Patients with dentofacial deformity often undergo orthognathic surgical procedures for correction of their deformity. This surgical procedure has its own share of complications which may manifest intra-operatively or in the immediate post-operative phase. Cutaneous complications following esthetic surgeries like orthognathic surgery are very rare. However, when they occur, they are usually early, minor, and transient. This review is intended to throw light on the occurrence of acne in the immediate postoperative phase in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery and the etiology & management of such acne.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 30, 2019
Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection, Identification of Pathogen and Drug Sensitivity Pattern in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome
Gobinda Mondal, Adyasha Mohapatra, Banasree Roy, Mala Bhattacharya
Introduction: Nephrotic syndrome is primarily a pediatric disorder and it affects 1-3 per 100,000 children <16 years of age. The prevalence of UTI is high in nephrotic syndrome patients.UTI may be responsible for poor response to steroid therapy and it also induces relapses. Objectives: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infection, identifications of pathogen and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of UTI in children with nephrotic syndrome. Method: All nephrotic syndrome patients attending the OPD or Indoor who are fulfilling the criteria were included in the study. Detailed history was taken. Routine tests including the urine culture sensitivity were sent. Result: Incidence of UTI among nephrotic syndrome patients was18.75%. E.coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter was the organisms. Commonest organism found was E.coli. Aminoglycoside group of drugs found to be the most sensitive (100%) followed by third generation cephalosporin (80%). Conclusion: UTI is not at all uncommon in nephrotic syndrome patients and all the patients may not present with classical symptoms. Hence a high degree of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 15, 2019
Role of Speech in Orthognathic Surgery: A Review
Rahul Vinay Chandra Tiwari, Mandarapu Satya Karthik, Krishna Sai Prasad, Jacob John Plackal, Vedatrayi, Sushil Bhagwan Mahajan, Heena Tiwari,
Literature has shown that severe dental and skeletal malocclusions can have varying detrimental effects on speech production. This is due to the impairment of the orofacial structures which play a key role in the production of speech. Orthognathic surgery which aims to restore the balance between the dentofacial structures by correcting the dentofacial deformities is believed to have a positive effect on the speech production in such patients. This review throws light on the role of speech in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 20, 2019
The Choice of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery as a Dental Specialty by Graduating Dental Students and Interns: A multi-center Survey
Udeabor Samuel Ebele, Onwuka Chidozie Ifechi, Muaddi Hasan Ahmed, Hamdi Asma Ahmed, Al Nazeh Abdullah A, Eroje Alezi Braimoh I
Background: Enrollment into Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) in Saudi Arabia is low generally. Aim: To evaluate the reasons guiding the choice of OMFS as a specialty by final year dental students and interns. Methodology: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey among final year students and interns across major Dental Colleges in Saudi Arabia. Respondents were asked to provide information regarding demographics, level of training, interest in specialty training, intended areas of specialization and factors influencing choice of OMFS or not. Results: In total, 210 questionnaires were returned. Out of these, 139 (66%) were final year students and 71(34%) interns; 112 (53%) were men and 98 (47%) were women; and most of them 189 (90%) were in 21–25 years age range. Overall, 209 (99.5%) were interested in specialty training. Knowledge of the scope of OMFS ranged from 73%-90% and 50% were interested in OMFS. Main motivation for interest was “desire to be a surgeon” (n=71, 34%). “Preference for other specialties” was the reason for lack of interest in OMFS (41%) and another 32% said that “long hours of surgeries and night calls” was their reason. Conclusions: Interest in postgraduate training was very high. The respondents demonstrated a good knowledge of OMFS and interest in the specialty also. Desire to be surgeon was the main motivating factor whereas preference for other specialties and the demands of OMFS in terms of the long hours in OR and night calls were reasons for lack of interest in the specialty.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 11, 2019
Autoimmune Diseases Associated with Primary Biliary Cholangitis
