ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 13, 2020
Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Neolamarckia cadamba and Cymbopogon citrates from Durg District of Chhattisgarh, India
Dinesh Kumar, Somendra Kumar, Motiram Sahu, Anil Kumar
Page no 343-348
Medicinal plants have attracted a great deal of scientific interest due to their potential as a source of natural biologically active compounds especially the antioxidant properties of medicinal plants that have created its wider applications including pharmaceuticals, alternate medicine, and natural therapies. The present study was to evaluate the qualitative estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant properties from leaves, stem, and root of Neolamarckia cadamba and Cymbopogon citratus. In our study, we found the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides and antioxidant features in both plants and found suitable for the therapy of oxidative damages. In the present study, free radical scavenging percentage activity was found maximum in aqueous stem extract of Neolamarckia cadamba (81% with 1.5 ml extract) and least in aqueous stem and leaf extract of Cymbopogon citrates (1.67% and 1.67% with 0.5 ml respectively). From the present work, it becomes possible to conclude that these plants could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 16, 2020
A Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Survey about Antibiotic Misuse Among Pediatric Doctors, Pharmacists and Parents in East of Libya
Mabrouka Bofarraj, Reema S Alshoubki, Salema R. M Qowaider, Faiza M Ali, Marfoua S. Ali
Page no 349-356
The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem worldwide, which presents a significant threat to public health globally. The present study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotic use. A cross-sectional survey was performed using a questionnaire on a sample randomly selected from east Libya for pediatric doctors, pharmacies and parents. A total of 400 participating subjects were approached to be included in the study, 234 agreed to participate giving a response rate of 58.5%. The awareness of antimicrobial resistant was very high among the pharmacist and doctors responder (96.43%) (93.91%) respectively, in contrast participants parents (41.76%). More than one-third (37.36%) were self-medicated with antibiotics to treat mainly common cold and cough. The reasons of antibiotic misuse in the present study according to the opinion of participant doctors were an empirical use, incorrect dose and low level of education with 68.70%, 18. 26%, 13.04% respectively. Pharmacies are the major source of antibiotics reporting more than –quarter 28.57% were sold antibiotic without prescription. These findings presented aid in the assessment of the adequacy of present public educational campaigns to promote specific messages to rationalize antibiotic use, and compensate for knowledge and attitude gaps as an effort towards preventing development of antibiotic resistance.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 16, 2020
Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, Rubella Virus and T. gondii among aborted women in El-Beida City
Marfoua S. Ali, Salema R.M Qowaider, Nagla. Y. Bait Almal1, Fayourz. A. Kahald
Page no 357-362
This work was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus, Rubella virus and T. gondii among aborted women in the 9 consecutive months (July 2018 to March 2019) at El-Beida City. A total of 95 women was tested using ELISA method for presence of T. gondii, Rubella and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies (IgG and IgM) by commercial kit. Data from samples of serum found that, the sero-prevalence of T. gondii (IgG/ IgM) were the highest followed by Rubella (IgG/ IgM) and then CMV (IgG/ IgM). 67.74 % of total women was get two type of antibodies against two different parasites. 22.6% were sero-positive for IgG anti-T. gondii and anti-CMV, 18.3% sero-positive for IgG anti-T. gondii and anti-Rubella and 26.9% were sero- positive for IgG anti-CMV and anti-Rubella at same time.The highest prevalence was noted in age group 21-25 years followed with age groups 31-35 and 26-30. The rate of one miscarriage in abortive women was 50.6% higher than two and three miscarriages 29.9% and 11.5% respectively. Results were might give a better understanding about Rubella, T. gondii, and cytomegalovirus infections during pregnancy that cause the foetal loss.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 20, 2020
Isolation of the Pathogenic Bacteria from Banknotes and Coins in Khartoum City Pre-COVID-19 Era, Sudan
Abdelhakam H. Ali, Algawhara Tagalsir Abdalrahman, Ashwag Mohammed Ahmed, Duaa Haj Ali Hajhamed, Maali Bilal Ahmed Abdalrazig, Mawada Hassan Fadllalah Mohammed, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Mogadam Bahar
Page no 363-367
Background: Coinage notes and moneys are widely exchanged between various communities for trade, which may serve as a carrier of microbes and lead to transmission of infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to isolate microbial contamination of Sudan currency notes and coins that life threatening condition of Sudanese people. Methods: One hundred samples (48 currency notes and 52 coins) were collected from various place of society namely, bus conductor, cafeteria, vegetable seller and pharmacies to reveal the bacteria profile of circulating coins and currency notes. Results: Out of the total number of all isolates from all the coins and currency put together was 169, of which the pathogenic isolate count 62(36%) organism Staphylococcus aureus 28(17%), Klebsiella pneumonia 14(8%), Enterobacter species 9(5%), Enterococcus faecalis 6(4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3(2%), Escherichia coli 2(1%). While the remnant which consider as Normal flora was form 107 (64%) organism Bacillus species 33 (20%), Staphylococcus epidermidis 24(14%), Micrococcus Species 1(1%) and fungi was present 49(29%) of all isolates. The result of sensitivity test toward the pathogenic isolates showed that overall isolates Exhibited high resistance to vancomycin and Penicillin, while absent or little resistance was against antibiotics like, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. Conclusion: The study suggested that Sudanese paper currency and coins are highly contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and this contamination may play a significant role in transmission of infectious diseases. Hence, great care must be taken while handling money during the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination.