Biodiversity and its Conservation in Balochistan, Pakistan
Sadia Hassan Sherani
Page Numbers : 260-264
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2020.v05i11.004
The present review paper highlights the condition of biodiversity and its conservation in Balochistan, Pakistan. Balochistan is a province of Pakistan that is supported by a great variety of wild flora and fauna. Attractive landscapes, scenic beaches and magnificent forests of the province offers home to various kinds of idiosyncratic species of the world. Moreover, to enhance and maintain the scenic view of province, different innovative practices are needed to conserve and protect the biodiversity from future threats. Furthermore, this paper sensitizes the readers about the consequences of improper conservation practices that can lead towards future destruction. It also throws light on the fact that it is necessary to protect and conserve the biological diversity in appropriate manner to minimize the overall impacts towards biodiversity and to protect the biodiversity from future vanishing threats.
Nov. 25, 2020
Novel Methods for Detection of Biological Samples, Current Direction and Future Perspectives
Mahpara Qamar, Ghulam Ammad Mustafa, Sobia Tariq, Hamza Rafeeq, Maria Rafiq, Wajahat Zahra Naqvi, Noman Yashir, Rizwana Jabeen, Tooba Kanwal
Page Numbers : 253-259
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2020.v05i11.003
The biosensor tool which is used in the fields of area of a good life such as research related to medicine, public health-care , in the monitoring of the environment, now a days scientist make more advancement. The modification in the field of technology which is really helpful in the making of the biochip and they provided all of the instrument needed to require make a detection tool, and a system with the micro fluid are place on the chip, sampler, probe, amplifier, detector, and a logic circuit and these biosensor provide the simple, reagent free, label free, monitoring with real time and application with the low cost. In the field of medical this would be very helpful in the production of the low cost detection of the analytic and use in the home such as the glucometer which tell us about the blood glucose concentration and can accordingly administrate the concentration of the insulin in the body, the detection of the disease becomes more easy as we cannot send the sample for the detection in the laboratory which is really time consuming and costly procedure. In the field of environment monitoring biosensor can detect the various target present in the environment, beside from the specialized laboratories and the devices which is portable and development research step from the initial form to its product which require the intention and the collaboration of the different science and technology universities and many other institute of research, stake holder and investor should also pay intention toward the development of these kind of technologies.
Nov. 23, 2020
Influence of Microbes in Progression of Cancer and DNA Damaging Effects
Virus uses components of the host cell to complete its life cycle. Some viruses can cause or contribute to the development of cancer. Unlike other viruses, such as influenza viruses, that cause an acute infection, oncogenic viruses often cause long-term, persistent infections. Several studies also involved in the toxicity in progression of cancer caused by different microbes. Microorganisms and their metabolic byproducts, or impact of chronic inflammation, may also be linked to oral cancers. Helicobacter pylori colonize the human stomach and duodenum. In some cases it can cause stomach cancer. Salmonella Typhi has been linked to gallbladder cancer but may also be useful in delivering chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of melanoma, colon and bladder cancer. Saponins reduced the risks of the occurring of the cancer during advanced age. It has special structure that active for the frightening against the cells of the cancer. The concentrations and attacking power of the microbes as well as the other pathogens directly related to the concentration of the compounds such as the saponins that taken through diet as the right composition. Saponins in other way acting as the antioxidants to prevent the cancer. When the cells of the cancer attacked on the normal one then became difficult to stop the process of the metastasis. Saponins also showed activity against the nonfunctional cells of the lungs that have been attacked due to certain cause’s cancer.
Original Research Article
Nov. 19, 2020
Renewal of Healthcare Funding Systems by National Health Insurance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (NHI)
Prof. Dr. Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Prof. Dr. Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Salem
Page Numbers : 236-245
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2020.v05i11.001
The aim of this paper is to discuss the current structure of the Saudi health care system, and to assess financing healthcare services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) by implementing national health insurance. The paper focuses on improving Saudi Arabia's health care system as a national health insurance system is being introduced. The aim of this policy reform is to increase investment in the healthcare sector by the private sector and to reduce government costs for health services. Access to healthcare, sustainability, costs and quality of care, adaptation of new technologies and the use of health services are all expected to have a positive impact. We are reviewing the current health literature and the latest health reform of Saudi Arabia. In this area, the importance of public health: improving the health system is intended to improve the outcomes of community health. Whether it will have the desired impact will be clear as Saudi Arabia embarks on this move. In addition, if Saudi Arabia succeeds in providing high-quality healthcare to this segment of the population, expatriate healthcare in different countries is a challenge; other countries will follow the Saudi model. The purpose of this study is to analyze the existing structure of Saudi health systems, to assess the funding programs for health care in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) by introducing national health insurance schemes and to propose improvements.
