1.30 to 1.47 gcm-3. The particle density ranged from 2.31 to 2.49 gcm-3. The porosity of soil samples ranging from 40.96 to 46.06%. The pH ranged from 5.85 to 6.45. The EC value of collected soils ranged from 3.10 to 5.12 dSm-1. The total nitrogen and organic carbon content was low to medium. The exchangeable sodium and potassium content of soils ranged from 9.22 to 18.47 meq 100g-1 and 0.16 to 0.27 meq 100g-1, respectively. The available sulphur and phosphorus content of soils ranged from 17.21 to 33.21 mg kg-1 and 17.12 to 33.09 mg kg-1, respectively. The results revealed that the soils of the study area were slightly to moderately saline and thus the nutrients present in the soils were low to medium level. Hence, salinity problem of soils should be considered before agricultural planning in the study area.
April 25, 2022
Borneol as Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A New Way for the Development of Novel Chemotherapeutic
Irum Naureen, Aisha Saleem, Muhammad Kashif Aziz, Ameer Hamza Jam, Um-ul-Baneen, Arfa Chaudhary, Saima Munir, Iqbal Ahmed
Page Numbers : 128-141
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2022.v07i04.002
Nature has generously open life-saving remedies to mankind by offering evolutionarily optimized drug like bimolecular in the form of several natural products. These marvelous gifts of nature have been serving as most suitable candidates against the treatment of multiple disorders and particularly for cancer (2nd leading cause of death, cancer) due to their pleiotropic mode of action on target molecules. Current review intends to provide an update on the bioactivities of such gifts from nature, natural borneol, which is the major bioactive constituents of traditionally used medicines. Borneol is a monoterpenoid, isolated from different medicinal plants and have strong potential to be used against multiple disorders such as bacterial and inflammatory infections. Recently it is investigated that borneol has a great potential of inhibiting the growth of multiple neoplasms such as hepatocellular carcinoma, neuroblastoma, glioma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian and lung cancer. Moreover, by regulating the BBB junctions it also increases the drug concentration in cancer cells, this shows that its combine use with already practiced therapeutics may increase the efficacy of these therapeutics against cancer cells. In this review we will summarize all the studies on anticancer activity of borneol, our primary goal will be to discuss the combined use of borneol with other clinically used drugs to improve their efficacy against human cancers.
April 13, 2022
Microbial Assisted Bioremediation of Polluted Water
Bioremediation is a process to remove or detoxify contaminant present in the environment by certain biomolecules or biomass to bind and concentrate selected ions or other molecules. Water pollution is an issue of great concern worldwide, and it can be broadly divided into three main categories, that is, contamination by organic compounds, inorganic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), and microorganisms. A wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae, can act as biologically active methylators, which are able to at least modify toxic species. Microorganisms cannot destroy metals, they can alter their chemical properties via a surprising array of mechanisms. Different factors affect bioremediation include environmental factor biological factor, availability of nutrients, temperature, ph, and toxic compounds. Among organic pollutants, hydrocarbons may enter in water either directly by spills or effluents or indirectly from atmosphere. These metals are extremely sensitive at low concentrations and can be stored in food webs, posing a serious public health risk. Several microorganisms (natural/exotic/ engineered) having specific metabolic capability and various enzyme production ability which fall under six main divisions include Oxidoreductases, Transferases, Hydrolases, Lyases, Isomerases and Ligases (synthetases) are used during bioremediation process. The heavy metals associated with environmental contamination, for instance, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), which are potentially hazardous to ecosystems. The types of microorganisms that are used in bioremediation processes due to their natural capacity to biosorb toxic heavy metal ions.
Original Research Article
March 30, 2022
“Co-Induction with a Small Dose of Ketamine is a Better Option Compared to Midazolam in Reducing Induction Dose of Propofol”
Background: Use of several anesthetic agents to induce anesthesia is not new and they are used to achieve different effects such as sedation, muscle relaxation and pain relief. Propofol has been accepted as an alternative to thiopentone for intravenous induction and is commonly used as an inducing agent and its action is more rapid. Objective: To compare co-induction with a small dose of ketamine is a better option compared to midazolam in reducing induction dose of propofol. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind and interventional study conducted at Department of Anaesthesia, Institute of Child and Mother Health (ICMH), Matuail, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January to December-2019. Fifty two adult patients undergoing elective surgery to be performed under general anesthesia were randomized to receive 0.3 mg/kg of Ketamine or 0.03 mg/ kg of Midazolam intravenously as co-induction agent. A minute after administration of co-induction agent, anesthesia was induced with Propofol 40 mg bolus then 10 mg every 10 seconds until the loss of verbal response. The hemodynamic response at 0, 1, 2, 5 minutes respectively and the induction dose of Propofol were noted. Results: A total of 52 patients (n=26 in each group) who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The patients where between age group of 20 years to 71 years and weight of 40 kg to 80 kg and had ASA physical status 1. As there were no significant differences in age, sex, weight and ASA physical status of patients, between the two groups, both of the groups were comparable. The mean arterial pressure heart rates were significantly lower at 1, 2 and 5 minutes in midazolam group. However, mean arterial pressure and heart were within the physiological range in both the groups. Propofol dose requirement for induction between the two groups was similar (p>0.05) but co-induction significantly decreased the induction dose of Propofol as compared to standard recommended dose for induction. Conclusion: Our study showed that hemodynamic variables were maintained within the physiological range with midazolam and ketamine co-induction. However, lesser degree of decrease in mean arterial pressure was seen with ketamine but the heart rate was higher. A similar reduction of induction dose of propofol was achieved with both the drugs.
March 25, 2022
Potential Health Benefit of Dates Based on Human Intervention Studies: A Brief Overview
Irum Naureen, Aisha Saleem, Nadia Jamshaid Rana, Maham Ghafoor, Farwa Muhammad Ali, Naveed Murad
Page Numbers : 101-111
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2022.v07i03.006
Date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important crop or khajoor in the local language which is cultivated in many countries. Different types of dates are present but Ajwa khajoor is very beneficial in cardiovascular activity, heart disease, antimicrobial, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, provide relaxation during pregnancy, reduce risk of tooth decay, improve bone health, and also provide mental clarity. Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be upon Him) said that the best assets are date palm, dates cure several disorders, and he suggested Muslims to eat the date and have a tendency the date palm. Dates play key role in anti-cancer activity, anti-tumor, cardio-protective activity, and neuroprotective activity. Dates fruits and seeds are considered essential nutrients and medicines. They can be used in a variety of cosmetic and beauty products. Many cosmetic products contain high levels of chemical compounds, commonly found in synthetics such as hydroquinone. Date seed oil has been shown to have a positive effect on human skin and hair, as well as a few products (body creams, soaps, hair products, and sunscreens) are sold. Seed oils have high oxidative properties, extended storage capacity, and can protect the skin from UV rays and repair it. Bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolics, can prevent hair loss and promote hair growth. The extracts from dietary seeds are rich in phytosterols, essential fatty acids, and nutrients needed to maintain healthy scalp, promote normal hair growth, and support nourishing functions of sebaceous glands and hair follicles. It is important to all synthetic skincare products and medically very beneficial.