REVIEW ARTICLE | Nov. 9, 2021
Public Debt Composition in SADC: Recent Trends and Puzzles
Richard Makoto, Takawira Mumvuma, Phineas G. Kadenge
Page no 446-455
The study analyses the dynamics of public debt composition in SADC. Following years of external debt explosion in the 1980s, countries restructured public debt in the 1990s after adopting the HIPC programme. Using a combination of analytical narratives approach and pattern models, the study found that since the adoption of HIPC in 1996, some SADC countries shifted from external to domestic debt and had relatively low debt ratios as compared to crisis period. However, a puzzle has been observed, even though debt is low; the region has higher debt service under low debt regime as compared to high debt period. Middle income countries are accumulating expensive private debt. Countries that traditionally relied on domestic and private external debt have relatively stable growth rates as compared to those that have shifted from external to domestic debt. The study recommends that countries should ensure a well-diversified debt portfolio composition over time.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 11, 2021
Economic Study of Aman Rice Variety Binadhan-17 Production in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
Md. Mohsin Ali Sarkar, Md. Habibur Rahman, Mohammad Rashidul Haque, Syful Islam, Razia Sultana
Page no 456-462
This study was conducted to analyze the profitability of Aman rice Binadhan-17 producing farmers in Sunamganj, Rangpur, Gopalganj, Pabna and Magura districts of Bangladesh. This study was based on primary data which were collected from 200 Binadhan-17 producing farmers. In the sampled areas data were collected through pre-designed interview schedule from November-December, 2019 for achieving the purpose. In the study, costs and return analysis were done on both cash cost and full cost basis for estimating profitability. The cultivation of Binadhan-17 was profitable from the viewpoint of the farmers. The study found that Binadhan-17 production is profitable. The average net return per hectare was Tk. 34207.56. The net return was highest in Rangpur (Tk. 38536.88/ha) followed by Magura (Tk. 36091.84/ha), Gopalganj (Tk. 35783.18/ha), Pabna (Tk. 32345.11/ha) and Sunamganj (Tk. 28280.80/ha) respectively. Benefit cost ratio was 1.47 and 2.17 on full cost and cash cost basis implying that the Binadhan-17 cultivation at farm level was profitable. Cobb-Douglas production function was chosen to determine the factor affecting gross return of Binadhan-17 production. All of the factors namely, human labour cost, power tiller cost, seed cost, fertilizer cost and insecticides cost were statistically significant and positive. The regression coefficients of irrigation cost for Binadhan-17 under all areas were positive but not significant. The farmers in the study areas encountered some constraints to Binadhan-17 production. The first ranked constraint was unavailability of seeds in all areas (84%). Other constraints were lack of training (64%), lack of technical know-how (38%), lack of capital (30%), lack of storage facility (17%), natural calamities (14%) and low education level of farmers (10%). The economic return of Binadhan-17 production encouraging to the farmer’s for more cultivation.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 27, 2021
Strategy to Increase the Capacity of Members of the Pamong Praja Balangan Police Unit in Improving the Quality of Human Resources
Abdul Kadir, Basir, Ahmad Yunasi
Page no 463-468
Effective education and training will produce qualified personnel so that they are able to implement, change, and grow in the institution/organization in the workplace. problems faced by the Civil Service Police Unit of Balangan Regency, namely the Problem of Human Resources at the Civil Service Police Unit and Costs. There are still members who have not followed the technical and education guidance and education. This study aims to develop a strategy to increase the capacity of members of the Balangan Satpol PP through improving the quality of its human resources. The method used in this study is a descriptive method with a quantitative approach. The source of the data obtained for this research is internal data obtained from the Head of Satpol PP, all Heads of Division and representatives of members of the Civil Service Police Unit of Balangan Regency. This research is located in Balangan Regency with the object of research is the Civil Service Police Unit of Balangan Regency. The data was collected through observation, interviews and documentation. Data analysis was carried out using the SWOT technique. The results of the analysis show that unit members do not understand their duties and functions. This is evidenced by the absence of a work plan or program of activities prepared by the member team. Technical guidance and basic education are only given to members with ASN status. The existing budget does not accommodate all members; basically the process of technical guidance and basic education is very important. Based on the analysis of internal and external factors, the selection of strategies and the SWOT matrix, it is found that there are opportunities that can work well by utilizing existing strengths. The strategy obtained is that with a large number of members who are still in their productive age, this can be done with the development of technology and information; and good communication between members can be improved by communicating to the Regency Government so that they can get support (can be in the form of a budget) that can be realized.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 27, 2021
Community Empowerment Strategy as an Effort to Increase the Role of the Community Protection Unit (Satlinmas) in Disaster Management in Balangan Regency
Akhmad Sufian, Muhammad Anshar Nur, Yusuf Hidayat
Page no 469-475
The environment can cause havoc if the exploitation of natural resources that is only economically oriented has a positive effect on the economy, but has a negative effect on the survival of human life. The occurrence of floods is basically a result of deforestation, so the forest no longer functions fully as a rainwater absorber. Many forest lands are landslides and the landslides because river flows to become shallow. The flow of river water is not smooth due to the river being used as a garbage dump, and the construction of several industrial areas in urban areas. The importance of the involvement of the Community Protection Units (Satlinmas) in disaster management can be illustrated in the land fire disaster. This study aims to develop a community empowerment strategy as an effort to increase the role of the Community Protection Unit (SATLINMAS) in tackling disasters in Balangan Regency. This study uses a qualitative approach. This research is located in Balangan Regency with the object of research are related agencies, village government and members of the Community Protection Unit (Satlinmas) spread across Balangan Regency. Data were collected through interview, observation and document techniques. The main resource persons are the head of the agency in charge of fostering the Community Protection Unit (Satlinmas) and members of the Satlimas themselves. This study uses a SWOT analysis technique. Community empowerment strategies in an effort to increase the role of the Community Protection Unit in disaster management in Balangan Regency can be done by building synergy between stakeholders, budget support and legality of regulations made to create harmonization in the empowerment of Satlinmas according to their respective duties and functions.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 30, 2021
Determinants of the Profitability of Insurance Companies in Saudi Arabia
Mohammed Abduljalil Alshadadi, P. V. Deshmukh
Page no 476-481
The study aims to identify the determinants of profitability in Saudi insurance companies. For this purpose, the data were collected about the study variables (company size, debt ratio, loss ratio, retention ratio, investment income) as independent variables. To measure its impact on the profitability of insurance companies, expressed as return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). Using Panel Data for 25 insurance companies in Saudi Arabia during (2010-2016), the random-effects model (REM) was used to examine the relationship between the profitability of insurance companies and the independent variables. The study concluded that the profitability of insurance companies is significantly associated with the size of the insurance company, debt ratio, and the rate of actual loss. The results also showed that the volume of written premiums is the most influential variable on the profitability of insurance companies, followed by the indebtedness rate and then the actual loss.