Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SJMPS) | Volume-7-Issue-12
Original Research Article
Dec. 10, 2021
Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Protein from Red Algae (Eucheuma cottonii)
Andis Sugrani, Fitriana
Page Numbers : 594-598
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i12.001
Protein is a major potential source of raw materials for new drugs. In this study, protein isolation of the red algae, Eucheuma cottonii was performed using a polar solvent (0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer). Purification of protein used fractionation method with ammonium sulfate, and then the last step of the isolation process performed protein dialysis. Determination of protein content was done using the Lowry method. Antibacterial activity test used agar diffusion method while for screening anticancer activity used the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. Anticancer effectiveness carried out against HeLa cancer cells. The results of antibacterial and BSLT tests on protein fractions F1 (0-20%) and F2 (20-40%) showed that these fractions were potential as anticancer agents, However, the test results of both fractions against HeLa cancer cells showed only the F2 protein fraction (20-40% fraction) was active in inhibiting the growth of HeLa cell cancer in the moderate category. The SDS PAGE electrophoresis test showed that the F2 protein fraction had a molecular weight of 26,76 kDa.
Original Research Article
Dec. 11, 2021
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding to Antibiotics use among Libyan Community
Raga A. Elzahaf, Asmaa Abdulaziz Rabeea, Fawzia Ahmed Mohamed, Sanad Ramadan Ali Fadhlalla, Talal Alfeetouri Alkhawwajah, Mustafa Khalid Shaheen
Page Numbers : 599-608
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i12.002
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics has become a global phenomenon. Inappropriate use of antibiotics is recognized as a leading cause of antibiotic resistance. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding to antibiotic use among Libya population. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was done online through Google forms from April to December 2020. Questionnaire was sent to general population across Libya by sharing link through popular social media groups. Results: A total of 1600 responses were received from different cities across Libya. The average age of respondents were 30.53 years and 71.4% of respondents were female. The study revealed that only 68.7% (n = 1099) of the response had high knowledge; on the other hand, about 31.3% (n = 501) of the response had low knowledge about the antibiotics. This study showed that 57.6% (n= 922) of the response had correct practice using antibiotics, and 42.4% (n= 678) of the response had incorrect practice using antibiotics. Only 32.1% (n = 513) of the response was found to have a good attitude; in contrast, 67.9% (n = 1087) of the response had a bad attitude toward antibiotics used. The majority of the participants 68.7% consumed antibiotics during the past year, 35% of participants consumed antibiotics without a medical prescription. The most common reason for usage was the common cold. Conclusion: This study provides a baseline of the knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding antibiotics among the Libya community. Our population has sufficiency level in their knowledge toward antibiotic uses; expressed poor attitudes, as well as many had bad practices of antibiotics use. This finding will be useful in designing effective and targeted interventions to decrease misconceptions about antibiotic use and to increase awareness about the risks of inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community.
Original Research Article
Dec. 19, 2021
Impacts of Antimalarial Drugs on Malarial Management Outcome of African Regions
Yahya Ahmed Hawbani
Page Numbers : 609-636
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i12.003
Introduction: The burden of managing malaria is lowering worldwide but it is still a threat in the African region. Understanding the current practices for malaria management can help to determine the gaps that need to be filled in order to achieve effective malaria management in Africa. This systematic review focuses on the actions implemented for malaria management in Africa. These include identification of the current malaria management practices, availability of antimalarial drugs, and evaluation of the affordability and quality of the available drugs. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken on online scientific databases such as PubMed and Cochrane. The following search terms were utilised - ‘malaria’, ‘management’, ‘Africa’, ‘antimalarial drugs’, ‘antimalarial’, and ‘quality’. The studies were limited by years of publication (2015-2020), and stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria were pre-specified to screen for and select the most relevant research articles. The quality of the data available was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. The PRISMA guidelines were adhered to for this systematic review. Results: The findings of this systematic review address four main themes - the quality of management of malaria in the African region, the management of malaria in pregnancy in the African region, the assessment of diagnostic tests for malaria in the African region, the effectiveness of specific interventions as regards the incidence and management of malaria, and the availability of, and adherence to anti-malarial drugs in the African region. Conclusion: There is a lack of standardisation and harmonization of the indicators and metrics of health quality where the management of malaria is concerned. There are variations in what is construed to be the full malaria case management pathway, the importance of counselling during the prescription process is inappropriately understated. There is a lack of knowledge when it comes to managing malaria in pregnancy, and pregnant patients are not acknowledged as high-risk patients. There is also inconsistency regarding the intermittent preventive treatment policy for malaria in pregnancy; only 39 out of 47 African countries have such a policy. Although RDTs have a moderate performance vis-à-vis the gold standard microscopy test, their cost-effectiveness has not yet been definitively determined. While antimalarials are widely available in both public and private sectors, their price mark-up remains a financial barrier to the community, especially in hard-to-reach rural areas. Finally, an increasing mobile phone penetration throughout the African region suggests that mobile health solutions could address the top reasons for non-adherence to anti-malarial therapy; namely, forgetfulness and a lack of health literacy.
Dec. 30, 2021
Existing Opinions on the Correlation between Blood and Salivary Glucose Concentrations for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes Mellitus
Omorou Moussa, Bassirou Adamou Mouhamadou Mounirou, Grace Paka Lubamba, Rana A. A. M. AL-Mohana, Jethro Mayele Mukelenge
Page Numbers : 637-642
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i12.004
Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of chronic metabolic diseases that are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and other related metabolic disturbances. It is caused either by relative/absolute insulin deficiency or cellular resistance to insulin action, or both. Due to delay in the diagnosis process, and fear of the disease and its investigative procedure by some patients, diabetes mellitus has become the major cause of death. The most commonly employed investigative procedure to diagnose diabetes mellitus and controlling glycemia is blood investigation. Unfortunately, the procedure is invasive, painful, and may cause discomfort to patients due to the need for frequent testing. Consequently, a noninvasive, much simpler, and painless procedure is very desirable. Saliva represents an attractive alternative sample and offers a distinct advantage as it can be collected noninvasively and easily without special skill, and is low cost. The present review has found more studies with a positive correlation between blood and salivary glucose concentrations than those with a negative correlation. The difference between these studies' findings may be attributed to the difference in study population and criteria of selection, samples (saliva and blood) collecting methods, analyzing methods, and influencing factors that should be considered before the test.
Dec. 30, 2021
Delta Variant: Disastrous Covid Variant in India
Rohit Sunil Kumbhar, Murugan N, Praveen Kumar P
Page Numbers : 643-645
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i12.005
Delta variant is a variant of concern that WHO is tracking and monitoring around the world. It's a variant of concern because we know it has increased transmissibility. This has been demonstrated by several countries. And we know that where the Delta variant is identified, it really rapidly takes off and spreads between people more efficiently than even the Alpha variant that was first detected around December, January 2021. This review highlights the emergence of Delta variant among Indian populations.