Determination of Heavy Metals in Salt Water Periwinkle and Fresh Water Periwinkle in Port-Harcourt, Rivers-State
Don-Lawson Chioma, Nweneka Daniel Okechukwu, Oka Reminus
Page Numbers : 1-5
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2021.v04i01.001
This study of the composition of heavy metal, lead, iron, zinc and mercury in periwinkle tissues (Tympanotonosfiiscatus) were determined from different sampling stations in Mgbuoshimini Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from the analysis of salt water and fresh water periwinkle tissues indicated lead 18.62%, iron 70.08%, mercury 11.20% and zinc 53.34% and that of fresh water periwinkle includes 17.48%, 71.79%, mercury 10.71% and zinc 48.28% by percentage conversion. This comparative analysis implies that the fresh water periwinkle tissues have higher concentrations of iron and zinc which can be attributed to the dissolved mineral resources available in both salt and fresh water bodies. However, the concentrations of lead and mercury in these water bodies are above threshold limit which is quite a potential hazard for sea foods. In conclusion, comparison between the two water bodies showed that tissue samples from fresh water had higher concentration of metals in relation to salt water indicating potentials for accumulation, mainly due to differences in anthropogenic activities. Hg, Zn, Fe and Pb concentrations in tissue had values higher than the recommended limits in seafood by FAO/WHO however, regular monitoring is required to observe perturbations. In addition, sea foods obtained from the salt and fresh water bodies are potential sources of heavy metal poisoning, due to industrialization and non-regulatory use of the water bodies, thus, calls for adequate legislation and proper orientation on the use and protection of water bodies from heavy metalpoisoning.
Original Research Article
Dec. 30, 2020
Effect of Carbamate and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues on Cocoa-producing Soil, Sediment and Water of Owena River Basin Ondo State, Nigeria
AdegunAyodejiOluwole, Akinnifesi Thompson A, Ololade Isaac A
Page Numbers : 169-178
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i10.004
This study investigated how carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues added to cocoa soil through agricultural activities related to the concentrations of pesticide residues in Owena river, Ondo State, Nigeria. Extractions from soil/sediment and water samples were obtained through ultrasonic bath extraction and liquid-liquid extraction respectively. The samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometry detector. The total mean carbamate pesticide residues level in dry season in the soil and sediment samples were 1.01±0.29µg/g and 2.45±2.38µg/g respectively. Their wet season level were 0.78±0.05µg/g and 0.76 ±0.15µg/g. The dry season pyrethroid pesticide residues level in the soil, sediment and water were 2.61 ±1.87µg/g,1.20±1.33µg/g and < 0.01µg/L respectively. Their wet season observation were 0.70 ±0.25µg/g and 0.42 ± 0.25µg/g for soil and sediment respectively. However, these pollutants were not found in the treated water.The mean level of these pollutants in the soil and surface water were below the former Nigerian Federal Environment Protection Agency maximum residue limit while their level in some of the sediment samples were higher than EU limit. This study, therefore, concluded that the soil, sediment and surface water in the study area were contaminated with carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues associated with cocoa farming around the river basin, although the treated water from the State water Works is safe for drinking. Therefore,the study recommended proper legislation and enforcement of laws on the control of these contaminants.
Dec. 29, 2020
Two Models for New Cooper Pairs
Gudrun Kalmbach H. E
Page Numbers : 164-168
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i10.003
The author has recommended that for pairs of physical systems or qualities the method of energy exchange is studied, especially when the Cooper pairing can be applied.
Dec. 24, 2020
Research Progress on N-heterocyclic Carbene Boranes
N-heterocyclic carbene boranes (NHC-boranes) are a new kind of compounds which have characteristic structures, luxuriant chemical properties, and preparation with a simple method. They can be widely utilized in various organic synthetic chemical reactions. As practical synthetic reagents or intermediates, it has now attracted attention. In order to show that the status of NHC-boranes in organic synthesis cannot be ignored, this article reviews the structural characteristics, preparation methods and typical chemical reactions of NHC-boranes. We hope that this review can attract more attention, promote the development of synthetic organic chemistry, and apply them to a wider range of areas.
