Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Inhibitors Influence in the Furnace Internal Wall Tubes of the Refinery Boiler
Edori ES, Bekee D, Wecheonwu BC
Page Numbers : 20-26
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2021.v04i04.002
This work evaluated the rate at which metal walls of the tubes of the furnace internal tubes of the refinery boiler were corroded due to the harsh environment in which it is operated. The rate of corrosion was investigated in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitors with the use of a material balance equation of the boiler system where a mathematical model was derived using first order differential equation. The results obtained during the four years period under review were between 0.1425-0.5550mm, 0.1250-0.5000mm, 0.1125-0.4650mm, 0.2250-0.8000mm and 0.1700-0.6000mm in the absence of corrosion inhibitors in the FWT, EWT, IWT, ITURB AND ETURB respectively. The results also revealed that in the presence of corrosion inhibitors under the same period were 0.0945-0.2345mm, 0.0860-0.2135mm, 0.0775-0.1920mm, 0.1375-0.3415mm and 0.1035-0.2560mm in the FWT, EWT, IWT, ITURB AND ETURB respectively. The metals gained during the period under evaluation ranged between 0.0480-0.3205mm, 0.0490-0.2865mm, 0.0350-0.2730mm, 0.0875-0.4585mm and 0.0665-0.3440mm in the FWT, EWT, IWT, ITURB AND ETURB respectively. The resultant percentage efficiencies recorded during the period under review were in the range of 33.68-57.75%, 36.30-57.30%, 31.11-58.71% 38.89-57.31% and 39.12-57.33% in the FWT, EWT, IWT, ITURB AND ETURB respectively. The corrosion evaluation in the furnace internal wall tubes showed that there was a remarkable decrease in corrosion rate due to the application of corrosion inhibitors.
Original Research Article
May 8, 2021
Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Benzimidazole Derivatives
Salah Hamza Sherif, Dagne Addisu Kure, Endalkachew Asefa Moges, Akmal Nur Negash, Dessalegn Bekele, Hailu Hadaro
Page Numbers : 14-19
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2021.v04i04.001
Derivatives of benzimidazole containing N-substituted benzyl, benzensuphonyl and acetyl were synthesized from a variety of amino acids such as Lysine and Leucine. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were elucidated by using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR.The synthesized target compounds were evaluated in vitro antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains by employing the disc diffusion method using Ciprofloxacin as a standard drug. The anti-bacterial assay revealed that the compounds (6’ b) and (6’d) showed better activity 14, 9, 8 and 12, 9, 7 mm zone of inhibition against S. auras, E. coli and K. pneumonia respectively.
Original Research Article
March 18, 2021
Heavy Metals Content in Some Gardening Soils in Makurdi Metropolis
Oklo, A. D, Enenche, D. E, Uzungwe, T.
Page Numbers : 10-13
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2021.v04i03.001
Heavy metals have great significance due to their tendency to accumulate in the vital human organs over prolonged period of time. Injury to vegetation caused by heavy metals has been well recognised because of the many botanical and chemical investigations during the past century. The high concentration of heavy metals in the soil is reflected by higher concentration of metals in plants and consequently in animal and human bodies. The analysis of heavy metals in some gardening soils was carried out from soil samples at sites W (Wadata), X (Lower Benue), Y(Tionsha) and Z(Wurukum) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the results obtained were in the following ranges Cd 0.001±0.0002 - 0.14±0.001mg/kg, Cu 0.01 ±0.05 - 0.15 ±0.0006 mg/kg, Pb 0.15 ±0.01 - 0.23 ±0.005 mg/kg and Ni 0.06 ±0.0009 - 0.10 ±0.009 mg/kg. The highest concentration of as was at Tionsha, while Cd, Cu, Pd and Ni was at Wadata, While the least was at Wurukum, Lower Benue and Tionsha respectively. As was found to be Below Detectable Limit (BDL) at Wadata and Lower Benue, Cu at Tionsha, Pd at Lower Benue and Tionsha and Ni also at Lower Benue and Tionsha. Generally, the result showed that the values were within the set standard for heavy metals in the soil.