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease; the autoimmune mechanism seems the most likely. As a result, PBC is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. The goal of our work is to determine the prevalence and type of autoimmune diseases associated with PBC and to assess their impact on the prognosis of the disease. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study over a period of 22 years (1998-2019) including all patients followed for CBP. In all these patients, we systematically looked for: autoimmune hepatitis, dysthyroidism, and type 1 diabetes, dry syndrome, and celiac disease, dermatological and joint damage. The statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS software. The comparison of the biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid between patients with isolated CBP and those with CBP associated with autoimmune pathology was performed using the Chi2 test. A combination of variables was considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. Results: 90 patients (85 women and 5 men) followed for CBP were collected. The average age was 49+/-12.3 years. Of these patients, 36 patients (42.9%) had an autoimmune disease associated with PBC. The discovery of these autoimmune diseases preceded the diagnosis of PBC in 9 cases (27.3%) and was concomitant in the remaining cases. Autoimmune hepatitis was found in 10 patients (12%), defining an overlapping syndrome. Other diseases were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 9), basedow (n=1) dry syndrome (n = 10), celiac disease (n = 3), insulin-dependent diabetes (n = 2), systemic scleroderma (n = 1), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1), Addisson disease (n=1) Psoriasis (n = 1) vitiligo (n = 1). The comparison of the biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid between patients with isolated CBP and those with CBP associated with autoimmune pathology was statistically non-significant with p=0.67. Conclusion: In our series, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases associated with PBC was 4
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 21, 2019
Sub-Chronic Oral Toxicity Study of Pseudocedrela Kotschyi Ethanol Leaf Extract in Wistar Rats
The leaves of Pseudocedrela. kotschyi are used in herbal medicine in Sub-Saharan Africa without safety concerns. Determination of its safety profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continuous usage. To evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity activity of the ethanol extract of Pseudocedrela. Kotschyi leaves. Sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of the extract was determined by administering 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg on Wistar rats for 40 days with distilled water as control. The haematological and biochemical parameter as well as the relative organ weights were examined. In the 40 days sub-chronic oral toxicity study, administration of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of P. kotschyi leaf extract per body weight showed significant (p<0.05) body weight change, significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) changes in some haematological and biochemical parameters and organ weights compared to the control group. Analyses of these results could lead to the conclusion that the oral administration of P. kotscyi leaf extract for 40 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity in rats
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 20, 2019
Chronic Consumption of Open Market “Fresh” Palm Oil Alters Renal Handling of Na+, Cl, K+ and HCO3-
This study was carried out to find out the extent of oxidation and its effects of oxidation if any on the renal handling of Na+, Cl-, K+ and HCO3- in rats fed open market purchased palm oil. Forty male wistar rats (weighing 140-160grams) were randomly distributed into three groups of ten rats each viz: control, fed normal rat chow, FPOmill (fed 15% mill fresh palm oil diets), FPOmarket (fed 15% w/w open market purhased fresh palm oil diets) and PPO (fed 15%w/w photoxidized palm oil diets) groups. Animals received water ad libitum. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Blood and Urine samples were collected at the end and the concentations of Na+, Cl-, K+ and HCO3- were determined. Mean plasma concentrations of Na+, Cl+, and HCO3- of FPOmarket and PPO groups were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively) lower than control and FPOmill groups. Plasma potassium levels showed the reverse. The urine concentration of Na+ and Cl- of the FPOmarket and PPO groups were significantly (P<0.001) higher than the control and FPOmill groups; The urine concentrations of K+ in the control and FPOmill groups were significantly (P<0.0) higher than the FPOmarket and PPO groups. The urine bicarbonate levels of the FPOmarket were significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of FPOmill. The urine output of the FPOmarket and PPO groups were significantly (P<0.001) lower than control and FPOmill groups. In conclusion, open market “fresh” palm oil has undergone some oxidation and is detremental to health. Its consumption should therefore be discouraged.
