Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SJMPS) | Volume-7-Issue-10
Oct. 1, 2021
New Insights on Role of Different Microbes in Food Poisoning, Food Spoilage and Advances in Food Technology
Muhammad Anwar Ul Haq, Mehjabeen, Musrat Nazir, Anoshi, Javeria Maryam, Rakhshandha Urooj, Taha Ali, Muhammad Arif
Page Numbers : 473-476
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.001
Fermented foods have special functional qualities that provide consumers with health advantages owing to the presence of active microorganisms that include probiotic capabilities, antibacterial, antioxidative, peptide synthesis, and other properties. The bacteria like lactic acid bacteria are used in the production of cheese, pickles and yoghurt. Moreover, extensive types of molds are used in sausages surface ripening, in preserving products natural quality and are used to control the formation of unwanted flavors in different products. The determination of contaminated food with microorganisms is not possible without testing microbiologically. Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous type of bacteria and the main source of its infection are humans. The foods which are contaminated with C.perfringens, when consumed a toxin is produced in human intestinal tract and cause illness. The two main food borne types of viruses are the norovirus and Hepatitis A. Vector borne spread of disease occur when a parasite goes in host by the saliva of insect during the blood meal such as malaria, or from the parasites present in feces of insect which excretes directly after the blood meal. It's also important to understand how the cell detects the presence of the pore, whether it's through ion concentrations.
Oct. 2, 2021
Emphasizing the Importance of Project Management in CRO’s to Achieve Better Clinical Study Outcomes
Murugan Panchatcharam, Ravilla Jyothsna Naidu2
Page Numbers : 477-483
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.002
Accomplishing any jumbled task demands organization, coordination, and discipline. Overseeing a Bioequivalence study is certainly in the same manner, to guarantee that the trial works successfully, good project management is necessary. Project Management in a CRO necessitates competence in a variety of areas, including time, quality, cost, scope, risk management, communications, and sponsor management, and many others. The current review focuses on how to plan each phase of the study and how to create an effective Project Management Plan to reduce the average duration of the study and project management risks. The review also advises to follow a standard operating procedure at all times when conducting Bioequivalence study.
Oct. 2, 2021
A Potential Review on Various Immune Responses and Role of Pathogens in Activation of Cellular and Molecular Immunity
Rasab Javed, Muhammad Iqbal, Tayyab Mushtaq, Muhammad Waqas Anwar, Tayyab Rehman, Mehwish Saeed, Fazle Hadi, Aamal Haleem
Page Numbers : 484-488
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.003
Many of the immune cells are involved to protect the body against the specific microbes and thus inhibiting their chemicals by binding to the specific surfaces of pathogens. Human body has different cells particularly important in defending the body against the pathogens. Different cells are involved in protecting the body as part of innate immunity. This innate immunity includes the external barriers of the body as the first line of defense against pathogens such as the skin. Molecules on the pathogens surface may be recognized directly by the PRRs of resident macrophage. Natural killer cells also involved in immune response by killing the cancerous cells or viral proteins by attaching on their surface. The main mechanism of the innate immune response to eradicate bacteria is activation of the complement system, phagocytosis, and inflammatory response. Listeria monocytogenes is the pathogenic form of bacterial species that causes disease transmitted through the infected foods. Interferons tightly bind to the viral proteins and inhibit their production. Different vaccines have been used to treat the number of diseases and each vaccine works for against the specific diseases in order to make the immunity.
Original Research Article
Oct. 5, 2021
‘ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA’ – A Clinical Multi-Centric Study from Rural Haryana
Dr. Jayati Nath, Dr. Atri Raval
Page Numbers : 489-492
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.004
Acute Pulmonary Edema (APE) is a condition affecting about 0.08-1.5 % of women during pregnancy and puerperium, accounting for 2.5-3.0 % of admission to obstetric ICU, constituting 9.8-11.5% of all patients of ‘maternal near miss’ criteria. This study was conducted across 3 tertiary care centres of Haryana, North India, to evaluate cases of APE in obstetrics ICU. 50 patients had acute pulmonary edema in the study period, with mean age 26.2 years, 60% were from rural setup, 76% were primigravidae, 56% had antepartum APE, 36% post partum and 2% intra partum, 8% had previous history of Pre-Eclampsia, 10 % relapsed during hospital stay, 4 % mortality rate. 80% had caesarean delivery, 76 % delivering preterm (<37 weeks gestational age), 40% were <34 weeks gestational age. Etiological causes – 64 % hypertensive, cardiogenic (16%) both cardiogenic & hypertensive (20%), fluid overload (2 %) irrespective of underlying etiology , 30% had fluid overload in the 24 hours preceding the acute PE event. Medium time from diagnosis to resuscitation was 5 minutes (within 25 min of diagnosis in 80 % of patients) Mean ICU stay was 6 days and hospital time was 13 days. APE is a medical emergency resulting in high maternal mortality rate (MMR). Most commonly occurring ante-partum period, with a hypertensive background and fluid overload being an important trigger.
