ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 5, 2020
UV-B Induced Changes to the Physiological and Phytochemical Parameters of Phyllanthus amarus Schum
N. Shanthi, S. Murugesan, S.M. Janetta Nithia, M.Kotteswari, S.Shyamala Gowri
Page no 265-273
UV-B is a growing concern due to the rise in UV-B levels on the surface of the earth as a result of the loss of stratospheric ozone. Increased levels of UV-B radiation can in fact negatively alter plant physiological processes, growth and productivity. However, when researching the effects of UV-B on medicinal plants like Phyllanthus amarus and in the tropical area under field conditions, there are some curious phenomena have been discovered. Enhanced UV-B radiation has greatly improved the growth of P. amarus. The outcome of the photosynthetic pigment showed increased UV-B enhanced synthesis of Chlorophyll or the accumulation of Chlorophyll pigments in the treated plants compared to non UV-B treated plants. The concentration of UV-B absorbing pigments also increased due to enhanced UV-B radiation in P. amarus. The synthesis of secondary metabolites such as flavonoid and phenol content was increased under UV-B treatment as compared to control. The UV-B radiation enhances the grade of the medicinal plant by improving the medicinally active compounds. This enhanced impact of UV-B could be important to observe when studying the phytotherapeutic function of P. amarus in health aspects of human life.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 7, 2020
Compatibility, Phosphate Solubility and Phosphatase Activity by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria
Betty Natalie Fitriatin, Dahlia Florencia Manurung, Emma Trinurani Sofyan, Mieke Rochimi Setiawati
Page no 281-284
The phosphate solubilizing bacteria are soil microbe can dissolve P which is not available to become available to plants. They have capable to produce extracelluler enzyme, i.e. group of phosphatase enzyme which able to mineralized of organic P to inorganic P. The objective of this experiment was to examine compatibility test, phosphatase enzyme activity and phosphate solubility by phosphate solubilizing bacteria. The compatibility test was conducted qualitatively with the streak method. The design for bioassay of phosphate solubilizing phosphate for phosphatase activity test and P solubility was a randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. The phosphate solubilizing bacteria used were Burkolderia sp., Pseudomonas mallei, Bacillus substilis, and Bacillus megatherium. The results of the compatibility test on the phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates showed that each isolate was compatible. Furthermore, the result of experiment revealed that phosphate solubilizing bacteria could produce phosphatase enzyme ranges between 4,53-4,82 µg pNP/g/h and P dissolved about 3909,55-6052,19 ppm. These phosphate solubilizing bacteria can be used as biofertilizers to increase soil P solubility.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 10, 2020
Role of Potential Compounds in Foods with Particular Emphasizes on Human Health
Muhammad Burhan Khan Tareen, Sheeraz Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Bilal Rana, Sahar Haq, Muhammad Saqib Javed, Alyan Ashraf, Abid Hussain
Page no 285-290
Human nutrition is the process by which substances in food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the full range of physical and mental activities that make up human life. Antioxidants that usually taken through diet and have an important role in inhibition of stress due to oxidation that reason for beginning and development of numerous diseases such as cancer, and much other disease such as diabetes and also inflammation. There are certain gaps in literature about the different activities in compounds that exhibit functions in vegetables and fruits. Different free radical leads to oxidative stress to the particular cell and ultimately causes the cancer. The natural phenolic compounds have received increasing interest in the last years, since a great amount of them can be found in plants and consumption of vegetables and beverages with a high level of such compounds may reduce the risk of development of several diseases due to their antioxidant power, among other factors. Kaempferol as one of the flavonoids that main function involved in binding with cells of the cancer and ultimately kills the cancer cells. Anthocyanin mainly the type of the major compound in the outer portion of the skin of the onions The colour of the red showing the activities against the free radicals depending on the type as well as the nature of the chemical compound. Quercetin as the valuable type of the flavonoids that have been used in the purpose of the preventing diseases associated with the bacteria as well as the viruses. Different free radical leads to oxidative stress to the particular cell and ultimately causes the cancer.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 14, 2020
Melatonin as an Anti-Cancer Molecule: A Retrospective Perspective
Page no 291-297
Etymologically, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) can be traced back to the origin of life. The first origin of melatonin was detected in cyano-bacteria. As considering the endosymbiont hypothesis, cyanobacteria were engulfed by the animal and plant cells. Later on, these bacteria performed the roles of mitochondria and chloroplastids in animals and plant cells respectively. Inner matrices of these organelles are having melatonin and probable function of this intra-organelle melatonin is to protect the organelles from the detrimental effects from free radicals (Reactive Oxygen Species; ROSs and Reactive Nitrogen Species; RNSs). In higher animals, melatonin is synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland mainly during the night, since light exposure suppresses its production. Other than pineal gland, melatonin is secreted from several different organs like retina, gastro-intestinal tract. The secretion of this hormone is regulated by several environmental factors like photo-period, temperature, humidity etc. Melatonin can exert its function either by as a free molecule or by its membrane bound receptors MT1 and MT2 respectively. Modulations of melatonin receptors results in stimulation of apoptosis, regulation of pro-survival signaling, inhibition on angiogenesis, metastasis, and induction of epigenetic alteration. Melatonin could also be utilized as adjuvant of cancer therapies, through reinforcing the therapeutic effects and reducing the side effects of chemotherapies or radiation. Melatonin could be an excellent candidate for prevention and treatment of several cancers, such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. This review summarized the anticancer efficacy of melatonin, based on the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 23, 2020
Acute Toxicity of Imidacloprid to Various Life Stages of the Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, de Man, 1879
Kurishuparambil Varghese Stephy Rose, Aneykutty Joseph
Page no 298-308
The present study was conducted invitro to evaluate the acute toxicity of a broad spectrum neonicotinoid, imidacloprid used by farmers contently to control piercing-sucking pests in the paddy fields of Kuttanad, a part of the Vembanad wetland ecosystem which is a Ramsar site of international importance in the state of Kerala, India, to various life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a commercially important indigenous prawn of Kuttanad. The median tolerance limit (LC50) were calculated using the observations made on the mortality of prawns exposed to 5 different concentrations between the No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC) and Lowest Observable Effect Concentration (LOEC) of biocides for a period of 96 h. LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of imidacloprid was determined by probit analysis using SPSS version 16.0. The study revealed that the 96 h LC50 concentrations for imidacloprid as 0.009, 5.0234 and 42.611 mg/l in post-larvae (0.041 ± 0.02 g), juvenile (3.5 ± 1.5 g) and adult (17.5 ± 2.5 g), respectively of M. rosenbergii. Based on the LC50 values, safe concentrations found out for imidacloprid using Hart’s formula were 0.002, 1.000 and 15.138 mg/l, in post-larvae, juvenile and adult M. rosenbergii, respectively. The field application concentration of imidacloprid is 0.003 mg/l which is 3 times higher than the safe concentration of imidacloprid in post-larvae, whereas it is lower than the safe concentration in juvenile and adult M. rosenbergii. The results revealed that the application of imidacloprid in the paddy fields of Kuttanad has a lethal effect on post-larvae of M. rosenbergii causing a threat to the existence of species in its homeland.