The basic structure of melatonin is evolutionarily conserved. Hence, it was speculated that melatonin may be present in different animals (from unicellular to multi-cellular) and even in plants. Melatonin in plans is generally regarded as phyto-melatonin. Like the role of melatonin in animals, phyto-melatonin can perform a number of functions like attenuation of apoptosis, prevention of free radical generation, protection against UV irradiation etc. But, unlike phyto-estrogen, the role of phyto-melatonin in animals is totally an unexplored area. Hence, aim of the present study was to note the role of phyto-melatonin in maintenance of general health and immunity of goats. To fulfil the aim, we supplemented the goats with phyto-melatonin rich diet i.e. corn (Zea mays) which is having 1.4 ng/gm of dry weight of tissue and they are also edible to goats. We noted significantly high level of body weight, haematological (AST, ALT level, total RBC count and %Hb), immunological (TLC, %LC, %SR of PBMCs), metabolic (plasma glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, protein levels and HDL: LDL ration), free radical (SOD, catalase, GPx levels), hormonal (estrogen, melatonin), cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) levels and significantly low level of MDA. However, plasma testosterone was unaffected upon phyto-melatonin treatment. Thus, for the first time role of phyto-melatonin as a protective molecule with improving effect on the health and immunity of Indian goat Capra hircusis being proposed, as the effect of phyto-melatonin supplementation can be brought back to normal and this dietary supplement might be utilizing the similar pathway as commercial melatonin. There are so many less expensive and readily available sources of phyto-melatonin that requires the proper knowledge of exploitation of these sources for extreme benefit for animals as well as for the human beings in near or far future.
Original Research Article
Aug. 10, 2021
Identification of Bioactive Compound, Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia adoensis var. koseret from Ethiopia
Yordanos Germame, Tegenu Mekuria
Page Numbers : 139-153
DOI : 10.36348/sijtcm.2021.v04i08.001
Lippia adoensis var. koseret is a well- known medicinal plant endemic to Ethiopia. It has been traditionally used to treat different infectious diseases and also in food preparation as condiment. The focuse of the present paper was to evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous extracts of leave of L. adoensis var. koseret against S. aureus E.coli and P. aeruginosa at two concentration level (5 and 10mg/ml) and Phytochemical and Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the extracts showed antibacterial activity. The antibacterial assay was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using the standard phytochemical assays. Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves was carried out using the solvent system Hexane: Ethyl acetate (in 7:3 ratios). The results of antibacterial assay revealed that methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts active against E.coli and P. aeruginosa. Among the tested microorganism S. aureus, was resistant to all extracts. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various chemical compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and tannins. While, carbohydrate and amino acid were absent. Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of Lippia adoensis var. koseret revealed bands indicating the presence of various compounds that could act as potential antimicrobial agents.
July 14, 2021
Case Report: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Ziabetus shakari)
Abdul Azeez Rizwana, MHM Hafeel
Page Numbers : 136-138
DOI : 10.36348/sijtcm.2021.v04i07.002
A 42 year old lady approached OPD of the Ayurveda hospital, Aniyakanda, Kandana, Sri Lanka and got registered in OPD in February, 2016. She was seeking leach therapy for bluish, dilated and twisted varicose vein at the right poplitial fossa. She reported no history of diabetes mellitus on the past but on advice she did basic laboratory investigations prior to leach therapy i.e FBS, BT and CT. The blood report showed FBS of 220 mg/dl dated on 1st of March 2016. This patient was investigated as recently diagnosed case of diabetes mellitus and laboratory test was repeated 03/03/2016 to confirm diagnosis which revealed FBS of 201 mg/dl and PPBS of 240 mg/dl. Patient was advised not to take any allopathic medicine. Treatment was employed according to ilaj bil dawa (Pharmacotherapy) , half a cup of decoction was prescribed twice a day which consisted 15g of Amla (Phyllanthus embilica),15g of Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia),15g of posth e Neem (Azadirechta indica), and 15g of Darhaldi (Coscinium fenestratum) along with appropriate ilaj bil ghiza (Dietotherapy) prescribed. Patient was assessed every other week with repeated FBS for a period of 3 months. The observed mean FBS during the course of treatment was 136 mg/dl. At the end of this case study the FBS was found to be 108 mg/dl. Efficacy of variety of mufrat advia (single drug) has been already established by some studies. We need to conduct randomized clinical trial in larger sample size in order to establish the effective management for DM.
July 11, 2021
Folkare and Modern Pharmacology of Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm): Review
Camphor is whitish fragrant solidified essential oils of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae), it is obtained from the bark and heart wood by steam distillation or hydro-distillation. It is multifaceted drug used in traditional Indian system of medicine and Chinese medicine. This overview is compilation of pharmacology, ethno-medicinal uses, chemical constituents and proven pharmacological activities of camphor. This paper comprises all the information available in Ayurvedic and Unani classical texts and research publications based on the outcomes of the studies carried out on experimental and clinical basis. In Ayurveda it is popularly known as Karpura and used to treat bronchitis, fever, chest congestion, diarrhea, dysentery, eye diseases, heart problems and gynecological disorders. Recent researches show that it exhibited anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti- Dyslipidemia activities. The camphor has a therapeutic potential to become newer drug for many diseases.