Oct. 6, 2021
Deep Cervical Cellulitis of Unusual Origin: About 2 Cases
El Messaoudi Lina, Ahmed Khairi, Ahmed Oueld Med, Nitassi Sophia, Bencheikh Razika, Oujilal Abdelilah, Benbouzid Mohamed Anas, Leila Essakalli Houssyni
Page Numbers : 493-495
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.005
Deep Cervical cellulitis is one of the most severe ENT emergencies, requiring immediate management by a multidisciplinary team. Often due to a benign pharyngeal or dental infection, this life-threatening condition leads to extensive necrosis spreading along the fascia of the neck, possibly to the mediastinum. This article reports two cases of deep neck infection, one of which had severe thoracic complications, with septic shock and multiorgan failure.
Oct. 12, 2021
Corona: Impact of Non-Living Virus to Living World
Harish Pandey, Asheesh Singh, Vinayaditya Singh, Himesh Soni
Page Numbers : 496-503
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.006
It is said that when humans have realized their paramount nature, nature has broken this pride, something has been said in our scriptures also. Something similar happened in years 2020, when a virus imprisoned the human race of the whole world. People were afraid to meet, talk, touch among themselves. We have exploited nature in the name of development. I believe that this epidemic is the result of all this reasons. It is said that every evil and disaster brings some good with it. Something similar has been seen in the world in the last 2 years. Now say we or you, the whole world has completely entered a new digital age. Everything from school to business has reached in this era of digital technology.In this article, we have tried to include all those aspects which led to this epidemic and how the thinking of human life changed after that.
Oct. 21, 2021
Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma to the Maxilla: A Case Report
Metastatic tumors to the oral cavity affecting either the jaws or the soft tissue are unusual and accounts approximatively for 1% of all oral malignant neoplasms. Morever, a thyroid primary tumor is considered almost rare. The present paper describes a case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the right maxillary sinus, bone and alveolar mucosa in a 73-year-old male patient. Our aim is to highlight the importance of considering oral metastasis in the diagnosis of jaws and soft tissue lesions especially in patients with known primary malignant tumor.
Original Research Article
Oct. 21, 2021
Ethno Pharmacological Knowledge of Common Medicinal Plants Used for the Traditional Treatment of Oral Pathologies in the Mayo-Kani Division, (Cameroon)
Introduction: Studies on plants used for the treatment of oral diseases in Cameroon are still scant. The objective of this study was to identify medicinal plants and recipes used for the traditional treatment of oral diseases in the department of Mayo-Kani (Far North, Cameroon). Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 7 months, during the year 2021. After obtaining the various administrative authorisations, an ethnopharmacological survey was carried out among traditional practitioners known to treat oral ailments in the Mayo-Kani department. The plants collected, were photographed and the samples were identified at the Delegation of Forests and Fauna of Mayo-Kani and then confirmed by botanists and experts from the Cameroon National Herbarium (CNH). Results: This ethnopharmacological survey conducted among 43 traditional practitioners identified 40 species in 28 botanical families, of which Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Combretaceae, Anthericaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Anacardiaceae were the most represented. These species were used in the preparation of 40 recipes. Around 77.2% of these recipes and 77.7% of the plants listed were used in the treatment of caries and their complications such as cervico-facial cellulitis. Roots (38.5%) followed by barks (20.9%) were the most used plant organs. Decoction (43.2%) was the most used preparation method. In all, 50% of the recipes proposed, were used in the form of herbal tea. Mouthwash (50%) was the most used method of administration. Ricinus communis (CF= 11.4%; 03 recipes), Sclerocarya birrea (CF= 6.6%; 03 recipes), Indigofera aff subargenta, Capparis facicularis and Anogeissus leocarpus (CF= 5%; 03 recipes) were the most cited and used in traditional recipes to treat oral pathologies. Conclusion: These findings constitute a basic data base for future studies on phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological analyses essential for the valorization of traditional medicines.