Original Research Article
Oct. 30, 2020
Evaluation of Pharmacological Features and Nanoparticle Formation by Urena lobata
Urena lobata commonly known as Congo jute or hibiscus burr is a shrub belonging to the family Malvaceae widely distributed throughout India. The plant is utilized by the traditional healers for various ailments such as arthritis, diabetes, cough and malaria. In the present study, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant property of Urena lobata was studies in both normal extract and silver nanoparticle form. The antioxidant property of leaf of the plant was also evaluated. We have reported alkaloid, saponin, steroid, terpenoid, tannin, flavonoid and carbohydrate and significant antioxidant activity by DPPH method from this plant. For the first time, silver nanoparticle was successfully synthesized using Urena lobata leaf extract in the current investigation and characterized by UV–VIS spectrophotometer and the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was identified to be ⁓424 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to ascertain the crystalline nature and purity of the silver nanoparticles which implied the presence of 111, 002, 022, 113, and 222 lattice planes of the cubic structure of metallic silver and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine specific functional groups in silver nanoparticles and the capping agents present in the leaf extract.
Chlorpyrifos exposure may lead to acute toxicity at higher dose persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long term exposure to low dose, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small dose. The aims and objective of this review article is to study the toxicity and biochemical effects of chlorpyrifos on different body organs of Male Sprague Dawely Rats. The danger of using chlorpyrifos persists either it is used in high amount or in low amount so it must be used when it is needed most. The administration of chlorpyrifos to rats induced testicular and cardiac toxicities significant decrease in serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels as well as the significant increase in CK-MB, LDH and AST activities. In liver and kidney tissues, dimension of glutathione and the action of superoxide dismutase and catalase chemicals altogether diminished by chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos and lead acetate prompted change in serum and lipid outlines and observe oxidative pressure. Biochemical investigation demonstrated that organizations of the chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin obviously cause liver harm. Also sertoli cells and decrease in number of sperm count as the main factor for chlorpyrifos. These changes more obvious in rats: treated with higher dose of chlorpyrifos. So it is concluded that chlorpyrifos leads to such changes in living organisms included the rats as well as in humans.
Original Research Article
Oct. 29, 2020
Selection of Culture Media and Laboratory Evaluation of Fungitoxicants for the Pathogen Causing Early Blight Disease of Potato
Uttam Bouri, Soumen Pal, Bholanath Mondal
Page Numbers : 215-219
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2020.v05i10.004
Early blight is the most common and devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis & Martin) Jones and Grout. In vitro experiments were conducted during 2017-2018 to search appropriate growth medium of A. solani, as well as suitable fungi toxicant through quick screening methods. Seven different growth medium were used to culture the fungus in laboratory. Mycelial growth was very fast in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) followed by Richards’s Agar (RA) medium. Intermediate growth habit was recorded in Sabouraud’s Agar (SA), Czapek’s Dox Agar (CDA) and Potato Carrot Extract Agar (PCEA). The growth was very slow in Oat Meal Agar (OMA) and Malt Extract Agar (MES) at 72 hours of incubation. On bioefficacy evaluation, Infield Ayur showed very negligible effect to restrict mycelial growth and conidia formation, whereas Indofil M-45 (mancozeb) was more efficacious followed by Indofil Z-78 (zineb), Merger (tricyclazole + mancozeb) and Ishaan (chlorothalonil). Selection of most suitable culture media is essential for efficient growth of the fungus and its detail study. Quick and simple method to select effective fungicides within 48-72 hours is very much helpful for developing suitable disease management strategy.