REVIEW ARTICLE | April 6, 2022
The Effects of Farmer/Herder Conflict on Socioeconomic Development of Nigeria
Obasanmi, Jude Omokugbo, Prof. Enoma Anthony
Page no 118-125
The paper examined the herder and farmer conflict on social economic development of Nigeria. The study presented the structural theory and the Frustration-Anger-Aggression Hypothesis to provide possible explanations for the crisis. The causes of farmers/herders clashes in recent times were identified to be a function of several factors not only limited to climate change resulting in drought and desertification soil degradation; growing population size, global terrorism, crime (rural banditry and cattle rustling) amongst others. Previous and present government responses to this crisis have been most disappointing with no clear cut and sustainable policy both by the federal and state government. This crisis has resulted in displacement of people from their communities, women and girls vulnerability to sexual and economic predation, huge economic burden on the government leading to loss of revenues, dwindling food supply and rising cost, increasing division among the Federating states and threat to National Security amongst others. The study recommends that the crisis should be addressed quickly to avert impeding food crisis, government should strengthen the mechanism for conflict resolutions, and above all herdsmen should know that the imperatives of a modern economy require that pastoralism should be laid to rest, while embracing improved modern methods of animal husbandry with improved high yields and disease resistant species (cattle). When this is done a win-win situation would be achieved for all stakeholders.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 6, 2022
Domestic versus Foreign Islamic Banks: Do they have the same Profitability Determinants?
Nora Azureen Abdul Rahman, Norhafiza Nordin
Page no 126-135
The liberalisation of the Islamic banking industry in Malaysia has given rise to the emergence of many foreign Islamic banks in the country, raising a major concern regarding its impact. This study investigates the impact of bank-specific and macroeconomic factors on bank profitability from 2005 to 2017. Unbalanced panel data of eleven domestic and six foreign Islamic banks have been employed to achieve the study's objective. The findings show that different factors influence the profitability of domestic Islamic banks and foreign Islamic banks. While internal factors significantly affect the profitability of domestic Islamic banks, the profitability of the foreign Islamic banks is more stable and less affected by internal and external factors. The findings provide insights to domestic Islamic banks to improve their operations, profitability, and competitiveness. These banks' better operational efficiency and performance will consequently improve the overall Islamic banking industry.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 13, 2022
Analysis Implementation of Activity-Based Budget for Planning and Control of Direct Labor Costs on the Inpatient Department (Case Study at XYZ Hospital)
Damar Wanto, Nengzih Nengzih
Page no 136-140
The research began with a request from the board of directors where researchers working at the hospital asked to prepare a budget based on activities. In addition, the competitive conditions in the hospital industry triggered by various factors require a complete change in the application of management principles in each hospital. Changes in organizational structure, for example, aim to allow flexibility, create a cross-functional team that focuses on patient satisfaction. Changes in human resource management have resulted in performance-based management replacing the function-based management that executives knew and used in the past. This activity-based management requires hospital managers to change the method they use for budgeting, from functional-based budgeting to activity-based budgeting.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 13, 2022
Financial Performance Determinants of Financing Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange
Farih Hidayat, Augustina Kurniasih
Page no 141-146
This study aims to determine the effect of gearing ratio, financing to asset ratio, non-performing financing, and efficiency ratio on the financial performance of multi-finance companies. The research population is all finance companies (multi) listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2021. The sample that meets the criteria is 16 companies. Data were analyzed using panel data regression. The results showed that the Random Effect was the best model. Partially found that the Gearing ratio does not affect Return On Assets (ROA) as a proxy for the company's financial performance. In contrast, the Financing to assets ratio (FAR) positively affects Return On Assets (ROA). Non-Performing Financing (NPF) and Operating Expenses (BOPO) have a negative effect on Return On Assets (ROA).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 19, 2022
Financial Performance of Islamic Commercial Banks in Indonesia
Lukman, Agus Eko Sujianto, Endro Sugiartono, Dessy Putri Andini, Budiono
Page no 147-153
Assessment of the financial performance of banks is very important to be carried out by internal organizations and as a basis for corporate planning in the future. The financial performance in question is related to CAR, NPF, BOPO and FDR which theoretically and empirically affect bank profitability, namely ROA. The objectives of this study are: (1) to examine the effect of CAR on ROA; (2) examine the effect of NPF on ROA; (3) examine the effect of BOPO on ROA and (4) examine the effect of FDR on ROA. The Islamic Commercial Banks that are the locus of this research are BRI Syariah and BNI Syariah which represent Bank Syariah Indonesia before the merger in 2021. The research data is taken from the documentation of the two banks published by the Financial Services Authority of the Republic of Indonesia, from 2015 to 2020 in the form of data quarterly. The results of testing the research hypotheses can be stated: (1) CAR has a significant effect on ROA; (2) NPF has no significant effect on ROA; (3) BOPO has a significant effect on ROA and (4) FDR has a significant effect on ROA.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 29, 2022
Determinants of Exchange Rate in African Sub-Sahara Countries
Sylvia Dung, Emeka Jude Okereke
Page no 154-163
The study examines empirically exchange rate determinants in African sub-Sahara countries specifically Anglophone West African countries like The Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone between 1981 and 2019. In order to achieve this objective, both descriptive statistics and the Panel Least Square (PLS) estimation methods were employed to analyze the data. The result of the analysis reveals that INFL has a negative relationship with EXCR but it does impact significantly on it at 5 percent level; INTR has negative and an insignificant impact on EXCR at 5 percent level; CABL has negative relationship with EXCR and it also impacts significantly on it at 5 percent level; TMTR has negative relationship with EXCR and it also impact significantly on it at 5 percent level. The study therefore concludes that inflation rate (INFL), interest rate (INTR), current account balance (CABL) and terms of trade (TMTR) depreciates exchange rate (EXCR) in African sub-Sahara countries specifically Anglophone West African countries. Based on the findings of the research work, the following are recommended: The government should encourage export diversification especially the non-oil sector exports. This can be achieved through value addition to both the agriculture and manufacturing sub-sectors output. There should be stable exchange rate management policy that avoids over-valuation or excessive depreciation of their currencies and ensures international competitiveness of tradable goods, relative price stability as well as avoiding inconsistent fiscal policies.