REVIEW ARTICLE | June 26, 2020
Life Style Guideline of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as Prophylaxis and Treatment for Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) Infection (COVID-19)
Page no 125-127
Coronaviruses which are enveloped RNA viruses infect human causing acute and chronic diseases also cause severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and common cold. The aim of this review is to concentrate on ginger which has many benefits to human, as the traditional medicine for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. In spite of spreading of COVID-19 all over the world, the incidence of the disease among Sudanese people still very low, most probably for their daily habit in using ginger as the traditional herbal drink in their life style. I believe that Ginger is the most effective traditional medicine for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 for its properties in improving immune system and fighting corona viruses, more studies should be conducted to prove this thought.
CASE REPORT | June 11, 2020
Ocular signs in Fabry Disease Case Report
Mehdi Khamaily, Joumany Brahim Salem, Imane Tarib, Dahi Sidi, Salma Bajjouk, Rachid Zerrouk, Yassine Mouzari, Fouad El Asri, Karim Reda, Abdelbarre Oubaaz
Page no 96-97
Fabry disease is a rare, hereditary disease characterized by a deficiency of an enzyme, α galactosidase A (α gal A), responsible for progressive damage to many organs, leading to various symptomsn, Ocular damage, particularly to the cornea, is sometimes a precious element helping the positive diagnosis of the disease. We report the case of a 40-year-old patient diagnosed with Fabry disease, with bilateral conjunctival vascular toruosities, a "cornea verticillata and a peripheral cortical cataract. Better knowledge of ophthalmological signs, allows better screening and can participate in the evaluation of the effectiveness of substitute therapy.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 26, 2020
Molecular Characterization of Human Rotavirus Strains Circulating Among Children Less Than 5 Years Attended With Diarrhea to Mohammed Alamin Hamid Pediatric Hospital, Khartoum
Waseem Sameer Kwami, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi, Mahdi Hassan Mahmoud, Abdul Hakam Hassan Aldigeal, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Page no 118-124
Diarrhea remains the first leading causes of children mortality worldwide specially in developing countries, lead to approximately (1.87) million deaths yearly.There is a global agreement that rotaviruses are the single prominent causative agents of childhood diarrhea illnesses worldwide. The objective of this work was to characterize human rotavirus strains circulating among children attended with diarrhea to Mohammed Alamin Hamid Pediatric Hospital using molecular methods. 150 fecal specimens from infants less than 5 years were collected and analyzed. The samples were investigated for presence of rotavirus using antigen based enzyme immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), genotyping was carried out by RT-PCR to determine virus genotypes using VP7 gene specific primer sets. Rotavirus was detected in stool of 42(28.7%) out of 150 total children. The study revealed that the percentage of (Rotavirus Ag positive) children was (29.3%) in males which is nearly equal to the percentage of Rotavirus Ag positive children in females (26.6%) but this difference in gender was significant statistically insignificant.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 11, 2020
Haematological Profile of Sheep Declared Healthy for Slaughtering in the Commune of Korhogo (Côte d’Ivoire).
KAMAGATE Soualio, KOKORE Angoua Baudouin, BROU Gboko Konan Gatien, YAPO Angoué Paul
Page no 87-95
In order to establish a better diagnosis of sheep slaughtered in the municipal slaughterhouse of Korhogo, this study was finally carried out to appreciate the variation of their hematological parameters. All in all, 85 sheep, from Djallonké breed were recruited. The assessment of the various hematological indicators was done by suitable kits for the URIT-2900 automata Analyzer. The results of our investigations showed that the mean age value of the sheep was 1.54 ± 0.17 years. These results revealed that abnormities in the mean values of the hematological parameters were observed in the hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Value (MCV), leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes levels. According to gender, females had a significantly higher rate of anemia (25.37 %) than males (5.56 %). In addition, 98.82 % and 75.29 % of subjects had macrocytosis and hypochromia respectively. The study reported high prevalence of leukocytosis by sex, 7.76 % in males and 77.61 % females and by age (79.31 % and 76.79% respectively in young people and adults). In addition, thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis were observed in 25.88 % and 29.41% of sheep, respectively. The result of this is that the hematological profile of sheep intended for consumption in the commune of Korhogo is disrupted with many abnormities.
