ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 9, 2023
Focus Group Discussion on Finance Literacy of Village- Owned Enterprises
Agus Eko Sujianto, Sukarji, Zuhri
Page no 204-208
As a form of Higher Education's Tridharma, community service through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is needed to explore responses from students, namely Real Work Lecture participants to the economic phenomenon that is currently being rolled out by the government, namely Village-Owned Enterprises (BUM Desa). The purpose of this activity is to formulate a BUM Desa financial literacy model according to the perspective of students (participants of the Real Work Lecture) which at the same time implements the realm of knowledge received in college with real conditions in the field, namely the village. Considerations for choosing FGDs are: planned discussions, directed by trained moderators to explore participants' understanding and opinions regarding the topics discussed, namely financial literacy. The results of the FGD explained that the model applied in BUM Desa financial literacy is by integrating aspects of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Knowledge of finance is the basis for managers in managing achievements. Management skills or skills must also be owned by managers. Meanwhile, honesty is an important aspect and is inherent in financial managers.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 9, 2023
Does Independent Commissioners Play a Moderating Role in Relationship Financial Ratios and Financial Distress with Tax Avoidance?
Fransisco Pandapotan, Nurlis Nurlis
Page no 209-219
Indonesia implements a self-assessment system so that taxpayers are trusted to calculate, pay, and report their own taxes in accordance with applicable tax provisions. Companies as taxpayers do tax avoidance by taking the advantage of loopholes in tax regulations without violating applicable regulations in order to pay taxes in the minimum amount. Therefore, this research is conducted to test the effect of profitability, leverage, and financial distress on tax avoidance with independent commissioners as a moderating variable. The population used in this research is all manufacturing companies which are listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2019-2021. The 243 samples are taken by purposive sampling after outliers. The data used are secondary where annual reports and financial statements are obtained from the company’s official websites. This research uses SPSS and the analytical techniques are multiple linear regression and moderated regression analysis. The results of this research prove that profitability has a negative significant effect on tax avoidance, leverage has a positive significant effect on tax avoidance, financial distress does not have a significant effect on tax avoidance, and independent commissioners is unable to moderate the effects of profitability, leverage, and financial distress on tax avoidance.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 12, 2023
The Effect of Institutional Ownership, Leverage, and Liquidity on Tax Avoidance with Company Size as a Moderating Variable
Riski Serina Safitri, Lin Oktris
Page no 220-231
This research aims to provide empirical evidence on the influence of institutional ownership, leverage, and liquidity on tax avoidance with company size as a moderating variable. The sampling method used was simple random sampling, resulting in 132 sample data. The data analysis techniques used were multiple linear regression analysis and Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The results of this study indicate that institutional ownership, leverage, and liquidity do not have a significant impact on tax avoidance. Company size as a moderating variable strengthens the relationship between institutional ownership and leverage with tax avoidance. Meanwhile, the company size variable as a moderating variable weakens the relationship between liquidity and tax avoidance. This research considers the effectiveness of company size involvement as a moderating factor in the influence of institutional ownership, leverage, and liquidity on tax avoidance in property and real estate companies.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 13, 2023
Empirically Investigating the Perception of Value-Added Tax in Saudi Arabia
Kamilah Almousa, Khalid Al-Adeem
Page no 232-238
Recently Value-Added Tax (VAT) has been implemented in Saudi Arabia. This study explores the perception of VAT from various perspectives to evaluate recent experience in VAT implementation. An online questionnaire was developed and distributed in Arabic and English to survey VAT awareness in Saudi Arabia. A total of 349 responses were collected and analyzed to obtain the results. The findings reveal that most sample respondents know about VAT and its positive effect on tax revenues and concur with the importance of its proper implementation. However, VAT has raised commodity prices, and its implementation encounters multiple issues. Participants were unsure that exemptions granted to certain services and equipment would leave the taxpayer with a sense of unfairness.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 26, 2023
A Market Timing Strategy for the GCC Conventional and Shariah Stock Indices
Stefano Giovanni Prandi, Daniele Colecchia
Page no 239-256
This paper defines and assesses a market timing strategy for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) stock indices, namely the Tadawul All Share Index, FTSE Abu Dhabi General Index, Qatar All Share Index and Qatar Al Rayan Islamic Index. The strategy intends to deliver a consistent reduction in volatility and better risk-adjusted performance. The present empirical study capitalises on the work by Colepand and Copeland (1999) on the US market, re-proposed recently by Bantwa (2020) on the Indian market, which resorts to implied volatility as the trigger to adjust the asset allocation. The strategy hereby proposed is modified considering the higher volatility of the GCC financial markets as well as its preeminent goal – risk-adjusted performance optimisation. Moreover, the implied volatility is unavailable for the GCC stock indices under assessment; therefore, it has been replaced with the forecasted volatility obtained through asymmetric GARCH models (GJR-GARCH), one for each stock index. The active strategy in question is backtested on both the conventional and Islamic stock indices to check whether it overperforms the passive strategy equally well on both types of indices. The empirical findings encourage the adoption of volatility-based market timing models in additional emerging markets and Islamic indices.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 28, 2023
The Impact of Stock Index Future Trading on Volatility of Underlying Market-Chinese Stock Market
Page no 257-266
Stock price index futures have long been viewed by experts and scholars as a risk-hedging trading tool that can help investors’ hedge risk and ensure the healthy and stable development of China's financial stock market. The asset underlying of stock price index futures is the stock price index. The CSI 300 stock index futures, a type of stock price index futures, were created on April 16, 2010, and its birth marked the official start of stock index futures trading in China. After the launch of CSI 300 stock index futures, the China Financial Futures Exchange launched (CFFEX) SSE 50 stock price index futures and CSI 500 stock price index futures one after another. The introduction of stock price index futures trading can bring about an impact on the volatility of the stock spot market to a certain extent and play a role in reducing volatility. The speed of transmission of stock index information to market participant decreases after the China Financial Futures Exchange restricts stock index futures trading. Based on the results that the coefficients of DF-DT, the cross term of the two dummy variables added to the GARCH model, have significant values and values less than zero, it can be analyzed that the restrictive measures taken by the China Financial Futures Exchange on stock index futures trading enhance the mitigating restrictive effect of the introduction of stock index futures trading in China on the volatility of the Chinese stock spot market.
REVIEW ARTICLE | May 3, 2023
The Impact of Women’s Empowerment and its Contribution on Indonesia’s Economic Growth
Alvina Zahra Wicaksana, Farida Rahmawati
Page no 267-278
This study examined the impact of women's empowerment on Indonesia's economic growth, women's empowerment programs, and the forms of women's contributions to foster economic growth. The data used were the number of women’s representation in parliament, women as professionals, women’s expenditure, women's life expectancy, the percentage of women's population, and the growth rate of gross regional domestic product (GRDP) in 34 provinces of Indonesia from 2017-2021. This study combined quantitative and qualitative methods. The panel data regression and fixed effect model used in the data analysis model demonstrated that the findings of life expectancy have a negative and significant impact on GRDP in 34 provinces of Indonesia. The percentage of women’s population has a negative and significant impact on the GRDP in 34 provinces of Indonesia. Women play a significant role in advancing the economy that the government remains committed to enhancing women's knowledge, skills and self-confidence through women's empowerment programs. It is envisaged that the women's empowerment program will produce excellent and high-quality human resources, which will help Indonesia's economy grow and develop.