ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | July 21, 2020
Effectiveness of Temephos Larvasides on Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Airport Buffer and Poso Seaport Buffer Region Poso District Center Sulawesi
Sutaman Raba, Hasanuddin Ishak, Syahribulan, Ermmiwati Ibrahim, Syamsuar, Suriah
Page no 117-121
This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of temephos against Aedes aegypti larvae in the Buffer Airport and Poso Sea Port area. This type of research is quasi-experimental. The research sample used the first-generation instar Fed 1 Aedes aegypti larvae obtained from mosquito breeding. A total sample of 240 tails consisted of treatment and control with 3 replications each. Testing uses 1% temephos concentration. The statistical test used in univariate and probit analysis. Based on the results of the study showed that the Poso Airport Buffer, Aedes aegypti test larvae were susceptible to temephos 1% with a total mortality of 100% of the test larvae. where the WHO standard criteria state for larvae of the test 98-100% Vulnerable, 80-98% Tolerant deaths, and <80% resistant. Likewise, with the Poso Port Buffer region, the Aedes aegypti test larvae are susceptible to temephos 1% with a total of 100% average adult mosquito mortality. the overall lethal time values (LT50, LT90, LT95, LT99) in the Poso Sea Port Buffer region are higher than in the Poso Airport Buffer area, where the Poso Sea Harbor Buffer area for 1% temephos requires a longer time to kill the Aedes aegypti test larvae, compared to the Poso Sea Port Buffer region. by poso airport. Especially to kill 99% of test larvae in the Poso Sea Port Buffer region, temephos 1% takes 147.2 minutes or 2 hours 27 minutes while for the Poso Airport Buffer region it only takes 119.86 minutes or 1 hour 59 minutes to kill 99% of larvae test.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 26, 2020
An Immense Detail of miRNA Role in Gene Regulation and Their Expression on Functional Bases in Various Crops
Junaid Ali, Muhammad Umer Khan, Hasham Feroz Ghuman, Fahad Majeed, Bebagar, Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Uzair, Ijaz Ahmed, Muhammad Ghani
Page no 122-132
Crops are very important in order to accommodate world population for food as well as industrial purposes. MiRNA (micro-RNA) have been considered as an important and crucial factor for manipulation of crops to make them more productive and resistant against harsh environmental stressed conditions. Now, these non-coding special sequences have been used successfully for gene-expression and regulation such as gene integration, slicing, signal transduction, pre and post translational modification, boost up metabolic pathways, enhancement of crop growth and developments and much more traits which is significant contribution in genetic engineering technologies for crop modifications. Genomic expression factors have been modulated through unique-miRNAs sequence which takes up toward the next generation specific targets that would have been adapted under biotechnological mechanisms and then these technologies could be used for improving the agronomic traits of various crops further down collection of high productive results. Significant strategies have pointed out to overcome the drawbacks during crop-manipulation. In this review, work for diversified and recently identified sequences of micro-RNA is studied; and production of valuable crops in order to have better agronomic properties to fulfill the requirements of food and industry with significant sustainability under stressed conditions. Genetic regulation as well as expression through miRNAs in genetic engineering will facilitate better for crop modification with quality and would be considered as positive step toward improving the economy of country.
REVIEW ARTICLE | July 30, 2020
Significance of Gene Knockout for the Detection of MurI Gene in S.Iniae for Evaluation of Biochemical Properties Associated With Pathogenicity at Molecular Level
Asim Hussain, Farzana Nazir, Muhammad Faizan, Zahra Rana, Yusra Urooj, Nazia Niamat
Page no 133-137
Streptococcus iniae is a gram-positive, sphere-shape and pathogenic bacterium that usually causes infections in fishes as well as human. Glutamate racemase is a key enzyme that is involve in synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell wall. Biochemical properties and nature of this enzyme are highly specific and varies among pathogenic species. The unique features structural, molecular and biochemical properties associated with MurI gene as well as functional properties of glutamate racemase in the pathogenicity of S.iniae remain unclear. The purpose of this review paper focusing on the methods that used for the evaluation of biochemical properties of glutamate racemase for functioning in bacterial cell wall focusing on MurI Gene in S.iniae as well knockout of MurI gene in S.iniae also the discussing the methods used for the determination for the biochemical properties associated with pathogenicity at molecular level. Specific primers are used for the gene knockout plasmid construction region for MurI gene of bacterial strain such as S.iniae. These are further amplified by the PCR. DNA sequencing is use to clone the DNA fragments. The LB medium is the medium especially use for the S.iniae wild type (WT) and ΔMurI mutant cultures. Bioscreen machine is use to measure the optical density. The special type of the microscope such as fluorescence microscope is uses for the bacterial viability. TSYE agar plates are used for the measurement of the live bacteria in the form of percentage by plating on. SDS-PAGE is uses to check the purity of expressed proteins determined by the SDS-PAGE. This review helpful for drug discovery and development of new antibiotics by utilizing the MurI gene as a target against S.iniae.