A Cross Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of First Year Medical Students about Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Dr. Arifuddin MK, Dr. Shashiraj HK, Dr. Kavitha BS
Page Numbers : 83-85
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i06.004
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in India is 1.46% with an estimated 17 million people who are chronic carriers of Hepatitis viral infection. Seroprevalence of HBV infection is few times higher among health care workers when compared to the general population. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and perceptions of first year medical students regarding HBV infection and vaccination. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out among first year MBBS students belonging to 2016-17 batch of Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur, Karnataka. A self structured objective type of questionnaire was prepared consisting of questions which were used to assess the knowledge regarding HBV infection and vaccination for it. The responses were analyzed using Microsoft excel and Epi Info 7. Results: 92.3% of the study population told that they have heard about hepatitis and 78.46% were also aware that the primary organ affected in hepatitis is liver. 87.69% responded that they were aware of hepatitis being transmitted from person to person. 89.23% of the study population had correct knowledge about the mode of transmission. Conclusion: It is recommended to increase the awareness of importance of vaccination against HBV at the beginning of the medical course and consider to vaccinate all of them before they are exposed to the patients during their clinical postings.
Original Research Article
June 24, 2021
A Cross Sectional Study on Dietary Habits among First Year Medical Students
Dr. Arifuddin MK, Dr. Kavitha BS, Dr. Shashiraj HK
Page Numbers : 80-82
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i06.003
Background: Dietary habits is one of the important lifestyle behavior which helps in enhancing the good health of the individual. Students starting university education may experience difficulties in maintaining healthy eating habits because of various academic stressors and problems in adjusting to hostel environment. Medical students with their medical knowledge are expected to maintain good healthy eating habits. Inspite of having sufficient knowledge about the importance of eating healthy they experience greater difficulty in putting this background knowledge into practice because of various academic challenges and time issues faced by them. Objectives: To assess the eating habits and perceived barriers to maintain healthy dietary habits of first year medical students. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out among first year MBBS students belonging to 2016-17 batch of Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur. A self structured questionnaire was prepared consisting of questions which were used to assess the dietary habits of the study population. The responses were analyzed using Microsoft excel and Epi Info 7. Results: 63 (48.46%) reported to consumption of all 3 major meals in a day. Skipping of breakfast was seen in 53(40.76%), skipping of lunch 16(12.3%) and skipping of dinner 5 (3.84%) was reported. 61(46.92%) reported that having no time as the reason for skipping meals. 6(4.61%) reported that a skipped meals to control weight. Conclusion: It is advised to increase the awareness among medical students regarding practice of healthy dietary habits and maintenance of healthy lifestyle practices.
Original Research Article
June 17, 2021
The Inheritance Pattern of Some Human Morphogenetic and Serological Traits among Two Nigerian Ethnic Groups in Akwa-Ibom State
Anthony John Umoyen, Nseobong Godwin Akpan, Gabriel Inaku Abu, Tentishe Luka Thomas, Uba Uyokei
Page Numbers : 65-74
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i06.001
Background: A population is characterized by a set of gene(s) controlling traits and these traits are essential prerequisite for studying genetic diversity in human population. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the distribution, inheritance patterns of morphogenetic, serological traits; and also association of these traits within the two ethnic groups. Methods: The distribution of morphogenetic, serological traits were studied among the Ibibio and Ananng in Ikono and Oruk Anam respectively using a total of 1200 participants. Thirteen traits were accessed. Standard methodology was used to collect data and analyzed. Results: The distribution of morphogenetic traits amongst the two populations were 96.67%, 68.83%, 56.08%, 35.58% and 17.50% for right handedness, free earlobe, tongue rollers, bent little fingers and dimpled cheeks respectively. The Ibibio’s right handedness, left handedness and ambidextrous were 96.33%, 3.17% and 0.5%; while for the Ananng’s were 97.00%, 2.67% and 0.33% respectively. There were significant association between morphogenetic traits (tongue folding and bent little finger) and ethnicity. Also dimples, widow’s peak and Rhesus factor were significantly associated with sex. The distribution of serological traits amongst the two populations was 50.67%, 20.17%, 18.33%, 10.83%, 93.17%, 6.83%,74.92%, 24.67% and 0.42% for blood group O, B, A, AB, rhesus positive, rhesus negative, genotype AA, AS and SS respectively. Conclusion: The frequency of the different morphogenetic and serological phenotypes varied in the two ethnic groups. Dimples, widow’s peak and Rhesus factor were significantly associated with sex. This study will serve as base-line information for further studies.
Original Research Article
June 13, 2021
Effect of a Stressor on Blood Pressure in Healthy Offspring with and without Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Dr. Arifuddin M K, Dr. Vivek P, Dr. Nagalakshmi
Page Numbers : 75-79
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i06.002
Background: The incidence of Type 2 DM (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide and constitutes a major global public health problem. Autonomic reactivity to a challenge like that of exercise or cold offers a greater scope to evaluate and assess the capability of autonomic system to regulate and maintain homeostasis. The cold Pressor test (CPT) which is considered to be a sympatho-excitatory maneuver is a simple, noninvasive and validated test of sympathetic activation. The Blood pressure (BP) responses to CPT could be used as indicators of global sympathetic activation, and thus of cardiac status and autonomic function. Aims: To compare the autonomic reactivity by recording the Blood pressure during and after CPT between healthy offspring with and without parental history of T2DM. Methods: This study consists of 40 healthy male subjects with family history of T2DM (cases) and 40 healthy male subjects without family history of T2DM (controls) in the age group of 18-25 years. BP during and after CPT were compared between cases and controls. Results: Chi-square/ Fisher Exact test has been used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. In the present study, the post CPT changes in Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) did not demonstrate any significant differences. However, the graphical representation of SBP changes after CPT shows fluctuation among cases before it reaches the stable value, whereas, in controls the decrease was at constant level. Conclusion: The results suggest there was altered autonomic reactivity to physical stress among the offspring with parental history of T2DM when compared to their counterparts and hence this points towards the fact that they are at a risk of developing future autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular complications.