Original Research Article
June 22, 2021
Phytochemicals Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of the Stem Bark Extracts of Azanzagarckeana (kola of Tula)
Mohammed AH, Mshelia E.H, Watirahyel EM, Yohanna Christopher
Page Numbers : 122-127
DOI : 10.36348/sijtcm.2021.v04i06.010
Azanzagarckeana known as Kola of Tula is one of the vulnerable medicinal plant of Tula people in Gombe state, North Eastern Nigeria and are usually collected from the wild. In the present study the photochemical analysis and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of the steam bark of the plant were investigated. Methanol ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and water were used as the extrants. Serial extraction using Soxhlet apparatus was used. The result of the study shows that the water extract indicate the presence of carbohydrate and flavonoid in appreciable amount, while the methanol extract showed the presence of flavonoid, cardiacglycoside and alkaloid in an appreciable amount. Tannins, phlobatannin, flavonoid, quinoline alkaloid were detected in the acetone extracts while saponnin and haemolytic activity were seen in appreciable quantities in the ethyl acetate extracts. The petroleum ether extract showed only steroid in an appreciable quantity. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using Disc diffusion method. Nine microorganisms; S. aureus, salmonella typi, E. coli, K. pneumonia, Klebsiella ssp, P. aeroginosa, Shigella dysentriae, Bacllus subtilis and Nissera gonorriea was used for the antimicrobial test. Ampiclox was used as standard reference drug. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts showed that the ethyl acetate extract had the best antimicrobial activities by inhibiting the growth of eight of the test organisms. The methanol and acetone extract inhibited the growth of four microorganisms whereas the water extract inhibited the growth of three organisms. The petroleum ether was the least active extract because it inhibited the growth of only one organism. E. coli, S. aureus and salmonella typhi were the most sensitive organisms because they were susceptible to three organisms each.
Original Research Article
June 17, 2021
Microbial, Phytochemical Screening and Toxicity Analysis of GM PLUS Herbal Drug
Raphael Nyarkotey Obu, Lawrencia Aggrey –Bluwey
Page Numbers : 112-114
DOI : 10.36348/sijtcm.2021.v04i06.008
This study was design to examine the microbial load, phytochemical screenings and acute toxicity of GM Plus herbal drug mixture. Six samples of the mixture were sent to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana for analysis. For the toxicity test, Sprague-Dawley rats were put into six rats in each group. Animals in all groups were immunized with 5.0*108 SRBC/ml after which each group was treated with either GM Plus (30,100 or 300 mg/kg p.o., daily) based on preliminary investigations, levamisole (10mg/kg, p.o, daily), dexamethasone sodium (4mg/kg, i.m, daily) or Normal saline. The result of the toxicity proved that, Levamisole and 30,100, and 300 mg/kg GM Plus treatment resulted in significant increases (p<0.001) in the HA titre and WBC count relative to the dexamethasone and no treatment groups. A differential count performed indicated an increase in neutrophil proportion of the total count in the GM Plus treated groups. With regards to the microbial analysis, the total microbial load of Gm Plus was within the acceptable limits (BP 2015; category C of herbal products) there were no pathogenic microorganisms present. The herbal mixture has complied with the BP specifications for microbiological quality. The product GM Plus is therefore safe for usage.
Original Research Article
June 17, 2021
New Low Birth Weight: Risk Factors and Prognosis in African Environments (Segou Hospital in Mali)
T. Traoré, C. Sylla, K. Sidibé, B. Taoré, A. Maiga, A. Sanogo, S.Z. Dao, S. A. Beye, F. Kané, S. Boiré, B. Traoré, D. Fomba, S. Dougnon, T. A. Thera, Y. Traoré, I. Téguété, N. Mounkoro, S. Diakité, S. Aïssata, K. Chaka, A. Diakité, M. Touré
Page Numbers : 115-121
DOI : 10.36348/sijtcm.2021.v04i06.009
Objective: The aim was to assess the risk factors and prognosis of low birth weight at nianankoro Fomba Hospital in Ségou, Mali. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective control case study from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. Results: We recorded 160 infants of low birth weight out of a total of 2353 births or 6.8%. Adolescent girls were the most affected with 35% of cases compared to 16.9% for witnesses. Brides were the most affected in 80.6% of cases compared to 92.2% among witnesses. The main reasons for consultation were uterine contractions in 43.8%; metrorragia on pregnancy in 12.5% of cases and premature rupture of membranes in 10% of cases. Low birth weights were observed in discharged parturients in 35% of cases were compared to 8.1% of controls 36.25% of pregnant women who performed only one antenatal consultation (CP NV) had given birth to a low birth weight compared to 12.3% in controls and 60.63% of cases had not performed any NPCs compared to 4.3% in controls. Instrumental extraction was performed in 43% of cases compared to 15.6% in controls, and caesarean section in 26% of cases versus 5.9% in controls. It appears that both sexes were affected by low birth weight with a predominance of the male sex (56.9%) compared to women (43.1%). The main causes of neonatal death were among others: Respiratory distress with 62.22% and neonatal infections in 26.66%. Conclusion: Infants of low birth weight are a public health problem because of their high prevalence and the resulting adverse consequences.