CASE REPORT | June 12, 2020
The Causes of Malaysian and Indonesian Pilgrims’ Hospitalization during the Hajj Season 1440 (2019) in Mena and Arafat Hospitals
Prof. Dr. Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Salem, Najibah Ali Radwan, Siti Dahliah Ahmad Zannah
Page no 98-111
2 Malaysian and 31 Indonesian pilgrims, most of them were older than 50 years hospitalized to the seasonal hospitals in Hajj season 1440-2019. The total number of hospitalization in the targeted hospitals are 1398 Pilgrims according to M.O.H census. 1398 out of total number of pilgrims 2,489,406 (0.05%). The common causes of Malaysian and Indonesian pilgrims’ admission in Mena and Arafat hospitals with referral are Cardiac diseases; 4 cases (0.28%), Indonesian patients; 4 cases, Nephrological disorders included Dialysis; 1 case (0.07%), Indonesian patients; 01, and pulmonary diseases; 9 cases (0.64%), Malaysian patient; 1 case, and for Indonesian patients; 8. As well gastrointestinal diseases; 15 cases (1.07%), for Malaysian patient; 1, and Indonesian patients is 14 cases. The highest and the Most common causes are pulmonary and gastrointestinal diseases. The collected data and diagnosis data were collected from admission registry, discharge summary, and report of Saudi health minister’s Closing Press Release on 1440H.-Hajj Season, 2019. 13 August, 2019.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 14, 2020
Hepatoprotective Effect of Azadirachta indica Leaf Fractionated Extracts against Snake Venom Toxicity on Albino Rats
Ibrahim Sani, Rabi’u Aliyu Umar, Sanusi Wara Hassan, Umar Zaki Faruq, Fatima Bello, Habiba Aminu, Amina Sulaiman
Page no 112-117
Snakebite envenomation occurs due to subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of venom into a victim resulting in complicated pharmacological effects that depend on the combined and synergistic action of toxic and non-toxic components. Hence, this research was aimed at evaluating the hepato-protective effect of Azadirachta indica leaf fractionated extracts against snake venom toxicity in albino rats. A. indica leaf was collected, authenticated and extracted using 95% methanol followed by fractionation using hexane and ethylacetate. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five (5) groups of six (6) rats each (3 males and 3 females). Group 1 received 1% aqueous solution of Tween-80 orally. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of the venom, but 3 and 4 were treated with 100 mg/kg b.w. of hexane fraction and ethylacetate fraction respectively. Group 5 received 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of the venom and treated with standard conventional antivenin. The hexane and the ethylacetate fractions significantly provided protection on the liver probably via inactivation of the venom cytotoxins leading to the hepatic protection. Among the two (2) fractions administered to the envenomed rats, only hexane fraction was able to significantly (P<0.05) reduce the activity of serum LDH compared to the venom control group. None of the fractions or the standard antivenin reduced the serum AST, but the levels of total and direct bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) lowered in the envenomed rat compared to the venom control group. In contrast, the standard antivenin significantly increased the serum TP. This research has provided a scientific proof on the antivenom properties of A. indica leaf, and the plant extracts tested can be used for the detoxification of the snake venom toxicity.
REVIEW ARTICLE | June 26, 2020
In Situ Monitoring of Ritonavir Protective and Therapeutic Influence as a Potent Drug on Coronavirus Disease–2019 (COVID–19) Infection by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR Fingerprint) Biospectroscopy
Page no 128-151
Ritonavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed–dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir). In the current research, the stimulated ATR–FTIR biospectroscopy of liquid sample of Ritonavir was investigated. The stimulated ATR–FTIR diffractions emitted through focusing the second harmonic laser beam Nd:YAG into the sample were recorded by Echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector. Increasing the energy of laser beam from 2.6 (mJ) to 16 (mJ) was led to increase in stimulated ATR–FTIR signal but after breakdown threshold of liquid sample, more increasing of energy was led to decrease in stimulate ATR–FTIR signals and for energies higher than 20 (mJ), they were disappeared.
Skeletal formula of ritonavir (original trade name Norvir)—an HIV protease inhibitor and a pharmacokinetic booster. Orientation made to match to show the structural similarity between ritonavir and cobicistat. Created with ChemDoodle 8.0.0.b1 and Adobe Illustrator CC 2015.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 26, 2020
A Stimulated FT–IR Biospectroscopic Study of Ritonavir Protective and Therapeutic Effect as a Potent Drug on Coronavirus Disease–2019 (COVID–19) Infection
Page no 152-174
Ritonavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed–dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir). In the current research, the stimulated FT–IR biospectroscopy of liquid sample of Ritonavir was investigated. The stimulated FT–IR diffractions emitted through focusing the second harmonic laser beam Nd:YAG into the sample were recorded by Echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector. Increasing the energy of laser beam from 2.6 (mJ) to 16 (mJ) was led to increase in stimulated FT–IR signal but after breakdown threshold of liquid sample, more increasing of energy was led to decrease in stimulate FT–IR signals and for energies higher than 20 (mJ), they were disappeared.
Ball–and–stick model of the ritonavir molecule, C37H48N6O5S2, as found in the crystal structure reported in Pharm. Res. (2001) 18 859–866 (CSD Entry: YIGPIO02). Colour code: Carbon, C: grey Hydrogen, H: white Nitrogen, N: blue Oxygen, O: red Sulfur, S: yellow Model manipulated and image generated in CCDC Mercury 3.8.