Original Research Article
May 8, 2021
Is There A Relationship between the Facial and Nasal Height of the Ikwerre People?
Sonny Clement Okoseimiema, John Nwolim Paul
Page Numbers : 59-64
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i5.001
Background: Facial parameters such as facial, nasal, maxillary, mandibular and oro-facial change with age and are dependent on variations in the dimensions of the skeleton, development of muscles, sex and fat content and distribution in the body which are under the influence of climate, diet, health etc. these factors are important determinants of growth and development. Ethnicity is a variable that affects craniofacial dimensions. This study was done to determine whether there is a relationship between the facial height and nasal height of the Ikwerre people, establish a regression formula for predicting the facial height of the Ikwerre people using either nasal height or mandibular height and to examine if there are ethnic or racial differences when comparing the result in this study and previous studies. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional that included males and females of the Ikwerre ethnicity of Rivers state of Nigeria. A total of 1,038 subjects comprising males (585) and females (453) aged between 5 – 45years were used for this study. The parents and grandparents were all from Ikwerre ethnic group. Each subject sat on a comfortable sitting position and then their facial measurements were taken including; facial height, nasal height, mandibular height, maxillary height and orofacial height. Results and Discussions: The facial height, nasal height, mandibular height, maxillary height and oro-facial height were measured using digital caliper and the results obtained showed that the males had mean facial height of 102.11± 9.07mm, nasal height of 37.07 ± 13.30mm, mandibular height of 45.10 ± 7.39mm, maxillary height of 20.85 ± 13.02mm, and oro-facial height of 65.91 ± 15.16mm while the females had mean facial height of 98.15 ± 6.96mm, nasal height of 36.65 ± 5.054mm, mandibular height of 41.43 ± 5.50mm, maxillary height of 19.43 ± 3.09mm, and oro-facial height of 60.86 ± 6.80mm. The result of the study showed that there is a progressive increase in the mean value of the facial height and nasal height with increase in age. This implies that there is an increase in the facial parameters with advancing age. This finding could be associated with natural growth and proportional body size increase i.e. facial growth. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the facial height and nasal height of the Ikwerre people which was seen as a positive correlation between the facial height and nasal height. It implies that for any increase in facial height, there is a resultant increase in nasal height amongst the Ikwerre people.
April 30, 2021
Bacterial and Viral Pathogens, Molecular Mechanisms and Cellular Toxicity
Iqra Kanwal, Sana Riaz, Faisal Nadeem, Saba Manzoor, Abdul Jabbar, Aneeza Shafqat, Mudssar Aslam
Page Numbers : 44-49
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i04.001
Viruses as pathogens have ability to replicate in the particular host in order to damage their organs. Some bacterial pathogens cause lethal diseases associated with metabolisms. Bacteria also increase the rate of infection due to antibiotic resistance. There is need to design such drugs that control the specific targets of bacterial strains. Streptococcus type also causes the diseases associated with medical conditions such as pneumonia. Shigella as well as Salmonella also causing the diseases in food and food products. Pseudomonas syringae as one of the bacterial pathogens that attacks on the leaves as well as different parts of plants that finally damaged to whole plant. S. pneumoniae is the pathogenic bacterial strain that causes severe inflammation in the lungs by damaging to the lungs. E. coli as the type of bacterial pathogen that enter into the intestine of the human. It particularly stays here and multiplies to increase its infection to damage the specific parts of intestine. Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. The DENV genome is about 11000 bases of positive-sense, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) that codes for three structural proteins. At present, CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia® is the only approved vaccine, but potent inhibitors are currently under development.
Original Research Article
April 30, 2021
Impact of ‘Buy Zimbabwe’ Campaign on Capacity Utilisation for Manufacturing Companies in Zimbabwe
Dr. Fainos Chinjova, Mr. Blessing Scott
Page Numbers : 50-58
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2021.v04i04.002
Many countries, irrespective of the country's level of economic status, seek to initiate macroeconomic policies towards achieving better economic performance in order to advance level of business activities and economic growth. In order to achieve this, various policy strategies and interventions are applied in the process, although the outcomes are always different. While some of these policy interventions have culminated in the desired outcomes, others falter on the platter of ineptness. This article investigated the impact of the ‘Buy Zimbabwe’ campaign initiative on the performance of the manufacturing sector through capacity utilisation since its introduction by the Government of Zimbabwe in 2011. The study used a positivism research philosophy because epistemologically, it allowed the researcher to focus on discovering observable and measurable facts. The explanatory and analytical research design was used to gather the data. A sample size of 21 companies was put into strata composed of 8 companies in the first stratum and the other 13 companies in the second stratum. Data was collected from primary sources through structured interviews with managers of manufacturing companies. The key findings are that the ‘Buy Zimbabwe ’initiative had very little impact on capacity utilisation of manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe. The main challenges that limited the adoption of ‘Buy Zimbabwe’ campaign are shortage of raw materials, low demand, ageing equipment, low investment in the manufacturing sector, persistent foreign currency shortages, liquidity crisis, and poor access to finance. The study recommended that the Government of Zimbabwe should create an enabling economic, political, social and legal environment that is conducive for ‘Buy Zimbabwe’ initiative to produce the desired results as an import substitution.