REVIEW ARTICLE | Oct. 3, 2020
A Novel Approach towards the Potential Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Testicular Biochemistry and Physiology of Male Sprague Dawely Rats
Muhammad Farrukh Tahir, Shehbaz Ali, Muhammad Noman, Moiffa Goher
Page no 197-201
Chlorpyrifos is among the commonly used pesticides used for self-harm. Chlorpyrifos is colorless crystal like solid with a strong odor. Pesticides like chlorpyrifos are necessarily poisonous but they play an important role in the availability of plenty of cheap and consistent supplies of food to the world population. The aims of this review article investigated the aspects to reduce the risk due to chlorpyrifos use among farmers and people by producing awareness. A decreased percentage of neutrophils in peripheral blood in animals poisoned with chlorpyrifos may suggest, neutrophils involves in phagocytosis during xenobiotic intoxication, during which some of the neutrophils might have ruptured. Chlorpyrifos modifies testicular capacities perhaps by acceptance of testicular oxidative pressure and hindrance of exercises of indicator catalysts, accordingly disturbing masculine generation. The outcome enemies of oxidants i.e SOD, CAT, G6PDH exercises in the hepatocytes, renal, spleen and cerebrum of rodents. The sub- deadly presentation of chlorpyrifos additionally cause decline in dimension of decreased GTH (glutathione) and ensuing increment in oxidized glutathione heights. So the outcome demonstrate that CPF presentation prompt oxidative worry in rodent tissues however the CPF introduction to rodents feed with oxidants vitamin A,E and C for one month, averted unhinging of these enemy of oxidant limits. It also helpful to explain the mechanism that chlorpyrifos induce such changes in living organisms included humans.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 10, 2020
DNA Barcoding of Withania somnifera (L) Dunal Using Trnh-Psba Gene Sequences
Fathaunnisha S, Hemamalini V, Jayasudha H, Sridhar R
Page no 202-207
Objective: In this present study, the DNA barcoding method has been applied to define and authenticate collected plant material as W. somnifera from its closely linked species at the molecular level and the organization of trnH-psbA in W. somnifera and its potential as a DNA barcode. Method: The plant samples were collected from Pannapatti, Salem district. The tissue from the leaf was extracted. Isolation of the genomic DNA was carried out using CTAB technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out and amplified a specific region of the chloroplast using trnH-psbA and analyzed PCR products by gel electrophoresis. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) was used to identify sequences in databases. The sequence information was used to construct a phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood Method using MEGA X. This tree-building tool is used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of W. somnifera. Results: DNA yield was good with 50 ng. The purity of the DNA was also calculated and it was 1.7. Phylogenetic tree constructed showed maximum resolved topology for internal branches of 82% bootstrap value with species-specific clusters with W. somnifera. Conclusion: W. somnifera are an indigenous plant of India and an important plant in the Indian Traditional Medicinal System. To improve and enhance the utilization of this plant species for further study as medicine, accurate, proper identification and authentication is very important.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 23, 2020
Plasma Antioxidant Levels in Bipolar Disorder
T Lokeshu, V Lakshmi, V Jaya Kumari, Ch Bhargavi, P Mounika Sindhu
Page no 208-214
Objective: To estimate the total antioxidant status (TAS), level of Glutathione (GSH) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood plasma of bipolar disorder (BD) patients and to compare them with those in healthy controls. Materials and Methods: The levels were estimated in 154 bipolar disorder individuals and 154 age and sex matched controls without a family history of BD. All the patients included in the present study belonged to North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Student t test was used for comparison. Results: Mean blood plasma levels of TAS and GSH were significantly lower (p=<0.05) while the level of MDA (p=0.06) was higher in cases compared to controls. Gender wise analysis revealed that TAS and GSH were significantly (p= 0.05) associated with BD in both the sexes. Conclusion: A significant decrease in the level of TAS and GSH and increase of MDA in BD cases suggest the probable role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of BD.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 29, 2020
Selection of Culture Media and Laboratory Evaluation of Fungitoxicants for the Pathogen Causing Early Blight Disease of Potato
Uttam Bouri, Soumen Pal, Bholanath Mondal
Page no 215-219
Early blight is the most common and devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis & Martin) Jones and Grout. In vitro experiments were conducted during 2017-2018 to search appropriate growth medium of A. solani, as well as suitable fungi toxicant through quick screening methods. Seven different growth medium were used to culture the fungus in laboratory. Mycelial growth was very fast in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) followed by Richards’s Agar (RA) medium. Intermediate growth habit was recorded in Sabouraud’s Agar (SA), Czapek’s Dox Agar (CDA) and Potato Carrot Extract Agar (PCEA). The growth was very slow in Oat Meal Agar (OMA) and Malt Extract Agar (MES) at 72 hours of incubation. On bioefficacy evaluation, Infield Ayur showed very negligible effect to restrict mycelial growth and conidia formation, whereas Indofil M-45 (mancozeb) was more efficacious followed by Indofil Z-78 (zineb), Merger (tricyclazole + mancozeb) and Ishaan (chlorothalonil). Selection of most suitable culture media is essential for efficient growth of the fungus and its detail study. Quick and simple method to select effective fungicides within 48-72 hours is very much helpful for developing suitable disease management strategy.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Oct. 29, 2020
Role of Chlorpyrifos in Experimentally based Rats
Zeeshan Laghari, Noshaba Manawar, Shahla Akash, Ayesha Saddique, Mehwish Malik, Irha Basit, Hamza Rafeeq, Nabeela Fatima
Page no 220-225
Chlorpyrifos exposure may lead to acute toxicity at higher dose persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long term exposure to low dose, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small dose. The aims and objective of this review article is to study the toxicity and biochemical effects of chlorpyrifos on different body organs of Male Sprague Dawely Rats. The danger of using chlorpyrifos persists either it is used in high amount or in low amount so it must be used when it is needed most. The administration of chlorpyrifos to rats induced testicular and cardiac toxicities significant decrease in serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels as well as the significant increase in CK-MB, LDH and AST activities. In liver and kidney tissues, dimension of glutathione and the action of superoxide dismutase and catalase chemicals altogether diminished by chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos and lead acetate prompted change in serum and lipid outlines and observe oxidative pressure. Biochemical investigation demonstrated that organizations of the chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin obviously cause liver harm. Also sertoli cells and decrease in number of sperm count as the main factor for chlorpyrifos. These changes more obvious in rats: treated with higher dose of chlorpyrifos. So it is concluded that chlorpyrifos leads to such changes in living organisms included the rats as well as in humans.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 30, 2020
Evaluation of Pharmacological Features and Nanoparticle Formation by Urena lobata
Dinesh Kumar, Somendra Kumar, Motiram Sahu, Anil Kumar
Page no 226-235
Urena lobata commonly known as Congo jute or hibiscus burr is a shrub belonging to the family Malvaceae widely distributed throughout India. The plant is utilized by the traditional healers for various ailments such as arthritis, diabetes, cough and malaria. In the present study, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant property of Urena lobata was studies in both normal extract and silver nanoparticle form. The antioxidant property of leaf of the plant was also evaluated. We have reported alkaloid, saponin, steroid, terpenoid, tannin, flavonoid and carbohydrate and significant antioxidant activity by DPPH method from this plant. For the first time, silver nanoparticle was successfully synthesized using Urena lobata leaf extract in the current investigation and characterized by UV–VIS spectrophotometer and the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was identified to be ⁓424 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to ascertain the crystalline nature and purity of the silver nanoparticles which implied the presence of 111, 002, 022, 113, and 222 lattice planes of the cubic structure of metallic silver and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine specific functional groups in silver nanoparticles and the capping agents present in the leaf extract.