A clinicopathological case report of a woman with an unusual right lower eyelid lesion is presented. The lesion was a slow growing ulcerated nodule over the eyelid clinically simulating a basal cell carcinoma, however unexpectedly the biopsy revealed the growth to be an eccrine poroma. Sweat glands occur commonly on the eyelids and eccrine poroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid tumours.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 21, 2019
Acute Fluoxetine Treatment Produce Anxiolytic Effects without Modulating Behaviour Response on Exposure to Forced Swimming Test
Shazia Dawood, Samina Bano, Saira Bugti, Jai Kershan
Stress is a condition which disturbs physiological and psychological homeostasis mechanism. Depression is a severe psychiatric disorder. Biogenic amine theory of depression illustrate that the low level of brain 5 hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) and catecholamine leads to depressive symptoms. Immunological challenges can alter the tryptophan (TRP) metabolism, it is clinical indication of depression but stress also shift TRP metabolism. Fluoxetine is more effective anxiolytic drug as compared to others antidepressants. The aim of the current investigation is to examine the effects of fluoxetine administration on tryptophan metabolism and disposition in forced swimming test (FST) in rats. Albino Wistar rats were separated into three groups. Each group had 5 rats. Control animals received vehicle (DMF:Saline, 1:3 v/v) while test group treated with vehicle or fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) (i.p) 3.5 hr prior to FST . Present study shows that holo, total enzyme activity was inhibited when rats subjected to FST and serum total TRP concentration was decreased while liver, brain TRP, 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were increased in vehicle treated FST rats. Pretreatment with fluoxetine did not reduce immobility however it inhibited holo, total and apo enzyme activity. Pretreatment of fluoxetine also decreased serum total TRP and brain 5HT concentration while increased liver TRP, brain TRP, and 5-HIAA in FST rats when compared with their respective controls. Acute treatment with fluoxetine did not reduced immobility but it decrease brain 5-HT concentration by converting into 5-HIAA in FST rats which shows anxiolytic effect of fluoxetine.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 24, 2019
A Literature Review on Peri-Operative Steroid Replacement Therapy in Pituitary Adenomas Surgery
Sellar and parasellar masses are common intracranial neoplasm. Patients undergoing surgical resection of these tumors are frequently given perioperative glucocorticoid therapy. There are few studies assessing the need and the safety for such empirical approach. Based on the evidence available, this article summarize the recommendations for the perioperative steroid replacement therapy in pituitary adenomas surgery.
CASE REPORT | Sept. 30, 2019
Massive Infected Radicular Cyst of Posterior Maxilla A Case Report
Priyesh Kesharwani, Siddhartha Bhowmick, Sreesha S, VKV Naidu Pentakota, V K Sasank Kuntamukkula, Umesh Kaswan
Radicular cysts are the most common odontogenic cysts affecting the oral cavity. They are usually asymptomatic and are diagnosed during routine radiologic examination. Depending on the extent of the lesion, the cyst is managed by non-surgical or surgical means. Root canal therapy is preferred in a localised lesion whereas in large extensive cysts, enucleation, marsupialization or decompression is done. In this case report, we present the diagnosis and surgical management of a massive infected radicular cyst in the maxillary posterior region.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 30, 2019
Renal Function Indices are Distorted by Chronic Consumption of Thermoxidised Palm Oil
Favour Nyoh Beshel, Justin Atiang Beshel, Victoria Oluwatosin Imade
Fresh palm oil is known to compose of vitamin A and E; two well known antioxidants which combat alot of ailments caused by reactive oxygen species. Thermoxidized palm oil on the other hand has deleterious effects on some organs. This study was done to find out the effects of chronic consumption of palm oil on some renal function indices (protein, glucose and creatinine) in rats. Thirty male albino rats (weighing 140g-160g) of the wistar strain were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each namely: control; (fed normal rat chow), FPO (fed 15%w/w fresh palm oil diets) and TPO (fed 15%w/w thermoxidized palm oil diets). All groups had free access to tap water. Results showed that plasma protein levels in TPO-fed animals were significantly (P<0.001) higher compared with control and FPO-fed groups. Creatinine levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in TPO-fed group than those of the control and FPO-fed groups. Urine protein, glucose and creatinine levels in the TPO-fed group were significantly (P<0.001) higher than those of control and FPO groups. Conclusion: Chronic consumption of thermoxidized palm oil distorts renal handling of protein, glucose and Creatinine, while fresh palm oil maintains these renal function indices.
CASE REPORT | Sept. 29, 2019
Reconstruction of Palpebral-Cheek Defect Using an Anterior Bilobed Cheek Flap a New Reconstruction Technique about a Clinical Case
Eabdenbitsen Adil, Mouzouri Mohammed, El amrani yasmine, El ayoubi Fahd, Ghailan Mohammed Rachid
The reconstruction of zygomatic defects is a challenge for de facial surgeon. We report in this paper a new technique of reconstruction using an anterior bilobed cheek flap. A 60-year-old man had developed a tumor on his left cheek. A biopsy revealed basal cell carcinoma. The ulcerative cancer was resected then we designed an anterior bilobed cheek flap to reconstruct the cheek skin defect. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful, and the flap showed a good take.
Scholars Middle East Publishers
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