Original Research Article
Oct. 24, 2021
Surgical Results of Advanced Multivalvular Heart Disease with Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Introduction: Patients with advanced multivalvular disease (AMVD) and left ventricular dysfunction carry usually a higher in hospital mortality. However, long-term survival results improved in some causes. Design: Retrospective study, teaching hospital based. Methods: 82 patients (59 men and 23 women) mean age 44,5±13,6 years with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 45% underwent multiple valve surgery from 1994 to 2016. The most common etiology was rheumatic valve disease (89%). 90, 2% of patients were in NYHA class III-IV. Mean LVEF was 38, 4±6, 3%. Triple valve surgery was performed in 38 (46, 4%) cases and double valve surgery was performed in 44 (53, 6%) cases. All tricuspid procedures were conservative (51 cases; 62, 2%): DeVega in 22 (43, 1%) cases and Carpentier Edwards ring in 29(46,9%) cases. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants factors of early mortality. Results: In-hospital mortality was 17% (14/82).In multivariate analysis, factors influencing operative mortality rate were: preoperative renal failure (OR 9.6, 95%CI 1.28-72.4, p=0,027) and LOS (OR 19.8, 95%CI 1.8-218.4, p+0,015). Follow-up was 35% complete and follow-up period was 48 months (range 12-108). There is a significant change in NYHA functional class (p<0, 0001) and most survivors showed an increase LVEF (p<0, 0001). Conclusion: Multiple valve surgery in patients with AMVD and left ventricular dysfunction can be performed despite early mortality rate. But the good late results justify surgical indication and those patients should not be denied on the basis of low ejection fraction alone.
Original Research Article
Oct. 30, 2021
Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Eye Donation among Students of Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Sciences at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India
Urmil Chawla, Gunjan Chadha, J. P.Chugh, Priyamvada Yadav, Arnav Chawla
Page Numbers : 526-532
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.010
Purpose: To assess the knowledge regarding eye donation among students of Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Sciences and gauge their willingness for eye donation. Methods: The data was collected by online questionnaire method (Google forms) from medical, nursing and allied health care students for a group of 723 students. The questionnaire comprised of 30 questions covering various aspects. Knowledge, values, attitude and spiritual believes of participants were assessed to evaluate their willingness for eye donation. Results: Among 723 medical, nursing and allied health care students 449 (62.3%) were in the age group of 21-30 years with 479 (66.4%) being females and 244 (33.8%) males. Around 80% had knowledge about eye donation and 79.1% pledged to donate eyes. There was little knowledge regarding pediatric cornea donation and transplantation. Conclusion: The awareness regarding eye donation was high but pledge to donate eye and motivate others required further motivation. Various strategies can be adopted like educating students from all walks of life, focusing on strengthening the link between the hospitals and the rural population can further enhance the corneal procurement rate.
Oct. 30, 2021
A Critical Review on the New Innovations on Role of Biomarkers and Inflammatory Proteins for Detection and COVID-19
Muhammad Haseeb Tarar, Wajiha Tuba, Imranullah, Saqib Ali, Zahra Jabeen, Shafeeq ul Rahman, Mukhtar Ahmad Awan, Azmat Ullah
Page Numbers : 533-537
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.011
SARS-CoV-2 is spread by the micro droplets from the infected people or by the contact with the polluted fomites. The coronavirus infects the alveolar and bronchial epithelium cells and travels to the tiny air sacs and to alveoli. Monotonous laboratory-biomarkers can give the complete record of health position of a patient in severe medical situations. ACE2 serves as a regulator of renin angiotensin aldosterone systems, which regulates the blood volume, blood pressure, and balance of electrolytes in the body, in addition to acting as a crucial SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are nonspecific indicators of cellular inflammation and damage in COVID-19 patients. Biological materials from COVID-19 individuals have been used in various gene expression analysis, as well as those involving proteomic methods. Imaging biomarkers, which also include the magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, and computed tomography, are categorized into the several groups according to their activities and properties. High neutrophil count, lymphopenia and leukocytes are the simpler preliminary constraints which directly differentiate between the severe and non-severe coronavirus victims.
