ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 8, 2023
Functional Outcome of McKenzie Exercise in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis- A Single Center Study in Bangladesh
Dr. Iftakharul Alam, Dr. Nusrat Neherin Khan, Dr. Suriya Shahaly, Dr. Reshad Aldin Ahmed, Prof. Dr. A K M Salek, Prof. Dr. Taslim Uddin
Page no 44-50
Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing inflammatory back pain and can lead to structural and functional impairments. On average, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) incidence rates range from 0.2% to 1% of the adult population. McKenzie exercise seems to be beneficial for those affected by AS, in particular when it is planned according to the needs of the individual aiming to maintain or improve the level of physical fitness. The prevalence of AS is generally believed to be between 0.1% and 1.4% globally. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of McKenzie exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Methods: This was a comparative experimental study which was conducted in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October 2019 September 2020. The study was approved by Institutional Review Board (IRB) of BSMMU on. A total of 112 patients with ankylosing spondylitis were selected who were divided into two groups. 56 patients were allotted in group A (NSAID group) and another 56 patients were allotted in group B (NSAID with McKenzie exercise). Collected data were processed, analyzed and disseminated by using MS Excel and SPSS version 23.0 program as per necessity. Results: The mean VAS score at baseline was 34.44 ±2.78 in group A and 34.03±2.23 in group B, at 4 weeks 28.89±3.67 in group A and 21.23 ±3.57 in group B, at 8 weeks 30.59 ±3.69 in group A and 16.95±3.62 in group B and at 12 weeks 28.08±3.34 in group A and 15.04 ±3.77 in group B. The mean BASFI at baseline was 3.19±0.15 in group A and 3.51±0.18 in group B, at 4 weeks 2.99±0.15 in group A and 2.15±0.05 in group B, at 8 weeks 1.99±0.09 in group A and 1.26±0.22 in group B and at 12 weeks 2.01±0.09 in group A and 1.25±0.2 in group B. The mean BASDAI at baseline was 5.01±0.39 in group A and 4.95±0.4 in group B, at 4 weeks 3.99±0.07 in group A and 3.43±0.09 in group B, at 8 weeks 3.97±0.09 in group A and 3.02±0.07 in group B and at 12 weeks 3.49±0.06 in group A and 1.98±0.09 in group B. The differences of VAS score, BASFI and BASDAI at 4, 8 and 12 weeks were statistically significant (p<0.05) between two groups. Conclusion: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) causes pain and stiffness to affected joints and the spine and if the disease progresses, it can cause fusion of the joints, which can limit a person’s mobility and flexibility. In analyzing the outcomes of McKenzie exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis the differences of VAS score, BASFI and BASDAI at 4, 8 and 12 weeks were found as statistically significant (p<0.05) between NSAID group and NSAID with McKenzie exercise patient groups.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 8, 2023
Cardiothoracic Ratio, Vertical Height, Transverse Dimension of the Trachea of Nigerians Resident Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Sonny Clement Okoseimiema, Chukwuemeka Emmanuel Agi
Page no 7-11
Introduction: Cardiothoracic ratio and vertical height are important indicators of cardiac size. The chest radiograph provides excellent contrast between the air-filled, cardiac, and aortic outlines. Aim of the study: This study was aimed at determining the cardiothoracic ratio, vertical height, transverse dimension of the trachea of Nigerians resident in Port Harcourt. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study carried out in the Radiology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State. The study duration was 8 months (January–September, 2021), which involved four hundred and forty-eight (216 males and 232 females) normal chest radiographs of adult Rivers aged between 18 and above. The radiographs were found to be normal by a qualified radiologist in the department. Random sampling was used to determine the sample size for the study. Results and Discussions: Males [VH(cm) 1.49±0.40; TDT(cm) 20.20±2.81; ACR(cm) 0.46±0.068]; females [VH(cm) 19.08±2.58; ACR(cm) 0.48±0.06; CTR (cm) 41.44±3.40]. The males had repeatedly higher values vertical height and cardiothoracic ratio than the females, while the females had a higher value for aorto-cardiac ratio. Conclusions: The values of vertical height, cardiothoracic ratio, transverse dimension of trachea, and aorto-cardiac ratio demonstrated sexual dimorphism, the males had consistently higher values than the females except for aorto-cardiac ratio.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 8, 2023
Saudi University Learners’ Metacognitive Abilities and Writing Performance
Fatima Mahmoud Basaffar, Syeda Saima Ferheen Bukhari
Page no 120-129
Metacognitive knowledge, knowledge about knowledge, was found to have a positive effect on learners’ performance, self-regulation, and academic success (Hartman, 2001; Wenden, 2001 & McCormick, 2013). However, little research has been done about the use of metacognitive knowledge and strategies applied in EFL writing in a Saudi context. The present study investigated the university learners’ metacognitive abilities in relation to writing including other variables like learners’ educational background and years of studying English. The study examined the correlation between the learners’ metacognitive abilities and their writing performance affected by their metacognitive knowledge and its regulation. Data were collected using a modified version of the Metacognitive Components of Planning Writing Self-inventory developed by Escorcia and Gimenes (2020) to analyze the learners’ metacognitive writing strategies. The survey consisted of three factors, metacognitive conditional knowledge, covert self-regulation, and environmental self- regulation. Participants were 190 female learners, first-year students studying English in a comprehensive program including writing at the University of Jeddah. Learners were asked to complete the survey adapted by the end of their course. The level of metacognition was checked for its effect on learners’ writing through Linear Regression. Findings indicate a positive significant correlation between the learners’ metacognitive conditional knowledge and writing performance. Also, a significant impact was predicted on learners’ writing performance. However, findings also specify a negative correlation between environmental self-regulation and learners’ writing performance. Additionally, the ‘years of studying English’ highly correlate with the learners’ metacognitive abilities, unlike learners’ educational background.
CASE REPORT | Feb. 7, 2023
Transverse and Sagittal Arch Development Using Transforce Appliance – A Case Report
Dr. Jibin Joy Daniel, Dr. Asjad Nizar, Dr. Harikrishnan, Dr. Anil Kumar
Page no 59-64
Background: The aim of this paper is to illustrate the expansion of mandibular arch using Transforce appliance. Case Report: Use of Transforce appliance for arch expansion for severely constricted mandibular arch. The patient is successfully treated with arch expansion. Conclusion: Transforce appliance is a good choice for mandibular arch expansion. Since mandible lacks sutures to open up, light force is required for arch development and Transforce appliance is capable of producing light forces.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 7, 2023
Solubility Enhancement of Atorvastatin Tablets by Solid Dispersions Using Fenugreek Seed Mucilage
Raja Y. Alghadi, Abdel Kareem M. Abdel Kareem, Alaa Balla Suliman Abuelrakha
Page no 39-47
Fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) is isolated from the seeds of Trigonella Foenum-graecum, commonly known as Fenugreek, which is herbaceous plant. Fenugreek seeds contain high percentage of mucilage, which does not dissolve in water, but swell up and become slick when exposed to fluids. Atorvastatin is one of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), which are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Atorvastatin is poorly absorbed orally, its oral bioavailability is very low (about14%) because it is very slightly soluble in distilled water and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, which would limit its clinical application. The objective of this study is to enhance atorvastatin solubility in order to increase its bioavailability by the formulation of solid dispersion using fenugreek seed mucilage. Mucilage was extracted from the seed and evaluated for flow properties, pH value, FTIR spectroscopy and percentage practical yield. Then solid dispersions with different drug to polymer ratios were prepared from fenugreek mucilage and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), after that saturation solubility was tested for fenugreek seed mucilage solid dispersion (FSMSD), hydroxxy propyle methyl cellulose solid dispersion (HPMCSD) and pure drug. Tablets were prepared from solid dispersion with the highest saturation solubility, then tablets were tested and evaluated. The tablets showed satisfactory physicochemical properties as 1.77%RSD in tablet weight variation, 1 min disintegration time, 5.24±0.457 Hardness and 89% drug release in 45 min. it is concluded that FSM is a promising excipient that can be used in dosage forms formulation to enhance solubility of low soluble drugs.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Feb. 7, 2023
Forests Communities’ “Bundles of Rights” in Cameroon: A Forgone Aspiration towards Sustainable Management of Industrial Forestry
Ayuk Macbert Nkongho
Page no 55-76
Forests ecosystem englobes abundant natural resources in which the world population highly depends on for their existence. Internationally, the 1992 Rio Declaration and the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity amongst others, has categorically prescribed universal legal standards for the protection of the rights of forests communities. In Cameroon, forests with its natural resource endowments (timbers and non-timbers) has been considered by many as the cultural heritage of most local communities and a source of government revenue. Without mincing words, the forestry law and other related laws have given local communities bundles of rights to sustainably use and manage forest resources. However, these rights remain wanting due to ineffective implementation. As a result, local communities are prone to abject poverty, misery and paradox of plenty or rather put it “Tragedy of the Commons”. In this vein, the paper therefore, seeks to address the following worries: What type of rights do these forests communities exercise? Are the provisions of the law with regard to local communities’ rights and interests in the sustainable management of industrial forestry respected and if so, to what extent? What difficulties do local communities encounter in exercising these bundles of rights? Legally, the methodology employed in this article is purely doctrinal which is based on both primary and secondary data. The paper therefore, concludes with some robust recommendations which if effectively implemented and enforced will go a long way to guaranteed the rights of forest communities and thus, enhance sustainable industrial forestry management.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 6, 2023
Effects of a Childbirth Educational Program on Nulliparous Pregnancy Anxiety: Feasibility and Preliminary Results
Anwar Nader Al Khunaizi, Omar Ghazi Baker, Sama S. Hammad, Ahmad Alsadoun, Areej Ghalib Al Otaibi
Page no 28-33
Background: Pregnancy is a significant transitional life experience it can also be one of the most stressful experiences in life. The studies demonstrate the importance of educational programs for pregnant women to decrease the anxiety level of the pregnant women. Method: A quasi-experimental design (pretest \ posttest) was utilized to achieve the aim of this study. Results: The total sample size was 122 women. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare the level of anxiety pre- and post- the childbirth education program conditions. Anxiety levels were compared pre- and post-intervention conditions. Anxiety levels were higher pre-intervention (M= 31.52, SD= 10.1) than post-intervention (M= 21.39, SD= 8.21). The improvement—9.86, 95% CI [8.25, 12.0]—was statistically significant, t (121) = 10.62, p< .001. The results show that all demographic variables (age, education and employment status) had a non-significant influence on the level of the anxiety of nulliparous pregnant mothers. Conclusion: The study’s conclusions can be used both to enhance the support for nulliparous women with respect to childbirth-related anxiety and also to optimize the care provided to pregnant mothers to support the development of better health as measured by PRAQ-R2.