Asthma-COPD overlap Syndrome (ACOS) is a syndrome in which a patient suffers from both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Standard definition and diagnostic criteria of this overlap syndrome is not established yet. It is important to formulate a definition of ACOS for accurate diagnosis and studies. Few biomarkers have been found which can be useful for diagnosis but much research is needed. The prevalence of ACOS depends upon the definition, diagnosis criteria and population analyzed. Different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) has been identified in limited population.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Sept. 30, 2019
Genetic Mutations in CFTR Protein Gene Cause Cystic Fibrosis- Its Symptoms, Treatment, and Incidence in Pakistan
Genetic mutations in the CFTR protein gene cause Cystic Fibrosis. For disease occurrence, individuals have to inherit two defective genes of CFTR from each parent. CFTR mutations are distributed into six classes. Though CF affects all ethnic as well as racial groups, but in Caucasians of North European origin, it is more common. The clinical representations of CF include raised NaCl cons. in sweat glands, deficiency of pancreatic enzymes, azoospermia in adult males, and decline in lung function which leads to pulmonary exacerbations. The therapies for CF are gene therapy, CFTR modulators, potentiators, correctors, and stop codon suppressors. The incidence of CF in Pakistan is low as it is more common in Caucasians. Due to lack of suitable diagnostic tools, this disease is often neglected in Pakistani population.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 23, 2019
Morpho-Chemical Composition Characteristics of Juniperus and Pistacia Genera as Bio-Indicator of Construction Dust in Al- Jabal Al-Akhder-Libya
This study was designed to find out effect of random construction on morphological and chemical composition characteristics of Juniperus and Pistacia. Both species of the plant were collected from two different areas in AL-Gabal AL-Akhder. First area was exposed to pollution from random construction that causing dust-contaminated cement to the plants, while the second area was not contaminated. The plants which are affected by building materials and grazing have smaller wrinkled yellow to grey leaves, while the fruits look smaller in size compared to same species from clean area. Our results shown that the both species of plants (Juniperus phoenicea and Pistacia lentiscus) were get difference in amount of mineral and the phenolic contents. The levels K and Cu were significantly decreased in J. phoenicea 1 (from polluted area) compared to J. phoenicea 2 (from clean area), while the level of Ca significantly increased. Rest levels of minerals were found similar in J. phoenicea 1 and J. phoenicea 2. In another species level of Na, Fe and Ni were decreased significantly in polluted species (P. lentiscus 1) compared to clean species (P.lentiscus 2), while the levels of K and Ca was significantly increased in P. lentiscus 1 which collected from polluted area. Levels of alkaloids, coumarins, essential oil, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, sterols (triterpens) and tannins were found have similar pattern when compared J. phoenicea 1 with P. lentiscus 1 and J. phoenicea 2 with P. lentiscus 2. These results from Juniperus and Pistacia species might reflected the deteriorate effects of construction dust air pollutants, both species recommend their using as bio indicators as well as folk medicine.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 24, 2019
Impact of AM Fungi and Azotobacter in the Alleviation of Cd-Induced Growth Reduction and Activity of Antioxidants in Coriandrum Sativum L
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Azotobacteron growth, oxidative effect and antioxidant defense mechanisms under cadmium (Cd) stresses in Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander). Treatments consisted of mycorrhizal and Azotobacter treatments and threeconcentrations of cadmium treatments (0,50and 100 mg Cd kg-1 of soil). Metal induced oxidative damage through increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) increased under stress and it was found that there was a direct correlation between root length, shoot length, plant fresh weight and plant dry weight and the activity of these enzymes in concentration dependent manner. The activity of antioxidants and growth increased in mycorrhizal and Azotobacter stressed plants. However, the combination of mycorrhiza (AMF) and Azotobacteracted synergistically and significantly arrested lipid peroxidation and led to increased growth as well as activity of activity of antioxidants. The interactions of cadmium and biofertilizers proved to be synergistic and the antioxidant activities further increased indicated the positive role of biofertilizers in increasing the antioxidant activity thereby decreasing oxidative stress and stimulating growth. Therefore, biofertilizers are advisable to enhance the tolerance to cadmium stress in medicinally important coriander.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Sept. 30, 2019
Significance Important of Fruit Character for Some Asteraceae Species in Identification and Differentiation Level
Achene and pappus macro and micro-morphological characters for 10 species belong to two sub-family of Asteraceae from eastern region of Saudi Arabia to evaluate the application of this character in the identification and differentiation level by using light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The achene morphological characters as, size, shape, color, texture, ridges, base, achene coat and pappus characters are done. The achene coat pattern sculpture recorded 6 types; striate, tuberculate, granulate, sulcate, irregular reticulate and reticulate-rugose, the main types were reticulate. The pappus type’s recorded three types; scabrous barbellate bristles, scabrous subulate scales free and capillary barbelllate, the main types were scabrous barbellate bristles found in seven studied species. The result for this study supports the use of achene morphological characters for identification and differentiates of different related species but cannot be used for taxonomical levels for the different tribes.
Scholars Middle East Publishers
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