Diabetes mellitus prevalence has been growing up rapidly. Consequently, physical, psychological, and socioeconomic burdens were increased due to the treatment and diabetes-related complications. Complications are favorable among poorly controlled diabetic patients. To prevent or delay the complications, then, diabetes self-management is an appropriate way to cope these problems. Presently, patient empowerment in diabetes education and self-management is an effective way to increase the adherence to the diabetes treatment. Education means disclose information about their conditions and management-related DM. Diabetes patients have right to receive information regarding their conditions and treatment needed. This right is related to their autonomy to choose and decide their own treatment. Then, it is not fair if we blame them as not adhering when they did not receive any important information regarding their treatment clearly. This study aimed to describe the ethical issue in diabetes self-management engagement.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 3, 2020
Relationship of the Environmental Condition with the Presence of Leptospira in Rats in Flood Prone Areas in Makassar City
Cases of leptospirosis in Indonesia increased dramatically in 2018 by 895 cases with 148 death cases due to leptospirosis in 2018. Risk factors were found in more than half of leptospirosis events including environmental conditions, the presence of rodents, waste water disposal, waste disposal facilities, history of contact with rats, presence of rivers, and history of flooding. Previous research has reported the finding of mice containing Leptospira in post-flood areas in Indonesia. Therefore this study aimed to determine the relationship of environmental conditions with the presence of Leptospira bacteria in rats in flood-prone areas. This research is an analytic study with cross sectional approach. Data obtained by observing the type of rat, the process of surgery and taking rats, rats calculation of success traps and observation of environmental conditions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory of Hasanuddin University Hospital. Statistical tests with fisher exact were used to determine the relationship of environmental conditions with the presence of Leptospira bacteria in rats. The results of this study found 100% Mus musculus, 53.3% Rattus norvegicus, 22.2% Rattus tanezumi infected with Leptospira bacteria. The results showed the presence of sewers with stagnant water (0,000), presence of standing water other than sewers (0,026), presence of sewage waste (0,005), presence of waste other than ditches (0,007), smell of rat urine (0,049) and pH of stagnant water the optimum (0.001) with a p-value < 0,05. We recommend to the Paccerakkang inhabitants who reside in flood-prone areas, to always maintain environmental conditions such as cleaning the environment suspected of being a habitat for rats.
Building strong resistance against the Covid-19 is now the major challenge around the world. Since there is no reliable remedy, many strategies have been adopted so far to get rid of it. It is already prevalent in a number of countries, but in most cases it has been made possible by lockdowns and adherence to unlimited hygiene as relaxation of these intitiatives causes re-infection. While the whole world is worried about Covid-19, Bangladesh, a South Asian country, is plagued by various dangers, which is causing a lot of frustration among the people of this country. Dengue, floods and waterlogging, indifference to human health and shaky government management are rampant in this country. However, it is only a matter of time before a strong fight is waged against Covid-19, as the country looks to the world for a vaccine, which is deteriorating overall situation. In this article, some of the things to do in the world like Bangladesh and this country have been highlighted.
Scholars Middle East Publishers
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.