Original Research Article
Oct. 30, 2021
Icacinia manni (False Yam)-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats: Comparative Effects of Vitamins C and E.
Aribo, E.O, Udokang N E, Udom U. G
Page Numbers : 538-545
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.012
Icacinia manni or false yam grows in both tropical and temperate regions. Use of its tuber as a replacement for energy content in animal and bird feeds is being advocated. Studies show it impairs reproductive function in male rats. Possible ameliorating effect of vitamins C and E is considered in this study since oxidative stress is common metabolic pathway for many tissue dysfunctions. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly placed into five groups of five/rats each viz control, low dose Icacinia manni, high dose Icacinia manni, high dose Icacinia manni + vitamin C and high dose Icacinia manni +vitamin E groups. Rats had free access to rat feeds and water. Animals were anaesthesized, blood samples collected and testes harvested for evaluation of relevant parameters after 28 days of treatment. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results showed decreased testosterone in low dose, high dose and high dose + vitamin C groups compared with control (p<0.05 each) but increased in high dose + vitamin E compared with high dose groups (p<0.05). Total sperm counts were reduced in all extract treated groups (p<0.05 each) compared with control. Sperm motility was decreased in all extract administered groups (p<0.05 each) compared with control but higher in high dose + vitamin C (p<0.05) compared with low dose group and in the high dose + vitamin C and high dose + vitamin E groups compared with the high dose extracts group (p<0.05 each). Wobbling rate increased in all extract-administered groups (p<0.05 each) compared with control and decreased in the high dose + vitamin C (p<0.05) compared with high dose group. Beat cilia frequencies decreased in all extract-administered (p<0.05) compared with control. Sperm linearity was decreased in all extract-treated groups (p<0.05 each) compared with control and reduced in the high dose, high dose + vitamin C and high dose + Vitamin E (p<0.05) compared with low dose groups but increased in the high dose + vitamin C and high dose + vitamin E (p<0.05) compared with high dose groups. Velocity of active path reduced in both low and high dose extract groups (p<0.05 each) compared with control but increased in high dose + vitamin C and high dose + vitamin E (p>0.05 each) compared with the low and high dose groups. Normomorphology was reduced in the low and high dose groups (p<0.05 each) compared with control but increased in high dose + vitamin C and high dose + vitamin E (p<0.05 each) compared with low and high dose extracts groups. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of Icacinia manni impairs male reproductive function in a dose-related matter with co-administration of vitamin C or E ameliorating some of the parameters almost at the same rate.
Original Research Article
Oct. 30, 2021
Phytochemical Screening and in Vitro Evaluation of Antioxydant and Antibacterial Properties of Acmella caulirhiza (Asteraceae)
Kevin Joseph Kenmoe Noubissi, Hervé Narcisse Bayaga, Joseph Ngoupayo
Page Numbers : 546-550
DOI : 10.36348/sjmps.2021.v07i10.013
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Acmella caulirhiza. The plant was harvested, identified, dried and pulverized. Five extractions were carried out: one by decoction and four by maceration with distilled water, ethanol/water mixture (70/30, v/v), methanol, and 95° ethanol as solvents. Phytochemical screening of A. caulirhiza extracts was performed according to the Sofowora method. The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations by the microdilution method in a liquid medium, allowed the evaluation of the antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR 48982, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591, Klebsiella pneumonia NR 41897. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging and Fe3+ reduction tests. All A. caulirhiza extracts contained phenolic compounds (flavonoids, tannins, coumarins), mucilages, and resins. However, alkaloids, saponosides, cardiac glycosides, and anthocyanins were absent. They showed antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 8 to 32 mg/mL). The antioxidant activity of the DPPH extracts had concentrations (IC50) ranging from 0.098 ± 0.011 to 3.9040 ± 0.319 mg/mL. The Fe3+ ion reducing activities of the extracts ranged from 53.120 ± 0.443 to 22.267 ± 1.006 µg/mL. The extracts of Acmella caulirhiza contain secondary metabolites that can justify the antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The use of this plant in traditional medicine in the management of infectious pathologies could be justified.