Original Research Article
Feb. 27, 2021
Effect of Helium-Neon Laser (632.8nm) on some physiochemical Properties of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal)
Namarigh Eltigani Mohamed, Mohammed Bahreldin Hussein, Yassen Mohammed Mosa Salih, Wafa Omer Ahmed
Page Numbers : 6-9
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2021.v04i02.001
This study was aimed to modify some physiochemical properties of Gum Arabic and it's Emulsions by using laser irradiation. The sample of Acacia senegal Gum was collected in December 2018 from Aburai Area, Ghibaish Locality-West Kordofan State. The sample was shade dried and ground at Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) in El-Obied. The aqueous solution of the sample was prepared with concentration 20% (w/v) and used as a test sample. Some of unirradiated aqueous solution was taken as control and the remaining portion was irradiated for different periods of time (5,10,15,20 and 25 minutes) by He-Ne Laser at 632.8nm wavelength and power 3mw using the pulse at Department of laser in Al-Neelain University – Khartoum. The irradiated samples were transported to analysis at Laboratories of Sudanese Petroleum Corporation (SPC). The results showed that there was no change in values of electrical conductivity and pH, whereas the value of the emulsifying stability and the viscosity offered by the emulsion were increased with increasing irradiation period comparing with the control. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique indicated that there was no change in some functional groups such as (O-H, C=O, C-O, and CH2) which were accompanied with absence of (C-X) at (10, 15, 20 and 25 minute) with formation of multiple bonding of nitrogen compounds at (10 and 15 minute) due to the effect of irradiation process. This study recommends that further work should be done to test other factors which may be had an effect on the emulsifying stability, also recommends to study the effect of He-Ne laser on Gum Arabic at another wavelength.
Original Research Article
Jan. 14, 2021
Determination of Heavy Metals in Salt Water Periwinkle and Fresh Water Periwinkle in Port-Harcourt, Rivers-State
Don-Lawson Chioma, Nweneka Daniel Okechukwu, Oka Reminus
Page Numbers : 1-5
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2021.v04i01.001
This study of the composition of heavy metal, lead, iron, zinc and mercury in periwinkle tissues (Tympanotonosfiiscatus) were determined from different sampling stations in Mgbuoshimini Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from the analysis of salt water and fresh water periwinkle tissues indicated lead 18.62%, iron 70.08%, mercury 11.20% and zinc 53.34% and that of fresh water periwinkle includes 17.48%, 71.79%, mercury 10.71% and zinc 48.28% by percentage conversion. This comparative analysis implies that the fresh water periwinkle tissues have higher concentrations of iron and zinc which can be attributed to the dissolved mineral resources available in both salt and fresh water bodies. However, the concentrations of lead and mercury in these water bodies are above threshold limit which is quite a potential hazard for sea foods. In conclusion, comparison between the two water bodies showed that tissue samples from fresh water had higher concentration of metals in relation to salt water indicating potentials for accumulation, mainly due to differences in anthropogenic activities. Hg, Zn, Fe and Pb concentrations in tissue had values higher than the recommended limits in seafood by FAO/WHO however, regular monitoring is required to observe perturbations. In addition, sea foods obtained from the salt and fresh water bodies are potential sources of heavy metal poisoning, due to industrialization and non-regulatory use of the water bodies, thus, calls for adequate legislation and proper orientation on the use and protection of water bodies from heavy metalpoisoning.
Original Research Article
Dec. 30, 2020
Effect of Carbamate and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues on Cocoa-producing Soil, Sediment and Water of Owena River Basin Ondo State, Nigeria
AdegunAyodejiOluwole, Akinnifesi Thompson A, Ololade Isaac A
Page Numbers : 169-178
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i10.004
This study investigated how carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues added to cocoa soil through agricultural activities related to the concentrations of pesticide residues in Owena river, Ondo State, Nigeria. Extractions from soil/sediment and water samples were obtained through ultrasonic bath extraction and liquid-liquid extraction respectively. The samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometry detector. The total mean carbamate pesticide residues level in dry season in the soil and sediment samples were 1.01±0.29µg/g and 2.45±2.38µg/g respectively. Their wet season level were 0.78±0.05µg/g and 0.76 ±0.15µg/g. The dry season pyrethroid pesticide residues level in the soil, sediment and water were 2.61 ±1.87µg/g,1.20±1.33µg/g and < 0.01µg/L respectively. Their wet season observation were 0.70 ±0.25µg/g and 0.42 ± 0.25µg/g for soil and sediment respectively. However, these pollutants were not found in the treated water.The mean level of these pollutants in the soil and surface water were below the former Nigerian Federal Environment Protection Agency maximum residue limit while their level in some of the sediment samples were higher than EU limit. This study, therefore, concluded that the soil, sediment and surface water in the study area were contaminated with carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues associated with cocoa farming around the river basin, although the treated water from the State water Works is safe for drinking. Therefore,the study recommended proper legislation and enforcement of laws on the control of these contaminants.
Dec. 29, 2020
Two Models for New Cooper Pairs
Gudrun Kalmbach H. E
Page Numbers : 164-168
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i10.003
The author has recommended that for pairs of physical systems or qualities the method of energy exchange is studied, especially when the Cooper pairing can be applied.