Original Research Article
Dec. 5, 2020
Disperse Ink-Jet Inks with UV-Absorbers as Active Agents for Digital Printing to Polyester and Polyamide Fibres
Karanikas EK, Nikolaidis NF
Page Numbers : 143-151
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i10.001
Two UV-absorbers, Tinuvin 477-DW and Tinuvin 5333-DW were used as active agents in this work. These were added in two different amounts (1.0% and 2.0%) in water-based disperse ink-jet inks. The surface tension, pH, viscosity and conductivity of the prepared formulations were monitored over a period of 90 days in order to estimate the ink stability and the compatibility of the UV-absorbers with the ink constituents. The inks were used for ink-jet printing on paper, transfer printing on polyester and polyamide and thermostabilization. Wash light and rub fastness were evaluated on the printed samples. Color coordinates were measured. Qualitative determination of the active agents, adsorbed on the printed samples was made by using UV-Vis Spectroscopy.
Original Research Article
Nov. 23, 2020
Ambient-Stable CaFeO4 Synthesis Process wet
Abdellatif EL Maghraoui, Abdelaziz Zerouale, Mustapha Ijjaali, Ahmed Harrach
Page Numbers : 138-142
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i09.002
The aim of this work is to prepare the room-stable calcium ferrate CaFeO4 from Na2FeO4 chemically synthesized from ferric salts, in an alkali hydroxide medium and hypochlorite which is a particularly effective oxidizing agent in the synthesis, respecting the filtration, purification and drying processes required for the synthesis, because each change can lead to decomposition and decrease in purity. The calcium ferrate synthesis process consists in substituting the sodium ions of the VI ferrate obtained by Calcium by mixing them with a solution of calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2, in order to study and optimize the essential parameters influencing the yield substitution as well as monitoring of its degradation over time, the reaction yield of which is of the order of 98.7% at a temperature of around [0 ° C - 40 ° C] and of pH = 11 for 30 minutes. The phase obtained was characterized by UV spectrophotometer by measuring the optical density at a wavelength of 507 nm and by the volumetric titration method.
Original Research Article
Nov. 5, 2020
Study of Fish Diversity in Various Conditions of Water Level in Batu Bumbun Reservate of Middle Mahakam Regency of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Lariman, Sus Trimurti
Page Numbers : 128-137
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2020.v03i09.001
This study aims to determine the diversity of fish at various water levels in Batu Bumbun Reservat, as input material to formulate management activities that must be done to save the reserve. Research was carried out by survey method, in the dry season (April-June) and rainy season (November-December) 2016. Parameters measured, water quality (DO, pH, temperature, TSS, TDS, alkalinity and brightness), fish community structure diversity, uniformity, relative abundance, diversity and dominance), water levels, and sedimentation. The fish community data obtained were analyzed by the Shannon-Wiener index. The results showed that: (1) Changes in water level resulted in the Batu Bumbun Reservus ecosystem having experienced severe degradation, characterized by fluctuations in water level during two extreme seasons. When the rainy season occurs extreme floods, while the dry season, there is siltation to dry. (2) Community of fish caught in Batu Bumbun Reservus ecosystem of 29 species, consisting of 23 genus and 16 families. When the rainy season is dominantly caught fish community (white fish), with fish density 7.015.000 head / km2, while the dominant season is dominant caught is a community of swamp (black fish), with density of 2,334,000 fish / km2. Based on the analysis of fish community, the value of diversity index (H ') ranged from 1,188-0,825 means low-moderate species diversity, dominance index (C) around 0.0827-0.2147 means no dominant species and uniformity index (E) , 8295-0.6710 means that in a balanced state, there is no competition. It is concluded that the Batu Bumbun Reservus ecosystem has experienced severe degradation, with indicator of fish community change. It is recommended that the management must be done to save the Batu Bumbun Reservus ecosystem is, Dredging, Weed cleaning, Local Fish Restocking, illegal fishing Prevention, Increase of reservat security facility.